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					418                 Journal      of   Wildlife     Diseases      Vol.          6,   October,      1970-Proceedings              Annual       Conference

      HEPATOMA                        AND        ARTERIOSCLEROSIS                                          IN      A WOODCHUCK

    Tumors       in woodchucks           have        been                                It was found                dead in December,                  1968
rarely     reported.       Ratcliffe       (Ratcliffe,                               and refrigerated. The post mortem                                 inter-
Herbert      L. 1933      Amer.      J. Cancer         17:                           val before necropsy                    was about            18 hours.
 116-136)      reported an adenoma              of the                               The      chest         cavity       revealed         slightly       con-
liver in a woodchuck           at the Philadelphia                                   gested        lungs,         except        for      a few         small
Zoo. Haberman          Ct al. (Haberman,          R. T.,                             hemorrhages               0.5-1 cm. on the surface                      of
Williams,      F., and     Eyestone,       W.,      1954,                            the lung.           The        heart      showed          prominent
J. Amer.      Vet. Med.      Assoc.     125:    295-8)                               coronary           arteries        which       contained          white
described      hepatomas        in 2 wild         wood-                              spots.     The aorta              was prominent.                It was
chucks.                                                                              tubular,         transluscent,            brittle,      with      white
     Arteriosclerosis       has been    reported        in                           streaks        running          longitudinally.             Both      the
many         captive   wild    animals,     including                                anterior         and posterior              aortas       were      simi-
rodents       but not in the woodchuck           (Fien-                              larly     affected.           The      posterior          aorta      was
                                                                                     involved         down to the bifurcation.
nes, R. N. T-W. 113-126 in: Roberts, J.
Jr. and Straus,        R.: Comparative         Athero-                                   The liver            had attached              to it a tumor
sclerosis.      1965. Harper    & Row).                                              equal      in size to the rest of the organ.                            In
                                                                                     one lobe,            there       were      a few nodules               of
    The following       case report deals                     with         a
                                                                                     the same tissue,                3-4 cm. in diameter. The
woodchuck         which    had a hepatoma                            and
                                                                                     tumor        was cream               in color          and      of the
                                                                                     same      consistency              as the liver.           On cross-
     A female woodchuck    (Marmota      monax)                                      section        it contained             darker         yellow       nec-
was received   at the Berg Institute    in May,                                      rotic areas.            The kidneys             were normal             in
 1965. Its age was estimated        at 1 month.                                      appearance,              as were          the adrenals.              The
It was kept in a cage 18 in. x 22 in. x 16                                           gastro-intestinal              tract had no lesions.                 The
in. high on a wire screen bottom.         It was                                     spleen was overlooked and discarded by
fed Purina monkey       chow and water ad                                            mistake.         The ovaries             and uterus           were in
libitum.                                                                             the anestrus            stage.


    Tissues       were fixed in 10% formalin                       buf-                  The  main    changes         in the heart             were
 fered with 2% sodium                      acetate,      embedded                    seen in the coronaries           and deeper          vessels.
in paraffin          and stained            with hematoxylin                         The internal     elastic     lamina        was calcified
and eosin,           azure-eosin,            Von Kossa          stain,               with very littleextension              into the media.
elastic       Van       Gieson         stain      and      Masson’s                  Some    arteries    showed         intimal        prolifera-
trichrome          stain.                                                            tion with foam        cells. Other         arteries       deep
     The lungs were edematous                         and hemor-                     in the myocardium            were normal. There
 rhagic      in large        areas.       Macrophages            were                were a few small areas in the myocar-
seen in the alveoli. The                          alveolar      walls                dium    where    round        cell fcci        were       seen
were        sometimes            thickened,            some       with               with mild fibrosis        and loss of myocardial
congested          capillaries,          polymorphonuclear                           fibers.
leukocytes,             macrophages,                and      plasma                      The aorta            showed       calcification         of the
cells.      There         were       calcifications          in the                  center      of the media (Fig. 3). The intima
alveolar walls, usually at the partition                              of             was      not involved,          but some calcification
the alveolar            duct with the alveoli.                 These                 extended          up to the intima.                The      mesen-
calcifications            were also seen in the walls                                teric      arteries        showed         swelling         of      the
of blood vessels              within       the alveolar        walls,                endothelial           cells of the intima                with the
but often         no vessel could               be identified         in             internal       elastic     lamina      fragmented.            There
the calcified           mass (Fig. 1). Foreign                   body                was       subintimal           calcification            in     these
giant       cells      were       sometimes             seen      near               arteries but the calcification                      did not go
these      calcifications.            A few small             tumor                  deeply        into     the media           (Fig.      4). Other
metastases          were seen (Fig. 2).                                              arteries       showed        the subintimal             calcifica-
Journal       of   Wildlife       Diseases     Vol.   6, October,            1970-Proceedings                   Annual           Conference                  419


          3                                                                                4

          FIGURE               1. Lung.      Dark     masses        are   calcium          in alveolar              wall.         H.     and    E.   X400.
                              FIGURE          2. Lung.        Hepatona              metastasis.            H.     and        E Xl        00.
                          FIGURE             3. Aorta.       Calcification              in media.               H and        E.    X400.
              FIGURE              4. Mesenteric          artery.      Subintimal               calcification.               H.     and     E.   X100.
420                Journal      of Wildlife        Diseases     Vol.   6, October,            1970-Proceedincis           Annual      Conference

FIGURE            5. Liver.        Proliferation           of bile         ducts       in connective           tissue.    H.    and     E.   X400.
                  FIGURE            6. Hepatoma.              Sinusoid-like              formation.        H. and        E. X400.

tion which appeared as droplets and then                                           showed      sinusoid-like          formation         (Fig.     6).
seemed       to coalesce         into longer             areas.                    Areas     of tumor        cells had undergone               fatty
     The liver, apart         from the tumor,                  show-               changes.       Large        hreas      of necrosis          were
ed fatty        changes,         mainly          in midzonal                       present,     with islands           of tumor        cells sur-
areas.     One portal         area contained                 a large               rounding       a sinusoid-like            space     that con-
focus       of     inflammatory                cells,        mainly                tained     a blood        vessel.      Some      other     areas
plasma       and lymphoid              cells.      Adjacent          to            contained       cells      distended        with      a green-
the tumor,         the liver was sometimes                        sep-             staining    granular         material.
arated       from       the    tumor          by connective
                                                                                        In the kidney            the glomeruli             were en-
tissue,     in- which         was      seen       many          small
                                                                                   larged,     some with an increase                    in collagen
bile ducts;         this bile duct hyperplasia                        in
                                                                                   and      others       with      an increase             in cells.
one area was almost                neoplastic           in appear-
                                                                                   Some       had thickened             Bowman’s             capsule.
 ance     (Fig.     5). In other            areas,        the liver
cells were compressed,                  with cells further                         Scattered       throughout           the interstitial          area
 away from the tumor                 undergoing             marked                 were      aggregates        of plasma            cells,    macro-
fatty      changes.         Other         areas          contained                 phages       and lymphoid             cells. Most tubular
 markedly       distended         sinusoids,          increase       of            cells     were       swollen.       Some          tubules       had
 bile ducts in portal           areas,      and an increase                        cellular      qasts,     others       contained          casts     of
 of plasma       and lymphoid              cells in the pen-                       calcium       naterial.       The epithelium              of most
portal      areas.      There        was little            evidence                of the co1ecting tubules in the medulla
 of bile stasis.                                                                   was hypert1rophic.               The       arteries       did not
   In the tumor,   the cells resembled  hepa-                                      contain cahSium except in rare instances.
tic cells, some with large vesicular nuclei                                         One of the adrenals                   contained          a meta-
and very prominent      nucleoli.  Some  areas                                      stasis of the hepatoma.
Journal        of Wildlife    Diseases    Vol. 6, October,          1970-Proceedings              Annual      Conference                 4l


    The type of arteriosclerosis               seen was                         The monkey            chow       fed the woodchuck
the M#{246}nckeberg type and not the athero-                                contained       protein        15.2%,       fat 5.2%,      fiber
sclerosis       seen in humans.         Except      in the                  2.5%,      nitrogen        free extract           62.3%      and
coronary         arteries, there was no intimal                             water     9%. The natural               diet of the wood-
proliferation.         The   calcium      deposited       in                chuck       probably           would         contain      much
the arteries        was always     in the media.       The                  more fiber and less fat.
calcium         sometimes      involved the entire                              How      much       stress     is involved         is ques-
circumference          of the artery;     in the aorta,                     tionable.       Certainly         a woodchuck             caged
the calcification          was focal,      pushing      the                 in an animal          facility      is not in its normal
intima      into the lumen.                                                 surroundings.
    The        cause     of anniosclerosis           has been                    Hepatomas       rarely metastasize,         however
linked          with      diet    and    stress.      Ratcliffe             this    case   had       pulmonary         and    adrenal
 (Ratcliffe,         H. L., and Snyder,            R. L. 127-               metastases,      although      few in number.           The
 128 in:         Roberts,      J. Jr., Straus,       R. Com-                few tumors         reported       in woodchucks           all
parative         Atherosclerosis.          1965. Harper         &           have been in the liver.              It will be inter-
Row)           has    reported        a decrease         in the             esting     to find out after           more    investiga-
incidence          of arteriosclerosis          at the Phila-               tions     of neoplasia       in woodchucks,           what
delphia         Zoo after improving            the diet.                    percentage      are liver tumors.


                                         A four     year     old            female       woodchuck
                                     had    a    metastasizing                    hepatoma         and
                                     M#{246}nckeberg type of                arteriosclerosis.

                                        The author     is indebted      to Dr. Norman            Cooper of
                                     the New      York      Veterans      Administration           Hospital
                                     for reviewing       the histological       interpretations.

                                                           ELIHU          BOND
                                                             Berg      Institute
                                         New      York  University      Medical               Center
                                                    New York,      N.Y.    10016

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