Ningbo Ports Ningbo, also called ‗Yong‘ for short, is located in the middle of the coastal line of the Chinese Mainland and in the South of the Yangtze River Delta, which enjoys the most developed economy in China (120°55‘-122°16‘E and 28°51‘-30°33 ‘N). To the east of Ningbo is the Zhoushan Archipelago, as natural bulwark; to the north, Hangzhou Bay; to the west, the City of Shaoxing and to the south, the City of Taizhou . The history of Ningbo can be traced back to 7,000 years ago. The discovery of Hemudu Neolithic Culture Ruins proves that Ningbo was one of the first places in the world for cultivating rice. In the Xia Dynasty (about 2,000 B.C.), Ningbo was called ‗Yin‘. In the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.), Ningbo was a part of the State of ‗Yue‘. In the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.), the place called Ningbo today covered ‗Yin‘, ‗Mao‘ and ‗Gouzhang‘, three counties of Kuaiji Shire. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.), the place was named ‗Mingzhou‘. In 821, the local district government moved to the place where three rivers joined and city walls were built, which marked the beginning of the city. In 1381, the 14th year of the period of the Emperor Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), the city got its current name ‗Ningbo‘, which means ‗the calm wave‘. At present, City of Ningbo, with six districts of Haishu, Jiangdong, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, Beilun and Yinzhou, three county-level cities of Yuyao, Cixi and Fenghua, and two counties of Xiangshan and Ninghai, covers an area of 9816 sq. km on land. The total population is 5.646 million in Ningbo. The urban area covers 2,462 sq.km, with a population of 2.182 million. The camphor tree is the municipal tree, and the camellia is the flower of the city. Climate Conditions Ningbo offers a subtropical monsoon climate, featuring mild temperatures, moderate humidity and distinct seasons. The annual average temperature is 16.4℃, with hottest month, July (28℃ in average) and coldest one, January (4.7℃ in average). The no-frost season lasts 230-240 days a year. The annual average precipitation is around 1,400mm, of which the precipitation in the months from May to September accounts for 60%. The meteorological data of Ningbo in 2007 Month *JAN *FEB *MAR *APR *MAY *JUN *JUL *AUG *SEP *OCT *NOV *DEC Sunshine time (h) 103.2 137.1 148.0 159.0 204.9 124.9 252.0 218.0 135.5 166.3 128.9 80.1 Average 6.1 10.6 12.7 15.8 23.1 25.7 31.7 29.6 25.2 20.8 13.9 9.7 temperature(℃) Precipitation(mm) 80.7 57.3 188.2 103.3 34.8 220.0 56.3 196.8 268.1 201.8 27.7 33.7 Raining days(day) 13 8 14 14 11 19 11 16 14 8 6 17 Main Statistics of National Economy in 2007 Index Volume Unit Rate of Increase (%) The gross domestic product 343.31billion ￥ 14.8 The second industry 188.87billion ￥ 14.5 The tertiary industry 139.08billion ￥ 16.4 The profit of large-scale industry 38.9billion ￥ 24.6 Investment of the fixed assets 159.79billion ￥ 6.3 Cargo throughput 345million Ton 11.5 Container throughput 9.35million TEU 32.3 Total turnover of consumer goods 103.55billion ￥ 17.3 The export volume 38.26billion Us＄ 33 Actual foreign capital 2.5billion Us＄ 3.1 Revenue income 72.39billion ￥ 29 The local revenue income 32.91billion ￥ 27.9 Per capita disposable income of urban residents 22307 ￥ 13.4 Per capita disposable income of rural residents 10051 ￥ 13.6 Power consumption of society 36.712 billion kw/h 17.1 Unemployment rate 3.16 % -4.5 A Day in Ningbo The gross domestic product ￥940.57 million Increase of the industry ￥470.24 million Increase of the service ￥381.03 million Investment of the fixed assets ￥437.78 million Revenue income ￥198.33 million The local revenue income ￥90.17 million Total turnover of consumer goods ￥283.69 million The export volume US＄104.81 million Cargo throughput 945, 700 tons Container throughput 25, 616 TEU Passenger freight volume 844, 900 Power consumption of society 100.58 million kw/h Power consumption of industries 80.4 million kw/h Increase of employment position 358 Authorized patent 24.2 Main Exhibitions Held in Ningbo in 2008 No. Name Time 1 The 9th China International Machinery & Electronics Exhibition March 2 2008 China (Ningbo) High-quality Furniture Exhibition March 3 The 5th China International Stationery & Gifts Exhibition March 4 The 6th China International Housing & Furnishing Exposition April 5 China Hardware Export Exposition April 6 The 4th China (Ningbo) International Tea Culture and Tea Industry April Exposition 7 2008 Ningbo Coating Industry Exhibition April 8 2008 China (Ningbo) International Security Defense Products Exposition April 9 China (Ningbo) Fishery and Aquaculture Exposition April 10 Happy Tour in Yinzhou from April to December 11 The 6th China (Ninghai) Xu Xiake Tourism Festival May 12 The 10th Zhejiang Investment & Trade Symposium June 13 The 7th China International Consumer Goods Fair June 14 Ningbo Yuyao Redberry Festival June 15 The 6th China Housing and Furniture Exhibition July 16 2008 Yuyao Siming Mountain Summer Resort Festival from July to August 17 Fenghua Juicy Peach Festival from July to August 18 The 10th Ningbo Automobile Exposition August 19 The 11th China Fishing Festival September 20 Maitreya Culture Festival September 21 The 3rd China (Ningbo) International Innovative Industrial Design September Exhibition 22 The 4th China International Electronic Products & Home Electric September Appliance Exhibition 23 The 1st Zhejiang International Outdoor Lantern Exhibition September 24 2008 China (Ningbo) Week of the Talented and Science& Technology September 25 The 12th Ningbo International Fashion Festival October 26 The 13th Ningbo International Housing Industry Products Exhibition November 27 2008 China Food Exposition November 28 The 10th China International Plastic Exposition November Honorary Titles of the City - One of the 14 coastal cities for further opening to the outside world in the Chinese Mainland - Pilot City for comprehensive reform in China - City specifically designated in the state plan which enjoys the same rights as a province in local economic management - National Historic City - One of the first Socially Developed Cities in China - One of China‘s Top Tourism Cities - National Model City of Environmental Protection - National Garden City - City with the cleanest environment in China - City whose citizens having the strongest sense of happiness in China - One of the Top 10 Cities in China for Comprehensive Competitiveness - City of Famous Brands in China - One of the Top 10 Cities in China for Conference and Exhibition - National Model City of Reemployment - City with most favorable residential conditions in China in 2006 Great Port in the East China‘s economy, entering into the Century of Pacific Ocean, is often likened to ―an arrow on the bow. The ‗bow‘ is the 18,000-kilometer golden coastal line of Chinese Mainland. The ‗arrow‘ is the Yangtze River flowing into the East China Sea. At the joining of those two economic areas along the coast and the Yangtze River, is Shanghai, the ‗arrowhead‘. Ningbo is undoubtedly located at the fulcrum of that bow and arrow. With its businesspeople being found all over the world, Ningbo has been a major port for foreign trade from of old. In recent years, the City of Ningbo, depending on unique advantage of its deep-water port, has promoted a strategy on a harmonious development of the Beilun Port, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge and its marine industry, and achieved great success in the process of building a modern international port city. History of Port of Ningbo Ningbo, located in the South of the Yangtze River Delta, has relied on the sea and the port for thousands of years. Its inborn nature of a port has pushed the City from the land out to the rivers, to the sea and to the world. In the period of Hemudu Neolithic Culture 7000 years ago, the ancestors of Ningbo people were good at building canoes and rowing. In the Spring and Autumn Period (770-403 B.C.), people in Ningbo travelled far away across the sea by passenger vessels and warships. According to historical records, in the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.– 220 A.D.), the navy used to launch its ships from Gouzhang, the ancient name of Ningbo. Ningbo Port was opened officially in 738. In 752, Japanese envoys arrived at Ningbo Port by three boats, which inaugurated the history of opening up to the outside world for some 1200 years in Ningbo. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.), Ningbo, along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou, was known as one of the three major sea ports for foreign trade in China. In the Song Dynasty (960-1278 A.D.), Ningbo, Guangzhou and Quanzhou were three key trading ports in China. Merchants flowed into the City from Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and Middle East. The boat masts stood in great numbers along the three rivers in down town of Ningbo. Hundreds of vessels, filled with porcelain, tea and silk, set sail from here. As one of the starting points of the well known ‗Silk Road on the Sea‘ in Chinese history, Ningbo was world famous for its port. In 2005, a world map, drawn 600 yeas ago, was discovered by Florence City Council in Italy. On this map, Ningbo is the only city marked in Zhejiang Province. Ningbo Port had experienced ups and downs for thousands years until the founding of the People Republic of China. Since then, Ningbo Port, like a pearl, has become shining again after being covered with dust for long time. Ningbo Port is located on the main route of international container shipping in Pacific Region. The distances between Ningbo and some world-class ports in Pacific Region, such as Hong Kong, Gaoxiong, Singapore, Pusan and Osaka, are all within 1000 nautical miles. Ningbo Port enjoys unique and favorable natural conditions. It is located in the Yangtze River Delta and takes Zhoushan Archipelago as natural bulwark. The harbor area is always calm. The number of average valid operating days can reach 350 days annually. Vessels of 250,000-tonnage can enter into the port freely, whereas large vessel of 300,000-tonnage can only enter with high tide. It is hard to find such advantageous condition anywhere in the world. In 1973, Premier Zhou Enlai claimed that China should have its ports improved in three years and in line with his instruction, Ningbo launched the construction of Zhenhai port area. Ningbo Port, an ancient port with thousands years of history, witnessed its first historic leap from an inland port to a river port. At the beginning of 1979, the first steel pile was driven into the sea bed in the construction of a 100,000- tonnage iron ore transshipping terminal in Beilun, which was specially built for Shanghai Baoshan Steel Plant and opened the door to the development of Beilun port area. In that way Ningbo Port realized its second leap from a river port to a sea port. In 1989, Ningbo Port was listed by the State Council as one of the 4 international deep-water transshipping ports in Chinese Mainland for further development. Ningbo Port had another period of fast growth then. By 2000, with its cargo throughput over 100 million tons, Ningbo became the third port in Chinese Mainland which handled 100 million tons of cargoes annually. In the middle of 1990‘s, Ningbo Port became the focus of the attention worldwide by accepting ‗Grand Phoenix‘, a 300,000 tonnage vessel. In the following 10 years, such giants as 320,000 tonnage vessels and container carriers of the 6th generation of have been the frequenters of Ningbo Port. For the 50th anniversary of container shipping in the world, UK based ‗Container International‘, a worldwide authority magazine on port and shipping, hosted the first conferring ceremony on port and shipping in 2006. At the ceremony, Ningbo Port was listed into the Global Top 5 Ports for its outstanding performance in container terminal operation. In 2006, Ningbo and Zhoushan realized integration of resources. The remarkable handling capacity of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port has emerged. It has become the second largest one in China, only next to Shanghai Port. So far, about 200 container lines and some 100 ocean trunk lines have closely linked Ningbo-Zhoushan Port with all the other ports in the world. A modern international deep-water hub debuts in the south of the Yangtze River Delta. ‗Great Port in the East‘ forecasted by Mr. Sun Yat-sen has been realized. Port-based Economy The port of Ningbo is the strategic resource of the city. It is of great potentiality and competitive edge. Ningbo put forward officially the strategy of ‗vitalizing the city through port development‘ in 1994. With a large handling capacity as a deep-water port, Ningbo undertakes the transfer of international industries, and has built the national bases of energy and raw materials. The port industry has witnessed incessant growth in its size and strength. At present, a port industrial belt of 20 km has been established in the hinterland of Beilun Port. The belt has hundreds of large intensive projects ranging five pillar industries of petro-chemical, energy, iron and steel, paper making and ship building. The port now generates an output about one quarter of the city‘s total. Ningbo, a city that does not produce a single granule of iron ore, offers iron ores to over 30 steel plants nationwide. Though it does not produce a drop of oil, it has nevertheless become the largest transshipping hub of crude oil in China. It does not produce a piece of coal, but it has become the supplier for numerous power plants and made Zhejiang Province the largest thermal power base in the South China. In a work meeting on development of the modern service section held in October 2004, the CPC Ningbo Committee and Ningbo Municipal Government made it clear that Ningbo should give full play of the advantages of the deep-water port, promote the development of service industries and realize the parallel development of advanced manufacture and service industry, while retaining the construction of an advanced manufacturing base. By making good use of the advantages, Ningbo Port focuses on the growth of modern service industry and the establishment of port industrial chain. At present, several large logistic projects of international logistic tycoons, such as Maersk, Prologis and AMB, and global top shipping companies, such as COSTA, have been introduced into the port area, making Ningbo enjoy the most dynamic logistics in the province. Port industry constitutes the impetus to the development of the port economy and a modern port city. From port industry to port economy, it is a stride forward. It is the consequent demand for the development of manufacturing, as well as a right way for the city to change its mode of development and achieve a sustained development. Stretching from Three-River Area to the Yangtze River Delta Upon entering in the new century, Ningbo‘s economy has extended its influence to the hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta, especially after the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was open to traffic in , May 2008. For thousands of years, the transportation of Ningbo has been stranded by the Hangzhou Bay, It was always the end of the road. People had to go via Hangzhou when they went to Shanghai or Jiangzu. However, the Hangzhou bay Bridge, the longest cross-sea bridge in the world, totally changes the road structure in the Yangtze River Delta and creates favorable conditions for Ningbo to act as the transportation hub in the south wing of the Yangtze River Delta. According to experts there will appear three notable phenomena in the Yangtze River Delta after the completion of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge. Firstly, the distance between Ningbo and Shanghai will be shortened by.110 km . A two-hour transportation network including Shanghai, Ningbo and Hangzhou will be formed. Secondly, the distance between Shanghai and Wenzhou and Taizhou will be cut, and people from Shanghai will be able to reach the south of Zhejiang Province within two hours, and the distance between the Southeast of Zhejiang Province. Thirdly the distance to the South of Jiangsu Province will be much shorter, too. The road distance between Ningbo and Suzhou will be about 200 km. The significance of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is far more than above. Its impact on Ningbo-Zhoushan Port is unprecedented. With the hindrance of the Hangzhou Bay, Ningbo-Zhoushan Port suffered a distribution bottleneck. The large handling capacity of the Beilun Port could not be brought into full play. The Bridge not only sets the direction of the future development of the city, but also makes Ningbo a transportation hub, on both land and sea. In March 2008, a regular container line between Ningbo and Jiaxing was opened. The two cities across the Hangzhou Bay made an important stride forward in port cooperation. It is estimated that the Bridge will also bring closer the relations between Ningbo-Zhoushan Port and other ports in Shanghai, Suzhou and Nantong. Those ports in the Yangtze River Delta can set off each other in strength and develop on different levels, which will instill vitality to the Shanghai International Shipping Center. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge will benefit, to a great extent, the implementation of a strategy of harmonious development of the Port, the Bridge and marine industry in Ningbo. The City of Ningbo will give better play of the leading role of the Port, take the Bridge as accelerator, make marine industry as new increasing point, and promote the interaction between the Port, the Bridge and the sea. Authorities on international economy have said that, following Paris, London, New York, Tokyo and Chicago, a cluster of cities in the Yangtze River Delta with Shanghai as its core would be the sixth international metropolitan circle. Ningbo, with unparalleled strength and spirit of innovation, is marching from the three-river region to the whole Yangtze River Delta. Commercial Metropolis Where there is a market, there are Ningbo merchants‖, says an old saying in China. Ningbo has been a renowned commercial city from time immemorial. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Ningbo was a prosperous city full of merchants from home and abroad. In the Qing Dynasty, the local economy grew and flourished with abundant products and numbers of stores. After the Opium War in 1840‘s, Ningbo was listed as one of the 5 ‗treaty ports‘ in China and its commerce continues to blossom. Banks, trading companies and sea food stores were dotted all over the city. Thus, an old saying says no other place is more flourishing than downtown Ningbo. Today, with the deepening of the reform and opening up and the optimizing of the economic structure, Ningbo, this old commercial city, is becoming a highlight in the south of the Yangtze River Delta. Prestigious Overseas Ningbo Merchants Thanks to prosperous commerce ‗Ningbo Merchants‘ were known to the world. ‗Ningbo Merchants‘ first appeared in the Ming Dynasty, developed in Shanghai after the Opium War in the 1840‘s, and reached their heyday after the democratic revolution in 1911. They played a crucial role in the development of modern commerce in China. In 1916, Mr. Sun Yat-sen spoke highly of Ningbo entrepreneurs that ‗Ningbo merchants have their businesses in every commercial port in China, and are even found in European countries. Their strength and impact are great and incomparable.‘ At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Ningbo businesspeople created a great many number-ones in Shanghai, including the first bank founded by Chinese people, the first market for Chinese merchants, the first private shipping company, the first modern wool plant, the first silent short film of China, the first Red Cross organization, and so on. At the moment, there are still 300,000 ‗Ningbo Merchants‘ and their descendants are residing in some 60 countries and regions. The ‗Ningbo Merchants‘ in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan are world famous. Some of them are world-class industrial and commercial giants, for example, Y K Bao and H Y Dong, called the shipping tycoons in the world, Kuancheng Wong, chairman of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Run Run Shao, king of the film industry, Tinhua Chen, king of cotton yarn, and Kuang Piu Chao , king of woolen textile. Three of them enter the Top 10 Magnates in Hong Kong, while two of them are listed in Top 8 Shipping Giants in the world. One of them is among the Top 10 Chinese Syndicates in U.S. and another among the Top 10 Chinese Syndicates in Japan. Since the implementation of reform and opening up to the outside world, Ningbo people have carried forward the spirit ‗Ningbo Merchants‘, and spread their businesses all over the world. Independent Innovation of Private Enterprises The highly developed private economy is the most distinctive feature of Ningbo. Ningbo people are honest, pragmatic, open-minded and creative. Under the leadership of CPC Ningbo Committee and Ningbo Municipal Government, they devote themselves to the economic development and improvement of living standard. With 30 years reform and opening up, Ningbo has become the most dynamic city among coastal cities in the East. It has achieved great successes in many fields and has been a major base of advanced manufacturing in China. By the end of 2007, there are 93,000 private enterprises in Ningbo, and the number of the self-employed over 250,000. 25 local private enterprises are listed in National Top 500 Private Enterprises. The Jintian Copper Group even enters into the Top 10. 135 industrial goods of 103 enterprises respectively rank the first places among the counterparts in China in terms of output and sales volume. 114 products have won the title of the Famous Brand of China and 61 have been awarded the title of Product of Famous Brand. In June 22, 2007, the World Brand Laboratory issued the latest ‗Top 500 Valuable Brands in China ‘. 9 brands from Ningbo were on the list. ‗Youngor‘ took the 66th place, with an assessed value of RMB 9.21 billion, which is the most valuable one in garment and textile industry in China. At present, the output of the garment industry in Ningbo accounts for one twelfth of the country‘s total, which makes Ningbo one of the three major garment production bases in China and leading producer of men‘s garments in the world. In addition, Ningbo has been a City of Stationery, for the output of stationery takes up a quarter of the national total,. Moreover, Ningbo is also call the City of Injection Machine, because it contributes one third of the output of plastic injection machinery industry in China. It is also the City of Plastic Mould as Cixi, Beilun and Ninghai are major bases of plastic moulds in China. Furthermore, Ningbo is also one the three major bases of electronic appliances, as the country‘s 12.5% of air conditioners and 33% of small electronic appliances are made in Ningbo. In early 2006, Ningbo set the target of building a city of innovation. Within 3 years, innovation should contribute 50% to the economic increment, and by 2020, 65% of the economic growth will come from innovation. Ningbo will become the innovation base with the favorable environment among the counterpart cities in China and a major base for industrialization of scientific and technological achievements in East China. Technological innovation in local enterprises has become the key catalyst to independent innovation. Last year, the number of patent applications was over 10,000 for the first time. 6056 items have been approved 95% of which are developed by enterprises. In addition, 163 local enterprises initiated or were involved in the drafting of 125 national standards, 2 international standards and 170 industrial technical standards. Further Opening Up to the Outside World rapidly, too. In 1984, Ningbo was listed as one of the 14 costal cities further opening up to the outside world in the Chinese Mainland, as well as a pilot city for comprehensive reform. In 1987, Ningbo was officially approved by the State Council as a separate-listed city, privileged to enjoy the same rights as a province in local economic administration. Therefore, Ningbo was authorized to have independent foreign trade rights and was able to contact foreign businessmen directly. Moreover, the central government of China timely endowed Ningbo with more rights for further opening up. In 1984, Ningbo Economic and Technological Development Zone, a national development area, was officially inaugurated. It was one of the first and largest special economic zones in China at that time. Since then, several special economic zones have been established in Ningbo. The State Council approved to establish Ningbo Free Trade Zone, an opening area with most favorable policies in the Chinese Mainland, in 1992. In 2002, Ningbo Export Processing Park was set up. In 2004, Ningbo Bonded Logistics Park was launched to meet the demand of the coupling development of the port and the city. In February 2008, the State Council approved the establishment of Ningbo Meishan Bonded Harbor Area. It will enjoy all the favorable polices of Free Trade Zone, Export Processing Park and Bonded Logistics Park. It will be a special area with the highest level of openness, the most favorable policies and the most completed functions. Meanwhile, it will be a pilot area for the country to implement the strategy of free trade area. At present, there are only five bonded harbor areas in China. Undoubtedly the Meishan Bonded Harbor Area will trigger a new round of opening up to the world. This year is the 30th anniversary marking the implementation of reform and opening up to the outside world policies in China and the 20th anniversary of Ningbo‘s designation as a separately-listed city. Ningbo has experienced a rapid and remarkable progress in its economy. When compared with the date in 1978, the GDP of Ningbo in 2007 is 32 times as much as that in 1978, with the average annual growth rate of 14.7%, the per capita GDP also 32 times, with the average annual growth rate of 13.67%, the revenue income 128 times with the average annual growth rate of 18.74%, average annual disposable income of urban citizens 64 times with the average annual growth rate of 15.94%, the average annual net income of rural residents 16 times with the average annual growth rate of 14.46%. Great success has been achieved in development of open economy. By 2007, there have been 8,996 local enterprises that can deal with foreign trade. They conduct direct trade with 216 countries and regions worldwide. The volume of import and export reaches USD 56.51 billion in 2007, making Ningbo the second place among all the five counterpart cities in China. With regard to the export volume, Ningbo is the 6th among 36 provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions and separate planning cities in China. In terms of the volume of import, Ningbo ranks the 9th place. Furthermore, a number of local enterprises go abroad to contract in projects, cooperate in labor services or invest. In 2007, the turnover of contracts relating to labor services and project cooperation hit USD 1.15 billion, accounting for a half of provincial total. By the end of 2007, Ningbo enterprises have founded 750 companies and institutes in 72 countries and regions worldwide, surpassing any other sub-provincial cities in China. Modern Service Industry: New Engine for Economic Development Development of manufacturing asks for progress and upgrade in exposition, logistics, real estate, finance and other modern service industries. CPC Ningbo Committee and Ningbo Municipal Government have formulated several policies to ensure the sound development of modern services and to encourage a leap-frog growth. Recently, the annual growth rate of tertiary industry is 16.1%, 2.2 points higher than the growth rate of GDP and 2.8 points higher than the growth rate of the secondary industry. Foreign investors are showing particular interests in modern service industry in Ningbo. Logistics Giant, such as Maersk and AMB, Wal- Mart, the global top retailer, Allianz, the insurance magnate, Standard Chartered, one of the largest banks in the world, and other transnationals from Global Top 500 have flowed into Ningbo and opened their businesses. Conference and exhibition industry, with outstanding comprehensive benefits, is a highlight in the modern service industry in Ningbo. Since the 1st Ningbo International Fashion Festival was held in October 1997, Ningbo has hosted more than 10 exhibitions of national class, such as Zhejiang Provincial Investment and Trade Symposium, China International Consumer Goods Fair and China International Garment Trading Fair, as well as a number of influential festivals such as the Fishing Festival, Tourism Festival and Red Bayberry Festival. In 2007, there were 206 conferences and exhibitions held in Ningbo. 103 exhibitions with total exhibition area of 1.02 million square meters have been staged.. Last year, Ningbo was conferred several awards relating to expositions, which solidified its status as a city of exhibtions. Furthermore, the CPC Ningbo Committee and Ningbo Municipal Government aim to build Ningbo into a metropolis of international expositions. A 60-hectare international trade and exposition park, located in the Eastern New Urban Area (ENUA), is under design, with the budget of RMB 2 billion yuan for infrastructure construction. Place with Rich Culture Ningbo is home to the 7,000-year-old Hemudu Neolithic Culture. It has China‘s existing oldest private library. It boasts Legend of Butterfly Lovers, cloth dragon (Fenghua), Pingdiao Opera (Ninghai) and cinnabar and gold lacquer wood carving, which have been listed in China‘s first batch of Intangible Cultural Heritage Catalog. This place is home to the East Zhejiang School in Ming and Qing Dynasties. It has been in the forefront of modern China‘s Westernization Movement Reform after the Opium War and the foreland where western and Chinese Cultures meet. It is often said that country thrives with the efforts by its people, and a city becomes famous because of its culture. Today, on this land with long history of culture and prosperous economy, the drive of building of a cultural city has been started, to carry on the fine tradition of being a famous historical and cultural city. From Dynasties of Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing to Modern Times Ningbo is like a museum without walls, where historical and cultural relics are found everywhere. It boasts 22 items of cultural relics under the protection of the state. The number will increase to 296 if all the cultural relics under the protection of the state, Zhejiang province and Ningbo city are included. To take the less than 1-km-long West Zhongshan Road for example, along its two sides from the west end to the east, it presents the cultural landscape ranging from the Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties to today. The Tang Tower, standing on the pavement of the Xiaowen Street, was built in the 4th year of Xiantong Reign (863 A.D.). The tower demonstrates the rational spirit of Mingzhou (now called Ningbo) people in the Tang Dynasty and their pursuit of beauty. In the south of West Zhongshan Road, there is a stone pavilion in the northeast corner of the Moon Lake, lower than the road level. It is named ‗Tablet Pavilion in the Water‘. A big Chinese Character ‗Ping‘ is written on the tablet. This pavilion was built in the South Song Dynasty for monitoring of the water level. It was used to prevent flood, waterlog and drought. This is the first ancient hydrological station that has ever been found in the country. On the other side of West Zhongshan Road, there is the only remains of a large-scale warehouse of an ancient local city in the country, namely the Yongfeng Warehouse Site of the Yuan Dynasty. It was discovered at the end of 2002. It covers an area of 9,600 M2. Altogether, more than 800 cultural relics of the Song and Yuan Dynasties were excavated, which indicates Ningbo ‘s status in transportation and trade with the outside world in history. The former residence houses of the Fan‘s built in Ming Dynasty pose harmoniously with the Tang Tower and Drum Tower one street apart. The residence houses are of local house style, built more than 400 years ago, whose owner, by the name of Fan Yinai, was a descendant of Fan Zhongyan, a famous official in North Song Dynasty. The Drum Tower standing on Zhenming Road, opposite to the Zhongshan Road, which was the north- south axial line of the ancient city, was rebuilt during the Xianfeng Reign of the Qing Dynasty. It used to be the south gate of the inner-city built by the mayor of Mingzhou in the first year of Changqing Reign in Tang Dynasty (A.D.821). It was destroyed and rebuilt many times in history. The Drum Tower symbolizes the formal establishment of Ningbo city and has witnessed the vicissitudes of the city. Eastward from the Drum Tower and not far away is the three-river confluence, the heart of the city. Ningbo‘s mother river Yaojiang River running from Hemudu, a place with 7,000-year culture joins the Fenghua River in downtown Ningbo It eventually flows to the East China Sea. Around the three-river confluence, there stands Qianye (Banking) Guild Hall. It was a place where people of the financial industry met and did business. It is the only completely preserved architecture of private banking industry in China. There is also Qing‘an Guild Hall built in the 3rd year of Xianfeng Reign in the Qing Dynasty (1853 A.D.). It was the entertainment venue for ship owners and workers sailing to Liaoning, Hebei and Shangdong Provinces, and the hall enshrines a Matsu statute, the goddess of the sea. There is a Catholic church built in the 11th year of Tongzhi Reign in the Qing Dynasty (1872 A.D.). It marked Ningbo being one of the ‗Five Treaty Ports‘ during the Opium War. The north bank of the Yongjiang River used to be the residence area of foreigners and is now called the Old Bund, which dated back to a period earlier than the famous Shanghai Bund. A City of Books and Scholars in the South The 100-km-long Yaojiang River has nurtured generations of talents. Both Wang Yangming, the creator of Yangming School well known overseas, and Huang Zongxi, the originator of East Zhejiang School, have left deep traces in China‘s history of philosophy and thoughts. As an old proverb goes, there is ‗the Tianyi Pavilion Museum in the city and the Baiyun Village outside the city‘. Ningbo people are proud of these two places, because the Baiyun Village is the prominent place for East Zhejing Academics and the historical site for East Zhejiang School. Besides, it was the venue where Huang Zongxi lectured for the longest period in Ningbo and spread his influence. The Tianyi Pavilion, where Huang Zongxi read books, still remains standing today. The Tianyi Pavilion, which was built in 1561 by Fan Qin, is the oldest private library still existing in China, as well as the oldest library in Asia and one of the three oldest private libraries in the world. That is why Ningbo enjoys the reputation of a city of books in the South. The descendants of the Fan‘s Family attached great importance to education. For more than 400 years, Tianyi Pavilion has preserved the tradition of being a ‗place of education‘. Both Tianyi Pavilion and its neighboring Qin‘s Ancestral Temple once ran schools, the former ran private schools called ‗Si Shu‘ and the latter ran primary schools. Therefore Ningbo people have long formed the tradition of valuing education. Since ancient times, numerous personages were brought up in Ningbo, including high officials, rich businessmen, notable scholars, ethnic heroes and scientists, etc. Ningbo city has also produced many states-people. For example, as early as in South Song Dynasty, 3 prime ministers came from the Shi‘s There have emerged a great many literary figures, like Zhang Xiaoxiang, Wu Wenying, Wan Sitong, Quan Zuwang in the ancient times and Rou Shi, Yinfu, Wanren in the contemporary era, and Yu Qiuyu, Fen Jicai in modern times. There are national heroes such as Qian Sule and Zhang Cangshui, and revolutionary martyrs like Wang Kun, Li Min are. In the field of science and technology, the number of academicians from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering from Ningbo has risen to 93, which is No.1 among all the cities in China. In the art circle, Ningbo has Sha Menghai, the master in the calligraphy world, Pan Tianshou, the master of traditional Chinese painting, Zhou Xinfang, the famous Peking Opera singer, etc. Stephen Chow (famous Hongkong film actor) and famous cello player Yo-Yo Ma also like to call themselves ― Ningbonese‖. Cultural and Sports Events Tianyi Pavilion used to be the spiritual home of Ningbo people. Nowadays, the cultural life in Ningbo is becoming even more colorful. In recent years, Ningbo has completed its public culture and sports service system. A 15-minute cultural activity circle with many cultural and sports facilities has been set up in the central urban areas. The three-river cultural corridor gives a panorama view of the cultural city. Typical cultural leisure areas such as the Old Bund, City Exhibition Hall, Art Museum, Music Hall, Grand Theatre, Time Square, Riverside Park, together with Ningbo City of Books, Ningbo Museum, Ningbo Merchants Museum, Wantou Leisure Tourist Area, Mass Art Activity Center and all kinds of water-sports facilities which are under construction or expansion combine perfectly with the historical sites. The city has finished 3,000 fitness roads. Over 70% of administrative villages have set up sports facilities, which to the largest extent spur people‘s enthusiasm for sports. The village culture, community culture, enterprise culture, campus culture in the city are rapidly developing. With the first-class cultural and sports facilities Ningbo has hosted a large number of activities of classic art, festivals, contests and sports games, such as the 3rd China International Competition for Singers, which has now settled down in Ningbo, the 9th China International Children‘s Film Festival, The 1st Popular Music Contest of The 6th China Golden Bell Award for Music, The 9th China Drama Festival & The 12th BeSeTo Drama Festival, and main-venue activities for the 2006 ―Spring Brings You a Poem‖. Last year, Ningbo held totally 23 international and domestic matches or contests such as International Women‘s Volleyball Tournament, the finals of Women‘s World Volleyball Grand Prix, Dongqian Lake World Invitation Race of Dragon Boat, National Boxing Championship, the preliminary trampoline contest of The 6th National City Sports Meeting, the home games of Bayi men‘s and women‘s basketball teams, etc. What more, after the Chinese women‘s volleyball team chose Ningbo as its training base in the year before last, another 3 national teams chose Ningbo as their training base last year. They are Chinese Table Tennis Training Base in Beilun District, Chinese International Chess Training Base in Yinzhou District and Chinese Sepak Takraw Training Base in Zheda Ningbo Institute of Technology. Chinese Women‘s Volleyball Team will continue to take Beilun District as its home court during 2009 to 2012. The team‘s main international matches during the next round of Olympic period will take place there. Flourishing Literature Ningbo‘s literary creation has maintained a sound momentum of development. Outstanding literary works are increasing year by yea. Over 100 masterpieces have been awarded national permanent literary prizes and the individual awards have been won for over 20 person times. Many breakthrough achievements have been made, such as winning prizes of Best Works Award, Wenhua Award (for professional theatrical artworks), China Broadcasting and TV Award, Lu Xun Literature Award and Galaxy Award, etc. In the chart of Chinese Novels 2006, the saga novel Love is Guilty by the Ningboese writer Ai Wei ranks No.2. In the appraisal of The 4th Lu Xun Literature Award, the author and poet Rong Rong was awarded National Excellent Poetry Anthology Award with his poetry anthology See. China‘s Romany, the theoretical work on folk custom written by Wang Jing was awarded the first prize of Chinese folk art Shanhua Prize. The broadcasting play directed and broadcasted by Xin Xueli of Ningbo Radio won national prizes for several times. After being awarded National Golden Mike Award, Xin Xueli was awarded Changjiang River Taofen Prize, which is the highest prize in journalistic circle. She became the first journalist in Zhejiang Province to win the prize. TV Series Creation is the strong point of Ningbo‘s literary creation. Since the ‗10th Five-Year-Plan‘ period, 2 TV Series have won Best Works Award, 5 won National Feitian Award for TV Series, 6 have won Provincial Feitian Award and Peony Award, 3 have been broadcast in CCTV. The annual production of TV series in Ningbo has numbered over 100 episodes. City of Harmony ‗It is a modern commercial city full of energy, a socially developed city abound with love, a tolerant and energetic city ideal for startup and innovation, a beautiful homestead where people live and work in peace and contentment. Feel happiness. Ningbo is a city that is open, prosperous, safe and harmonious‘. This is the evaluation words for Ningbo during the awarding ceremony of the first batch of Top 10 Chinese with Best Living Environment. In Nov.6, 2007, the result was announced. Ningbo stood out from 35 candidate cities. The person who presented the award to the mayor of Ningbo was Xu Hui, a migrant sanitary worker who had been in Ningbo for 7 years. ‗I love Ningbo. I feel happy working in this city‘. The simple words by Xu Hui were what over 3 million migrant workers living in Ningbo want to say. The result by Ningbo Survey Team shows that nearly 90% of over 6.3 million Ningbo citizens are content with living in Ningbo. Happiness is a feeling that residents in Ningbo shares with each other, no matter how long they have lived in the city. Efficient and Transparent Government Zhou Qingfa is the boss of Xiangshan Ruyi Glasses Shop. 17 years ago when he opened his first shop, he had to wait for 32 days until he got the business license. In 2006 when Zhou Qingfa was about to open his 3rd chain store, Xianshan County took the lead in Zhejiang Province in merging the administrative examination and approval functions. All procedures were completed one-stop. It only took him 32 minutes to get all certificates and documents. Started from Spet.2007, this new model has spread city wide. Ningbo is one of the earliest cities in China to reform on the administrative examination and approval system. It is also the pilot city in Zhejiang Province to do that. It is also one of the earliest cities to have established a unified platform for trading of public resources , for which it enjoys a comparatively high reputation nationwide. According to the reports by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CAS) show that Ningbo‘s comprehensive competitiveness is increasing year by year. Especially the competitiveness of structure, system and government management always comes to the top. Everything is for the people, and everything depends on people. In making local laws and regulations the city government adopts the way of publishing in the newspaper, publicizing on the Internet, holding legislation seminars, discussions, etc to widely elicitate the opinions of people‘s congress representatives, grass roots people, experts, scholars and functional departments. This way of making regulations and laws ensures government to administrate according to law. While running the city according to law, Ningbo is going all out to build a safe and harmonious city. The numbers of social problems, petitions, criminal cases and work safety accidents are gradually decreasing year by year. Mass people‘s feeling of safety has been further improved. A City of Charity Luo Nanying was a 29-year-old Chinese teacher Qinghai Province. She was a young mother suffered from leucocythemia. In 2005, she and her husband came to Ningbo to see a doctor. Fortunately, a right bone marrow was found for her. However, the treatment fee was as high as RMB 600, 000 Yuan. Only in 6 days after her situation was made known by the media, over 2,000 warm-hearted people donated the money for her. Xinhua News Agency said in its review that, the love showed by Ningbo people resulted from a caring tradition of the Ningbo people. One year later, the city continued the love story. In half a year, 10, 000 Ningbo citizens formed helping pairs with 15,000 poor students in Guizhou Province. For 2 years successively Ningbo citizens as a collective unity was awarded the title the ‗Zhejiang Pride-the Most Influential Figure‘. With loving care everywhere, the society is harmonious and stable. People are content with life in Ningbo. An anonymous person in Ningbo has donated over 2 million RMB Yuan in 8 years and only left a name Anonymous‘. There is a student named Chen Ji who took a disabled classmate to school on his back for 4 years. In this city, ａtotal 670,000 volunteers have served the society for over 22 million hours. In this city, charity organizations altogether collected funds of 1.157 billion RMB Yuan in 10 years, taking up 1/4 of the total funds collected in Zhejiang Province. In this city, migrant workers are called ―New Ningbonese‖ This year, the city of Ningbo, boasting 3.22 million migrant workers, is the first in the country to offer the complete set of the ‗Social Insurance Package‘ to migrant workers. Migrant workers can enjoy work injury, medical, endowment, unemployment and maternity insurance. The ‗Social Insurance Package‘ for migrant workers is a breakthrough. After that, Ningbo government continuously promulgated 13 favorable policies. For example, migrant workers can settle down in Ningbo, and employment guidance and job recommendation are free of charge. Migrant workers taking part in vocational training can get funds and subsidy. Migrant workers can enjoy public health service system and the same treatment as local residents, etc. A series of policies have basically covered the study, work, and life of migrant workers, concerning all factors of economy, politics, culture and social construction. Ningbo treats migrant workers kindly with its tolerant character, and migrant workers have a stronger and stronger sense of identification and belonging. A harmonious view of building the city and enjoying the achievements together by local residents and migrant workers has been revealed in this city. Migrant workers with loving hearts in Yuyao City helped a girl suffering from a serious disease. A migrant worker by the name of Peng Qianhai from Sichuan Province sacrificed his life when saving others in a fire. A migrant worker named Xu Yisheng braved the fire to save people. Ningbo not only witnesses the great material wealth created by migrant workers, but also enjoys the precious spiritual wealth they create. A City of Happiness In recent years, Ningbo has carried out security measures in an all-round way to improve people‘s quality of life. CPC Ningbo Committee and Ningbo Government have brought into force the activities of helping and supporting people in difficult situation with the heart of love, targeting at solving problems such as employment, social insurance, housing, medical treatment, transportation, etc., and strengthening the support to people in difficulties. In 2007, 73% of Ningbo‘s newly added revenue was used for people‘s livelihood and social causes. In the last year, the total educational expenditure was 5.906 billion RMB Yuan. The city and towns synchronously implemented compulsory education without incidental fees. 620, 000 students in the whole city realized a decrease of tuition and incidental fees of around 140 million RMB Yuan. The government took 2.249 billion RMB Yuan to take care of public health. 609 million RMB Yuan was invested to support the new countryside cooperative medical treatment, farmer‘s body check-up, township public health service and so on. Totally 3.7 million farmers joined the new countryside cooperative medical insurance. The join rate is as high as 96.5%. 501million RMB Yuan was invested as employment and reemployment fund. 139,000 people profited from relevant policies. All kinds of funds for low-income families were allocated. The per capita compensation for rural low-income families surpassed the average level of Chinese cities. The minimum salary, retirement pension and unemployment relief fund were greatly improved. The government increased investment in city construction and public transportation. 2.2 billion RMB Yuan of city construction fund was invested in major city-level projects such as the expressway surrounding the city proper, Ningbo Railway Station as a comprehensive transportation center. The comprehensive reform for public transportation system was started. The financial subsidy mechanism for city public transportation enterprises was gradually improved. The supporting policies for public transportation system were put into effect. In terms of new village construction, all kinds of subsidy policies were implemented. The investment in major water conservancy facilities was increased. Totally 73 million RMB Yuan was invested as the training fund for farmers. 198,000 farmers were offered new-technology training. Ningbo constantly perfected the multi-level township housing security system, with low-rent houses as the backbone, residence and cheap leasable houses for low-and-medium wage earners as the supplement. Thus, the housing condition for low-income families was prominently improved. The most-needy families with per capita housing area below 12 sq. m. were included in the housing security system. In the last year, over 2,500 residence houses for low-and-medium wage earners were offered. 860,000 sq. m. old residence areas were renovated. Ningbo offered the best demonstration of people enjoying their rights in terms of education, employment, medical and old-age care, and housing as depicted in the report to the 17th National People‘s Congress of the CPC. A City of Good Environment This is a grand plan costing over 100 billion RMB Yuan and aiming at constructing environmental protection infrastructure in an all-round way. This is a long term plan extending to the year of 2020. 4 infrastructure construction projects of blue sky, clear water, green meadow and clean city are included. In 2002, Ningbo started the 4 infrastructure construction projects named blue sky, clear water, green meadow and clean city respectively to protect the environment in an all-round way. By Beginning with the work to ensure the healthy use of water, control exhaust gas emission, treat waste properly, increase gardening, the city aims to protect Ningbo‘s eco-environment in an all-round way. According to Eco-City Construction Planning for Ningbo, the construction will be carried out in three phrases. From 2003 to 2007 is the starting phase, from 2008 to 2012 is the developing phase, and from 2013 to 2020 is the deepening phase. In the recent 5 years, great achievements have been made in eco-city construction. The ‗Clear Water Project‘, with the setting up of the sewage treatment plants as its emphasis, has improved a lot. In 2007, 11 sewage treatment plants were newly built or expanded. The ‗Blue Sky Project‘, emphasizing on building desulfurizing equipments for power plants has been almost finished. The ‗Cleaning Project‘, mainly targeting at constructing dangerous solid waste treatment equipments, was put into operation in an all-round way. Therefore, safe treatment of the whole city‘s medical waste, petrochemical waste, electroplating sludge, sewage sludge, restaurant and kitchen garbage, etc. has been realized. The rural environment quality has been improved. Pollution control in major enterprises, industries and areas has been strengthened. Eco-towns, villages and environmental protection model units are numerous. Up to the present, there have established 6 National Towns with Beautiful Environment in Ningbo, 42 Provincial Eco-Towns, 51 Municipal Eco-Towns (Streets) and 253 Eco-Villages. Besides, 3 National Eco-Model Areas of Ninghai County, Xiangshan County and Zhenhai District have been established The per capita public green area in the city‘s central part has reached 11.05 sq. m.‗Green land can be found everywhere‘ is the real reflection of Ningbo people‘s beautiful living environment. Future Development In ‗General Plan of Ningbo City (2006—2020)‘ ratified by the State Council, Ningbo will be built into ‗the important port city in Southeast China‘, ‗the economic center in the southern wing of Yangtze River Delta‘ and ‗national famous city for historical culture‘. In recent years, ranking high in many lists, Ningbo is outstanding among the medium-sized cities. Compared with the big cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, Ningbo possesses its own unique qualities and has great potential for further development. This year, the authorized Meishan Free Trade Port Region and the newly opened Hangzhou Bay Bridge will be another pair of wings for the takeoff of Ningbo economy. Ningbo is speeding up the construction of a modern international port city. Along with the operation of the railway connecting Ningbo, Taizhou and Wenzhou, the plan of the express railway between Ningbo and Hangzhou and the airport opening to the foreign flights, Ningbo will become a hub of the regional transportation net. At present, Ningbo is proactively implementing the coordinated development strategy of ‗extending the east, combining the north, integrating the south and upgrading the middle‘, that is constructing the eastern new urban district, developing Yuyao and Cixi districts in the north, protecting and making full use of Xiangshan Port region in the south and upgrading the development of six central urban districts. Ningbo metropolitan area has begun to take shape. Indubitably, Ningbo has a brilliant future. The ‗General Plan‘ has drawn a splendid blueprint for Ningbo: by the year of 2020, the economy and society of Ningbo will keep sustainable, stable and quick development, the industrial structure will be sound, the infrastructure complete, the development of rural and urban areas coordinated, the ecological environment favorable and the lives of residents rich. At that time, the framework of a modern city will come into being; and the position of Ningbo as an economic center in the southern wing of the Yangtze River Delta will be substantially established. With the realization of modernization and the high-level development of economy and society, the comprehensive competitiveness of the city will rank high in the whole country. According to the general requirement of ‗improving scientific development and constructing harmonious society‘, in the next 3 years, Ningbo will continue to carry out the strategy of ‗six integral developments‘ in an all round way, that is, the integral development of rural and urban areas, the integral development of industries, the integral development of ports, bridges and sea, the integral development of production, living and ecology, and the integral development of economy and society. Great efforts are now being made to speed up the establishment of a ‗safe Ningbo‘, a city attaching great importance to culture and a city managed under legal system, and trying to promote the harmonious development between urban and rural areas, enhance the industrial comprehensive competitiveness, exert the driving function of ports and bridges, and improve the internationalization level, heighten the sustainable development capacity, upgrade the life quality of people, and boost the construction of modern international port city into a new stage. In the next 3 years, Ningbo will try to keep economy developing well and quickly, optimize the infrastructure, increase social wealth while cutting down production cost. By the year of 2011, Ningbo will realize local GDP ￥500 billion, with an average annual increase of 11%. The GDP per capita will reach ￥86,00, while revenue income ￥100 billion. The income per capita of urban residents and rural residents reach ￥30,000 and ￥13,000 respectively. Ningbo will build itself into an international deep- water pivotal port, an important national port of foreign trade, an important manufacturing base and a modern logistic center in Southeast China, Ningbo will establish itself as an economic centre in the southern wing of Yangtze River Delta. At that time, Ningbo will become more harmonious and developed, while the family property will increase universally. The public service system will be more mature 上 and the environment will be greatly improved. Ningbo will be more stable and orderly while the human habitat environment will be much optimized. The culture will be more prosperous, the moral qualities and health qualities of the people will improve greatly. The urban and rural areas will be more socially developed. Ningbo will be a modern city with good moral atmosphere and Ningbo will try to keep the title of National Socially Developed City. The democracy and legal system of Ningbo will continue to be enhanced, and the benefits of the people will be respected and guaranteed completely. The economy, politics, culture and society will smoothly develop under the system of law and regulation.