Chapter Four Section One Movement of Materials Cardiovascular System: It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood. Your cardiovascular system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells. Needed Materials: Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to your body’s cells. Blood also transports the glucose your cells use to produce energy. Waste Products: Waste is picked up by the blood. Carbon dioxide is also removed from cells to the lungs to be exhaled. Disease Fighters: Disease fighting microorganisms are carried through the blood to help you from becoming sick. The Heart: It is a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. Each time the heart beats, it pushes blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system. During your lifetime, your heart may beat over 3 billion times. The Heart’s Structure The heart has a right side and a left side. The upper chambers, each is called an atrium, receives blood that comes into the heart. The lower chambers are called ventricles. They will pump blood out of the heart. Valve: How the Heart Works In one phase, the heart muscle relaxes and the heart fills with blood. Then the atria contract. In the other phase, the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood forward. Regulation on Heartbeat Pacemaker: Two Loops Your body has three kinds of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins. Arteries: Capillaries: Veins: Blood travels from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen. The blood travels back to the heart, where it is then pumped out throughout the body. Your blood travels in only one direction. Loop One: to the Lungs and Back When the blood goes from the heart to the lungs, it contains very little oxygen. It does contain a lot of carbon dioxide. Oxygen will move from the lungs into the blood. The blood is bright red at this point. The blood will travel from the lungs to the left side of the heart. Loop Two: to the Body and Back This loop begins with the left atrium. The blood then moves to the left ventricle. It is then pumped into the aorta. Aorta: Blood is then pumped out to the body. The blood flows back to the right atrium on the heart through the veins in your body. The Force of the Ventricles Force: The contraction of the left ventricle exerts much more force than the contraction of the right ventricle. That is because it must pump blood throughout the body. Chapter Four Section Two Arteries: When blood leaves the heart, it travels through arteries. Coronary Arteries: Three layers of the artery wall 1. 2. 3. Pulse: The pulse you feel is caused by the alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery wall. Regulating Blood Flow: The muscles in the middle wall act as control gates, adjusting the amount of blood sent to different organs. Capillaries: In the capillaries, materials are exchanged between the blood and the body’s cells. Capillaries have thin walls. Oxygen and glucose pass from the blood into the capillaries. Cellular waste products travel in the opposite direction- from cells, through the capillary walls, and into the blood. Diffusion: Veins: They carry blood back to the heart. By the time that blood flows into the veins, the pushing force has less of an effect than it did in the arteries. Factors that help move blood through the veins: 1. The muscles in the veins contract. 2. Many veins are located near skeletal muscles. The contraction of the muscles helps push the blood along. Blood Pressure: Pressure: What Causes Blood Pressure? Blood exerts a pressure against the walls of the blood vessels. As the blood moves away from the heart, pressure decreases. Blood flowing through the arteries exerts the highest pressure. Blood pressure is lowest in the veins. Measuring Blood Pressure Sphygmomanometer: Chapter Four Section Three Four Components of Blood 1. 2. 3. 4. Plasma is 90% water. Plasma carries glucose, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Protein molecules give plasma its yellow color. Three groups of plasma proteins 1. 2. 3. Red Blood Cells: Hemoglobin: Red blood cells live about 120 days. White Blood Cells: Facts about white blood cells versus red blood cells: 1. There are fewer white blood cells than red blood cells. 2. White blood cells are bigger than red blood cells. 3. White blood cells have a nucleus. 4. Most white blood cells live for months or even years. Platelets: Fibrin: Blood Types: A, B, AB, and O Blood Transfusion: Marker Molecules: Safe Transfusions: The marker molecules on your red blood cells determine your blood type and the type of blood that you can safely receive in transfusions. The Lymphatic System: Lymph: Lymph Nodes: Chapter Four Section Four Cardiovascular Disease Atherosclerosis: Cholesterol: Heart Attack: It occurs when blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked. Cells die in the part of the heart that do not receive blood. This permanently damages the heart. Hypertension: Hypertension makes the heart work harder. It also may damage the walls of the blood vessels. Ways to lower blood pressure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keeping Your Cardiovascular System Healthy 1. 2. 3. Chapter Four Section One 1. What is the cardiovascular system? 2. What is the function of the cardiovascular system? 3. How do the needed materials get from one place to another in the body? 4. What are the waste products? 5. What are the disease fighters? 6. What is the heart? 7. How does the heart work? 8. What is the atrium (pl. atria)? 9. What are the ventricles? 10. What is a valve? 11. How does the heart work? 12. How does the heart regulate the heartbeat? 13. Where is the pacemaker located? 14. What are the arteries? 15. What are capillaries? 16. What are the veins? 17. What happens in the first loop? 18. What occurs in the second loop? 19. What is the aorta? 20. Why does the heart pump with more force on the left side of the heart versus the right? Chapter Four Section Two 1. How does the blood leave the heart? 2. What are the coronary arteries? 3. Describe the structure of the arteries. 4. What is a pulse? 5. How is the blood flow regulated through the arteries? 6. What occurs in the capillaries? 7. How big are the capillaries? 8. What is diffusion? Give an example. 9. What is the function of the veins? 10. Describe the structure of the veins. 11. What prevents the blood from flowing backward in the veins? 12. What is pressure? 13. What is blood pressure? 14. What causes blood pressure? 15. What is a sphygmomanometer? 16. What does the top number on the blood pressure stand for? Bottom number? Chapter Four Section Three 1. What are the four components of blood? 2. What is plasma? 3. What do the different groups of plasma proteins do? 4. What are the red blood cells? Function? 5. How long do red blood cells live? 6. Where are the red blood cells made? 7. What is hemoglobin? 8. What happens to a person that has a low hemoglobin level? 9. What are the white blood cells? Function? 10. How long do the white blood cells live? 11. What are platelets? 12. What is fibrin? 13. How does your body form clots when you get a cut? 14. What are the different blood types? 15. What is a blood transfusion? 16. What are marker molecules? 17. What would happen if you received the blood that was not safe for you to receive? 18. How are safe transfusions determined? 19. What is the lymphatic system? 20. How does the lymphatic system work? 21. What is lymph? 22. What are lymph nodes? Chapter Four Section Four 1. What is cardiovascular disease? 2. What is atherosclerosis? 3. What is cholesterol? 4. What is a heart attack? 5. What is hypertension? 6. What is the suggested treatment for hypertension? Mild hypertension? 7. How can you keep your cardiovascular system healthy? Name: Period: Chapter Four Assignment Sheet Assignment Points Possible Due Date 1. Heart Project 2.W.S. 4-2 Blood Vessels 3. W.S. 4-2 Blood and Lymph 4. W.S. 4-4 Cardiovascular Health 5. Circulatory Video 6. Ch. 4 Review 7. Review w.s. for sections 1 and 2 Review Guide: 1. Describe the function of the cardiovascular system. 2. Describe the structure of the heart and explain its function. 3. Trace the path taken by blood through the circulatory system. 4. Describe the functions of the arteries, capillaries, and veins. 5. Identify the cause of blood pressure. 6. Name and describe the four components of blood. 7. Explain blood type and how it determines what blood a person can receive in a transfusion. 8. Describe the lymphatic system. 9. Describe behaviors that maintain cardiovascular health. 10.List and describe types of cardiovascular disease. Vocabulary: Cardiovascular system, heart, atrium, valve, ventricle, pacemaker, arteries, capillaries, veins, aorta, coronary arteries, diffusion, pressure, blood pressure, sphygmomanometer, plasma, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, fibrin, blood transfusion, lymphatic system, lymph, lymph nodes, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, heart attack, and hypertension. Daily Review Questions 1. What is the function of the atrium? 2. What does the pacemaker do? 3. Compare/contrast the three blood vessels. 4. What do the two numbers of the blood pressure mean? 5. What occurs in the capillaries? 6. What is blood pressure? 7. What is the function of the platelets? 8. What happens if you do not have enough hemoglobin as part of your red blood cells? 9. What is lymph? 10. If your blood type is A, what blood can you safely receive? Why? 11. Why is atherosclerosis a lifestyle disease? 12. How can hypertension be a problem? 13. What blood can you receive if your blood type is AB? 14. What is the function of the hemoglobin?