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Introduction to Anatomy Physiology for the Massage Therapist


									               Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

  Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology for the Massage Therapist /
                     Myomassologists. (Outline)

Anatomy –

Physiology -

                  Structural Levels of Organization
      The body is a unit constructed of the following smaller units:

Chemical     - Life is all about chemistry, everything is chemistry.
             Chemical are formed by atoms coming together.

Cells        - the smallest structural living units of structure and function;
                organizations of various chemicals

Tissues      – organizations (2 or more) of similar cells

Organs       – organizations (2 or more) of different kinds of tissues

Systems      – organizations(2 or more) of many different kinds of organs

Organism - the body as a whole, all the atoms, molecules, chemical, cells,
            tissues, organs, and systems.

                      Systems of the Body

               Principle Systems, System Organs & Functions

Integumentary System (skin, hair, nails, sweat & oil glands)

Fx: Helps regulate body temperature, protects the body, eliminates some
wastes, helps synthesize vitamin D, receives certain stimuli like temperature,
pressure & pain.

                               Randy Fillion NCTMB                               1
             Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Skeletal System (all bones of the body, associated cartilage, and all joints)

Fx: Support, protection, attachment for muscles/movement, RBC
production, & mineral storage

Muscular System (skeletal muscle tissue specific..other muscle is smooth
                and cardiac)
Fx: Movement, maintain posture, & produce heat

Nervous System (Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs eyes
                    & ears)
Fx: Regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes
in the internal and external environments, interprets changes, responds by
inducing muscle contractions or glandular secretions.

Cardiovascular System (blood, heart, and blood vessels)

Fx: Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells, carries carbon dioxide and
wastes away from cells, helps maintain the acid-base balance of the body,
protects against disease, prevents hemorrhage by forming blood clots, and
helps regulate body temperature

Lymphatic and Immune System
(Lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structures of organs containing lymphatic
tissue, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and tonsils)

Fx: Returns proteins and plasma to the cardiovascular system, transports fats
from the gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular system, filters body
fluids, site of maturation and proliferation of certain white blood cells, and
helps protects against disease through the production of proteins called
antibodies, as well as other responses.

Respiratory System
(lungs and a series of associated passageways leading into and out of
Fx: Supplies oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide, helps regulate the acid-
base balance of the body, and produces vocal sounds (phonation)

                             Randy Fillion NCTMB                             2
             Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Endocrine System (all hormone producing glands and cells)
Fx: Regulates body activities through hormones, chemicals transported in
blood to various target organs.

Digestive System
(A long tube called the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs such as
the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas)
Fx: Performs the physical and chemical breakdown and absorption of food
for use by cells and eliminates solid and other wastes.

Urinary System
(Organs such as the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra that
together produce, store and eliminate urine)

Fx: Regulates the volume and chemical composition of blood, eliminates
wastes, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, helps maintain the acid-base
and calcium balance of the body, and helps regulate rbc production.

Reproductive System
(Organs (testes and ovaries) that produce reproductive cells or gametes
(sperm and ova) and other organs such as the urterine (Fallopian) tubes
and uterus in females and the epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and penis
in males that transport and store reproductive cells).

Fx: Reproduces the organism.

Body Cavities

      Ventral cavity

                   Thoracic cavity

                   Abdominopelvic cavity

      Dorsal cavity

                             Randy Fillion NCTMB                                3
             Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Planes of the Body

Anatomical Position –

Body Regions -

              The Balance of Body Functions (Homeostasis)

Homeostasis - relative consistency of the internal environment; balance

Feedback Loops:

      Negative Feedback Loops

      Positive Feedback Loops

                               Chemical Level

Every substance has a chemical and physical property that gives it a unique
identitiy. The properties of a chemical will show how that substance will
react with other substances.

An atom is a very small particle of an element. An element is composed of a
single atom

An atom consists of 3 major types of subatomic particles: electrons,
neutrons, and protons.
Chemical bonds.

Different types of bonds can form between atoms depending on the atoms
involved, and how their electrons are arranged.

Chemical reactions involve breaking, making, or the rearranging bonds.

Every time we give a massage to a client, we become part of the stimulus
  pattern resulting in chemical changes that take place in their body.

                             Randy Fillion NCTMB                              4
             Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists


Cells are the basic structural unit of an organism. Living cells and
differ from one another in size, shape, structure and function.

Cell membrane – forms the outer shell, or boundary. It’s primary
function is to control what moves in and out of the cell.

Cytoplasm – a colorless, jelly-like substance in the cell space which
contains the nucleus and the organelles.

Nucleus – the control center of the cell

Organelles – structures found in cells, each different organelle performs
a specific function in the cell.

             Movement of Substances through Cell Membranes

Active Transport – uses ion pumps (requiring energy in the form of ATP)
      to move substances across cell membranes. Pumps allow for
      differences in charges.

Passive Transport – transport of substances across a membrane without
      the use of energy.

      Diffusion – the movement of molecules from an area of higher
      concentration to and area of lower concentration.

      Osmosis – the diffusion of water from a region of lower solution
      concentration to a region of higher solution concentration

      Filtration – pressure (hydrostatic) forces water across a semi -
      permeable membrane

                             Randy Fillion NCTMB                         5
              Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Cell Division and Mitosis

Cell division stages of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase &
telophase, resulting in the duplication of DNA and two identical daughter
cells each with 46 chromosomes.

Cell Division and Meiosis

Cell division of sex cells, in this type each daughter cell receives half the
normal number (23) of chromosomes, forming two reproductive cells.


There are four primary tissue types; epithelial, connective, muscle, and

      Epithelial tissue –

      Connective tissue –

      Muscle tissue –

      Nervous tissue –

                              Randy Fillion NCTMB                               6
                Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Part 2: Matching
In the space provided, write the word or words that correctly complete each statement.

______1. Homeostasis                 A. The study of the structure of the body or the
                                        study of an organism and the interrelations of its
______2. Physiology                  B. The study of the structural and functional
                                        changes caused by disease.
______3. Disease                     C. The delicate physiological balance the body
                                        strives to maintain in its internal environment.
______4. Anatomy                     D. The science and study of the vital processes,
                                        mechanisms, and functions of an organ or
                                        system of organs.
______5. Pathology                   E. The abnormal and unhealthy state of all or part
                                        of the body where it is not capable of carrying
                                        on its normal function.

Match the term in the first column with the meaning in the second column by placing the
correct letter in the space provided.

Word Roots

______1. hist                        A. lung

______2. chondr/o                    B. tissue

______3. hem                         C. joint

______4. my (o)                      D. nerve

______5. oss, ost (e)                E. cell

______6. pulmo                       F. bone

______7. arth (ro)                   G. cartilage

______8. neur (o)                    H. muscle

______9. cyt                         I. blood

______10. phleb                      J. vein

                                 Randy Fillion NCTMB                                     7
               Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

Identification: In the space provided, write the name of the tissue type that best fits
the description.

__________ 1. blood and lymph

__________ 2. forms the skin, the covering of the organs, and the inner lining of all
            the hollow organs.

__________ 3. composed of neurons

__________ 4. responsible for facial expression, speaking, and other voluntary

__________ 5. initiates, controls, and coordinates the body’s adaptation to its

__________ 6. circulates throughout the body

__________ 7. contracts and causes movement

__________ 8. bones, cartilage, and ligaments

__________ 9. binds structures together and serves as a framework

__________ 10. covers all the surfaces of the body

Completion: In the space provided, write the word or words that correctly complete
each statement.

   1.     Anatomists divide the body with three imaginary planes called the
          ___________________, the _________________, and the
          __________________ planes.

   2.     The _________________ divides the body into left and right parts by an
          imaginary line running vertically down the body.

   3.     The _________________ is an imaginary line that divides the body into
          the anterior (front) or ventral half of the body and the posterior (back) or
          dorsal half of the body.

                                Randy Fillion NCTMB                                   8
                             Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists


Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. What is the compound that stores energy in the muscles? (When this is broken
             down during catabolic reactions, it releases energy.)
             a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
             b. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
             c. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
             d. Matrix
____    2.   What is the chemical process in the body that joins simple compounds to form more
             complex compounds of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids? (The
             process requires energy supplied from adenosine triphosphate.)
             a. Catabolism
             b. Metabolism
             c. Anabolism
             d. Meiosis
____    3.   What is the study of the structures of the body and the relationship of its parts?
             a. Physiology
             b. Pathology
             c. Kinesiology
             d. Anatomy
____    4.   A decrease in the size of a body part or organ caused by a decrease in the size of the
             cells is called which of the following?
             a. Hypertrophy
             b. Trophy
             c. Atrophy
             d. Hypotrophy
____    5.   Sugars, starches, and cellulose composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are
             called which of the following?
             a. Proteins
             b. Carbohydrates
             c. Lipids
             d. Amino acids
____    6.   The basic structural unit of a living organism that contains a nucleus and cytoplasm
             and is surrounded by a membrane is which of the following?
             a. Cell
             b. Atom
             c. Molecule
             d. Organelle

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                          Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

____   7. Which is the most abundant type of tissue in the body? (It supports and holds
            together the body and its parts, protects the body from foreign matter, and is
            organized to transport substances throughout the body.)
            a. Connective tissue
            b. Epithelial tissue
            c. Muscle tissue
            d. Nervous tissue
____   8.   What is the genetic material of the cell that carries the chemical “blueprint” of the
            a. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
            b. Nucleolus
            c. Dytetrahedron
            d. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
____   9.   What is the relatively constant state of the internal environment of the body that is
            maintained by adaptive responses? (Specific control and feedback mechanisms are
            responsible for adjusting body systems to maintain this state.)
            a. Negative feedback
            b. Homeostasis
            c. Positive feedback
            d. Control
____ 10.    What are the chemical processes in the body that convert food and oxygen into
            energy to support growth, distribution of nutrients, and elimination of waste?
            a. Metabolism
            b. Catabolism
            c. Anabolism
            d. Hybolism
____ 11.    What is the term for diffusion of water from a region of lower concentration of
            solution to a region of higher concentration of solution across the semipermeable
            membrane of a cell?
            a. Edema
            b. Hypertrophy
            c. Osmosis
            d. Metabolism
____ 12.    What is transportation of a substance across the cell membrane without the use of
            energy called?
            a. Osmosis
            b. Active transport
            c. Diffusion
            d. Passive transport
____ 13.    A group of similar cells combined to perform a common function is known as which
            of the following?
            a. Organ
            b. System
            c. Organism
            d. Tissue

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                          Physiology for Massage Therapists & Myomassologists

____ 14. What is the most abundant type of tissue in the body?
         a. Smooth muscle
         b. Reticular
         c. Connective
         d. Epithelial
____ 15. During massage application, while kneading the tissue, the massage practitioner
           notices that the pliability increases. The client is pleased with the increase in
           flexibility. Which of the following best describes this benefit?
           a. The piezoelectric property of nervous tissue
           b. The interrelationship of prana with Qi
           c. The thixotropic nature of ground substance
           d. The activation of mast cells
____ 16.   What does physiology explain?
           a. Functions of the body that support life
           b. Wholeness of the structure of the body
           c. Map of the body
           d. Sets of opposites
____ 17.   What is the level of body organization that defines metabolism?
           a. Specialization level
           b. Organelle level
           c. Chemical level
           d. Activity level
____ 18.   To what does the matrix of connective tissue refer?
           a. Alignment of the cells
           b. Basement membrane
           c. Shapeless ground substance
           d. Living reticular fibers
____ 19.   Blood and bone are both types of what?
           a. Adipose tissues
           b. Connective tissues
           c. Cartilage
           d. Membranes
____ 20.   What ability is the main characteristic of muscle tissue?
           a. Coordinate and regulate body activity
           b. Perform more complex body functions
           c. Function in the body without any attachment to connective tissue
           d. Provide movement by shortening

                                            Randy Fillion NCTMB                                11

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