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Workings of a Nuclear Reactor

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					 Workings of a
Nuclear Reactor
   Reactor Basics
       PWR
       BWR
Key Reactor Power Terms

• Availability – Fraction of time over a
  reporting period that the plant is
  operational
  – If a reactor is down for maintenance 1 week
    and refueling 2 weeks every year, the
    availability factor of the reactor would be
    (365-3 * 7) / 365 = 0.94
Key Reactor Power Terms

• Capacity – Fraction of total electric power
 that could be produced
  – If reactor with a maximum thermal power
    rating of 1000 MWt only operates at 900
    MWt, the capacity factor would be 0.90
• Efficiency – Electrical energy output per
 thermal energy output of the reactor
  Eff=W/QR (MWe/MWt)
    Term
Visualization
Piecing Together a Reactor
1.   Fuel
2.   Moderator
3.   Control Rods
4.   Coolant
5.   Steam Generator
6.   Turbine/Generator
7.   Pumps
8.   Heat Exchanger
         1. Fuel

         3. Control rod




7.
                               4. Coolant




     5. Steam generator
                                            Basic Reactor Model

                          6.



              8.
Nuclear Power in the United States

• ~20% Nuclear Energy
• 103 Nuclear Reactors
  – 31 States
  – 34 BWRs
  – 69 PWRs
• Largest Plant
  – Palo Verde
  – 3825 MWe/3 reactors
  – 12th Largest in World

                            http://www.nei.org
Nuclear Power in the United States

• Manufacturers
  – General Electric
     • www.ge.com
  – Westinghouse
     • www.westinghouse.com
  – AREVA NP
     • www.framatome-anp.com
  – ABB Combustion Eng.
     • www.abb.com
                               http://www.chemsoc.org
World Nuclear Power
• 443 Nuclear
  Reactors in 30
  Countries in
  Operation, January
  2006
• Provided ~16%         http://www.insc.anl.gov
  World Production of
  Energy in 2003
• 24 Nuclear Power
  Plants under
  Construction
Reactor Generations
• Gen I                          • Gen III+
   – Prototypes in 50’s & 60’s     – Current Advanced Designs
• Gen II                             in the Approval Process
   – 70’s & 80’s                   – Pebble Bed Reactor
   – Today’s Operational         • Gen IV
     Reactors                      –   Deploy in 2030
   – BWR, PWR, CANDU, …            –   Economical
• Gen III                          –   Safe
   – ABWR, APWR                    –   Minimize Waste
   – Approved 90’s                 –   Reduce Proliferation
   – Some Built around the
     World
Reactor Generations




        http://www.whitehouse.gov/
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

•   Pressure Vessel           • AP600 Westinghouse
•   Light Water               • 600 MWe
•   3.2% U-235 Fuel           • Passive Safety Cooling
•   2-4 Loops => Steam          Systems
•   UO2 Pellets in Zircaloy   • Prefabricated and
•   17 x 17 array               Assembled On-Site
•   12 foot long bundle       • Simple Plant Design =
                                Reduced Volume and
•   ~32% Efficiency             Cost
•   External Pipe Corrosion   • 3-year
•   Lower Capital Cost          Construction
Basic Diagram of a PWR




                   http://www.nrc.gov/
A PWR in Practice




http://www.nukeworker.com/
VVER – Russian PWR (Water-Cooled,
Water-Moderated, Energy Reactor)




                     http://www.nucleartourist.com/
Other LWR Reactors
• Republic of Korea
  – Optimized Power Reactor, OPR-1000
  – Advanced Power Reactor, APR-1400
  – System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor, SMART
    (330 MWt)
• Germany
  – KONVOI, 1300 MW
• France
  – N4, 1450 MW
AREVA NP – EPR (European
Pressurized-Water Reactor)
• 1600 MWe
• 36 – 37% Efficiency
• Mixed Oxide (MOX)
    Fuel
•   60 – yr Service Life
•   3 – 4 yr Construction
•   Multiple Barriers and
    Simple Safety
    Systems

                http://www.framatome-anp.com/
Westinghouse – AP1000 Reactor

• 1117 – 1154 MWe
• Improved AP600 Design
   –   Same Basic Design
   –   Same Inherent Safety
   –   Optimized Power Output
   –   Reduced Energy Costs
• 2 Steam Generators
• 3 year Construction
• Final Design Approval in
  December 2005!

              http://www.ap1000.westinghousenuclear.com/
AP1000 – Less Pieces




        Nuclear News, November 2004
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

•   Direct Boiling           • GE – ABWR
•   10% Coolant = Steam      • 1350 MWe
•   Similar Fuel to PWR          (3926 MWt)
•   Lower Power Density      •   UO2 Fuel
    than PWR                 •   60 – yr Service Life
•   Corrosion Product        •   Internalized Safety
    Activated in Core            and Recirculation
•   Higher Radiation Field       Systems
Basic Diagram of a BWR




                   http://www.nrc.gov/
A BWR in Practice




http://www.energy-northwest.com
ABWR (Advanced Boiling
Water Reactor)
• 1350 MWe
• 77% more compact than
  BWR design
• 39 month construction
  period




                    GE

                          TOSHIBA, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Unit 6, Japan
ABWR – Less Pieces
ABWR-II
• Early 1990s - TEPCO, 5
  other utilities, GE, Hitachi
  and Toshiba began
  development
• 1700 MWe
• Goals
   – 30% capital cost reduction
   – reduced construction time
   – 20% power generation cost
     reduction
   – increased safety
   – increased flexibility for
     future fuel cycles
• Commercialize – latter
  2010s
GE – ESBWR (Economic Simplified
Boiling Water Reactor)
• 1550 MWe (4500 MWt)
• Passive Condenser
    Systems for Heat
    Transfer
•   Standard Seismic Design
•   Improved Economics
•   Shorter Construction
    Time
•   Reduced Plant Staff and
    Operator Requirements
ESBWR

				
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posted:4/1/2011
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