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Cell Structure and Functions

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Cell Structure and Functions Powered By Docstoc
					Cell Structures
 and Functions
A Look at Prokaryote vs.
    Eukaryote Cells
      Prokaryote Cells
Bacterial cells do have a cell wall, a
cell membrane, genetic material, and
ribosomes. They do not contain a
nucleus that organizes the genetic
material or other organelles.
        Eubacteria        Archaebacteria




Fungi              Kingdoms                Plantae




        Animalia              Protista
       Eukaryote Cells

• Eukaryotes are organisms that
  contain a nucleus and membrane
  bound organelles - tiny structures
  that carry out specific functions in
  the cell.
        Eubacteria        Archaebacteria




Fungi              Kingdoms                Plantae




        Animalia              Protista
A Comparison of Plant
 Cells to Animal Cells
          Cell Wall
• a rigid structure made of cellulose
  that surrounds a plant cell
  membrane to support and protect
  the cell
          Chloroplast

• capture energy from sunlight to
  produce food for the cell during
  the process of photosynthesis
              Vacuole
• Stores water, food, or waste products
• Most plant cells have one large vacuole
  – without much water in the cells the
  plant wilts.
• Animal cells usually have more than
  one small vacuole.
      Cell Membrane

• the outer boundary of a cell
• controls the materials that move into
  and out of the cell
            Nucleus

• organelle that directs the cell's
  activities
• contains the cell’s genetic material
    Nuclear Membrane

• the outer boundary of the nucleus
• controls the materials that move
  into and out of the nucleus
            Nucleolus

• small, dark area in nucleus that
  makes parts for ribosomes
          Chromatin –
           Chromosome
• structures in the nucleus that
  contain DNA
• stores genetic information or
  instructions for cell functions
            Cytoplasm

• the clear, thick, gel-like fluid
  material inside the cell membrane
        Mitochondria

• the “powerhouses” of the cell
• breaks down food molecules to
  release energy during cellular
  respiration
  Endoplasmic Reticulum

• organelle consisting of folded
  membranes that move materials
  from one part of the cell to another
            Ribosome

• small grain like structures that are
  attached to the endoplasmic
  reticulum or float in the cytoplasm
• assembles protein molecules
          Golgi Bodies

• receive proteins and other newly
  formed materials, package, and
  distribute them to other parts of
  the cell or release them to the
  outside of the cell
          Lysosomes

• contains enzymes that break down
  food and recycle old cell parts

				
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posted:4/2/2011
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