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					Pirates of the Caribbean
    Causes – the new middle class
   “In honest service, there are
    commonly low wages and hard
    labour; in this – plenty, satiety,
    pleasure and ease, liberty and
    power. Who would not balance
    credit on this side, when all
    the hazard that is run for it, at
    worst, is only a sour look or
    two on choking? No, a merry
    life and a short one, that is my
   Bartholomew Roberts, Welsh
    pirate, 1722, a few days before
    he was killed in battle.
    Causes – the Conquistadores
 1492 – Columbus (a former pirate from Genoa)
  discovered America.
 Treaty of Tordesillas – Pope Alexander VI
  divided America between Spain and Portugal. “I
  should like to see the clause in Adam’s will that
  excludes me from a share in the world” Francis I
 1519 – 1521 - Hernan Cortes conquered the
  Aztec empire. Sent 3 ships with gold and jewels
  back home to Charles V.
 1521 – Pedro de Alvarado conquered the
  remains of the Mayan empire.
        Causes – Geography
 1527 – Francisco Pizarro and his brothers
  conquered the Inca Empire.
 The multitude of sheltered waterways
  formed by the rugged coastlines of the
  islands and cays of the Caribbean
  provided the perfect lairs for the pirates
  from which to mount surprise attacks on
  their unsuspected victims.
             The Privateers
 Private ship owners with a letter of
  marque from their government – a
  permission to attack ships of any other
  country as long as they pay taxes.
 Originally merchant ships, retrofit for the
  purpose. Often do both – trade and
  piracy. Many involved in slave trade.
 Mostly of non-noble origin.
               French Privateers
   Jean Fleury of Honfleur – in 1521 attacked the 3 ships
    sent by Cortes to Charles V and captured 2 of them,
    delivering the loot to his patron Jean Ango of Dieppe. J.
    Fleury was captured by Spain in 1527 and hung with his
    crew – 150 pirates.
   1529-1535 – Period of peace between France and Spain,
    and England and Spain
    1536 – French pirates based on the Bahamas attack
    again. Spanish begin the use of convoys.
   1538 – 1568 French Huguenots attack settlements in
    New Spain incl. taking the North part of Santo Domingo
    (today Haiti) in 1553.
   Most famous were Francois “Peg Leg” Le Clerc, Jacques
    “La Rochelle” Sores and Robert Waal.
     English Privateers – The Golden
             Age (1558-1603)
   Sir John Hawkins was born in Plymouth in 1532, the son of a wealthy sea captain. In
    his youth he went along on trading trips and heard of the riches that lay across the
    western sea. In 1562 he sailed to Africa, where he captured 300 people to sell as
    slaves. He transported this human cargo to Santo Domingo, in the West Indies, and
    traded them for pearls, hides, ginger, and sugar. Although the colonists had been
    forbidden by Spain to trade with any other nation, they were eager to buy slaves.
    John Hawkins' second voyage two years later was equally profitable, but a third trip
    met disaster off the coast of Mexico in 1568.
   Accompanied by his cousin Sir Francis Drake, John Hawkins had already broken
    Spanish law by selling his cargo of slaves in the Caribbean islands. After they sought
    refuge for their six ships in the harbor of Veracruz, an armed Spanish fleet attacked.
    Only the vessels commanded by Hawkins and by Drake were able to escape. For 20
    years Hawkins remained at home in the service of Queen Elizabeth I. As treasurer
    and controller of the navy, he built up Britain's fleet, preparing to challenge Spain
    over supremacy of the seas. He armed the vessels more heavily and redesigned them
    to make them faster. He also introduced inventions that he had tested in practical
    experience at sea. In the great battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in
    1588, Hawkins served as a vice admiral. He was knighted for gallantry.
   In 1595 he sailed with Drake on what was to be the last voyage for both. John
    Hawkins joined the expedition hoping to rescue his only son, Richard, who was held
    captive by the Spanish in Lima, Peru. Hawkins died at sea on Nov. 12, 1595, near
    Puerto Rico.
John and Richard Hawkins
Sir Francis Drake (1540 – 1596)
   Born to a Protestant farmer, eldest of 12 children. Second cousin to
    John Hawkins.
   Sailed under Hawkins in his 3 voyages in the 1560’s. Survived the
    third one.
   1577-1580 Drake circumnavigated the globe on the Golden Hind.
    Knighted by Elizabeth I in 1581 (she received 50% of the cargo –
    more than all royal revenue for the entire year).
   On March 1, 1579 the Golden Hind took the Spanish galleon Nuestra
    Señora de la Concepción, which had the largest treasure captured to
    that date - over 360,000 Pesos. The six tons of treasure took six
    days to transship.
   1585 – Returned to the Caribbean and piracy.
   1587 – Attacked Cadiz, burned part of the unfinished Armada.
   1588 – Participated in the defeat of the Invincible Armada.
   1595 – Returned to the Caribbean to help John Hawkins.
   1596 – Died of dysentery near Panama, buried at sea.
Drake and the Golden Hind
             Sir Martin Frobisher
   The fifth child of a farmer,
    raised by a relative in London.
   1553 became a sailor.
   1565 rose to a Captain.
   1577 reached North America
    with 3 ships.
   1578 led 15 ship armada to
    North America
   1585 sailed with F. Drake
   1588 defeated the Armada
   1594 shot in battle with Spain,
    died a few days later.
         The Invincible Armada
 130 Spanish ships with 26
  000 men and 30 000
  more waiting in Belgium
  sailed to attack England
  for supporting the
  Netherlands in 1588.
 3 pirates lead a navy of
  34 frigates and 160 pirate
 Helped by the poor
  weather the English won
  decisive victory.
               The Buccaneers
 The buccaneers were pirates or privateers who
  attacked Spanish, and later French, shipping in the West
  Indies during the 17th and 18th centuries.
 The status of buccaneers as pirates or privateers was
  ambiguous. As a rule, the buccaneers called themselves
  privateers, and many sailed under the protection of a
  letter of marque granted by British or French authorities.
 The legal status of buccaneers was still further obscured
  by the practice of the Spanish authorities, who regarded
  them as heretics and interlopers, and thus hanged or
  garroted captured buccaneers entirely without regard to
  whether their attacks were licensed by French or English
          Famous Buccaneers
 Stede Bonnet, a rich Barbadian land owner,
  turned pirate solely in search of adventure.
  Bonnet captained the Revenge. Primarily raiding
  ships off the Virginia coast in 1717, he was
  caught and hanged for piracy in 1718.
 Edward Teach, more commonly known as
  Blackbeard, ruled the seas with an iron fist from
  1716 to 1718. Blackbeard's most famous ship
  was the Queen Anne's Revenge, in response to
  the end of Queen Anne's War. Blackbeard was
  killed by one of Lieutenant Robert Maynard's
  crewmen in 1718.
           Buccaneers – cont.
 "Black Sam" Bellamy, captain of the Whydah
  Gally, sunk in 1717 in a storm.
 Bartholomew Roberts, sometimes called "Black
  Bart", was one of the most successful and
  colorful pirates of the day. He was killed off the
  coast of Africa in 1722.
 William Fly, whose execution in 1726 is used by
  historian Marcus Rediker to mark the end of the
  Age of Pirates.
                    Henry Morgan
   Son of a welsh squire.
   Moved to Jamaica to live with
   1663 Joined the largest Pirate
    expedition of 14 ships, 1400
    pirates under Sir Christopher
   1665 commanded his own ship.
   1667-1669 – series of attacks on
    Spanish towns.
   1671 – conquered Panama
   1674 – knighted and appointed
    Governor of Jamaica
       François L'Olonnais

 1650’s came to
  Caribbean as an
  indentured servant.
 1660 became a pirate
 1667 most famous
  voyage – sacked
  Maracaibo, Venezuela
 1668 eaten by a
  native tribe in
             Pirate Democracy
   A hundred years before the French Revolution,
    the buccaneer companies were run on lines in
    which liberty, equality and brotherhood were the
    rule, although only for white members of the
    crew. In a buccaneer ship, the captain was
    elected and could be deposed by the votes of
    the crew. The crew, and not the captain,
    decided the destination of each voyage and
    whether to attack a particular ship.Spoils were
    evenly divided into shares; the captain received
    an agreed amount for the ship, plus a portion of
    the share of the prize money,usually five shares.
           The End of Piracy
 As Spanish power waned toward the end of the
  17th century, the buccaneers' attacks began to
  disrupt France and England's merchant traffic
  with Spanish America. Merchants who had
  previously regarded the buccaneers as a defense
  against Spain now saw them as a threat to
  commerce, and colonial authorities grew hostile.
  This change in political atmosphere, more than
  anything else, put an end to buccaneering.
 The War of Spanish Succession ended in 1713
  and this became the beginning of the end for
  pirates in the Caribbean.
The End

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