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From Wheat to Bread FLOUR MILLING BREAD BAKING Flour is produced by separating the endosperm from the other components of the wheat kernel and reducing it to a fine Wheat flour is unique among cereal flours. When mixed with water, the protein in flour forms gluten, creating an elastic dough powder. Protein quantity and baking characteristics are important considerations in selecting wheat for bread flours. capable of holding gas. Properly mixed, gluten produces desired loaf volume and crumb structure in baked bread. Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat is recognized as a premium wheat for bread production. Wheat Intake Wheat Kernel Methods & Ingredients Incoming wheat is weighed, sampled and A good quality, consistent flour is key to the FOUR BASIC BREAD TYPES analyzed, passed through a preliminary cleaner Cross-section quality of the finished product. While bread and magnet, then stored according to class, The kernel of wheat is a storehouse is made by many different baking processes, grade and protein content. of nutrients that requires careful the common objective is to develop the processing to separate it into its component parts. gluten. All methods are a combination of five basic processing steps: PAN BREADS Cleaning & Tempering Pan breads usually require medium Cleaners remove weed seeds, dirt and other protein levels since the pan supports extraneous material through machines 1. Mixing the loaf size and structure. They are which separate by size (separator), specific Flour, water, yeast and other ingredients are typically produced in highly mechanized gravity (destoner) and shape (disc separator). mixed to form a dough. Mixing develops the operations and are consumed in most Frictional cleaning equipment scours the gluten in the flour for optimum gas retention markets around the world. surface of the kernel, removing surface at later stages of proofing and baking. Mixing contamination and the outermost layers of the incorporates air into the dough. In some bran. During tempering, water is added to processes, additives included at the mixing toughen the outer bran coats for easier separation from the endosperm and to Wheat Kernel stage reduce or eliminate fermentation time. mellow the endosperm for grinding. 2. Fermentation Endosperm Yeast organisms feed on sugars and produce HEARTH BREADS The Milling Process carbon dioxide which expands the volume of dough. As fermentation proceeds, the Milling is essentially a process of grinding and Flour is made from the endosperm gluten is conditioned and mellowed and Hearth breads can be small rolls or large separating. Grinding is done on break rolls, which makes up about 83 per cent of becomes elastic. loaves and usually need medium to high sizing rolls and reduction rolls to reduce the wheat kernel and is composed of protein flour to provide the necessary the endosperm into flour. Separation of the starch and protein. volume. They are consumed in markets different sized flour particles is done using machines called sifters and purifiers. 3. Make-up around the world. Dividing is the process that separates the bulk dough into pieces of the correct weight. Bran Rounding removes the stickiness and restores Bran is removed from the kernel and Flours used in animal and poultry feed or a smooth surface to the dough pieces. The dough is allowed to rest after rounding in a Different flour separations may be combined combined with the endosperm to process called intermediate proofing, which to produce many different types of flour, produce whole wheat flour. makes it easier to machine. The dough is sheeted including household flour, bakers’ flour and noodle flour. Flour can be produced either by into a flat piece, moulded into the desired shape and transferred for final proofing. FLAT BREADS blending wheats at the milling stage, or by milling wheats separately and blending the resulting flours to meet customer specifications. Germ 4. Final Proof Flat breads are common in the Middle East and Indian subcontinent. They are The germ or embryo is the sprouting Generally, the dough is placed in a fermenta- usually made from wheat with lower portion of the seed. It is separated from tion cabinet under constant temperature and levels of gluten strength. the endosperm and sold as a nutri- humidity. Under these conditions gluten Flour Treatment tional component for human and animal use. regains its elasticity. As fermentation continues, the dough increases in volume. In some mills, flour is bleached immediately after it is milled. Flour may also be enriched to put back vitamins and minerals removed in the refining process. The flour is now ready to be packaged and sent to the bakery, store or warehouse. STEAMED BREADS 5. Baking Steamed breads are a major baked Baking transforms dough into bread. In the product in China and other Asian By-products oven, the dough expands, takes on a stable countries. The flour needs to be highly Most of the endosperm is recovered as flour. Milling and baking photographs courtesy of the Canadian International Grains shape, develops the desired flavor, and forms refined to provide the desirable bright, Germ, bran and unrecoverable endosperm are Institute; the Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission; a crust. After baking, the bread is cooled and white color. sold as by-products, usually for animal feed. Multi-Marques Inc.; Dover Flour Mills; Tony Nardella; and CWB collection. may be sliced and/or packaged. Diagram of wheat kernel courtesy of the Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission.
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