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Circulatory Cardiovascular

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					                      Circulatory/Cardiovascular
                                 Unit

Think of your body as a city with an unusual shape. Then imagine your
veins and arteries as a complex subway crisscrossing that city. Each second,
bits of oxygen and nutrients are carried to and from the heart of the city like
tiny commuters.

That’s how oxygen gets to your brain to help keep you working your best.

That’s how food gets to your broken toe to help heal the tissue.

Sound interesting? Keep Reading!



          We are like a city
          and very complex…I
          need to learn more
          about this body!
                                  KWL Technique
This technique will help you to be actively involved in your learning. You may list
vocabulary words, draw diagrams, write reactions, it is up to you to decide how you
put the information down.

            K                            W                              L
          KNOW                    Want to Learn                      Learned
List what you already       List what you want to          After completing the unit
know about this area.       learn about this area. (Hint   list what you have learned
                            review the Unit Objectives)    about the area.
                                      Unit Objectives

1. Identify functions of the circulatory system.

2. Identify the structure of the circulatory system.

3. List signs and symptoms of common diseases and disorders of the heart and circulatory

system.

4. Describe measures for preventing diseases of the heart ad circulatory system.

5. Describe methods of treatment for common diseases of the heart and circulatory

system disease.

6. Say, spell and define medical terms related to the cardiovascular/ circulatory system.

7. Demonstrate basic competencies in science.
                                        Unit Directions
Directions
1. Read all of the directions for the unit first.
2. Read the assigned readings and use the techniques of “power notes” and the “think-
pair-share” to understand the readings. Place notes in notebook.
3. Take notes on all lectures/discussions and place in your notebook.
4. View demonstration of clinical skills and practice them before clinical testing starts if
appropriate for the unit.
5. Use your time wisely… stay on task. On-task is a skill we practice at all times in
this course.

Readings
Read Chapters 18,19, 20, 21, and 22 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition.


Complete Unit Vocabulary
Be sure you understand the terms you are defining.

Take Notes on Chapters, Lectures and films.
Complete your notes (outline, review questions, power- notes or mapping, etc) after
reading the selected sections of the book.
Take notes on all lectures and place in this section.
Take notes on all films and place in this section.


Answer the clinical questions.
Apply your basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology to a clinical scenario. This will
help improve your critical thinking and analytical ability. It will also help you to feel
more comfortable in the clinical setting when you take the 2-hour block of Health
Science II and III.

Extra Credit
Complete the medical update for extra credit.

Complete the Unit Test Review and keep for the test. DO NOT TURN IT IN WITH
THE UNIT.
                                Unit Vocabulary
Learn how to say and spell these terms. Then define them in terms of a working
definition that you understand and can use in the clinical area.

Anticoagulant -



Arrythmia -



Blood Pressure



Bradycardia -



Cardiac Arrest –



Clotting Time -



Coagulation -



Edema -



Embolism -



Fibrin -



Fibrinogen -
Hematocrit -



Hemoglobin -



Hemophilia -



Hemorrhage -



Inflammation -



Macrophage -



Murmur -



Pace Maker -



Phagocytosis -



Phlebitis -



Prothrombin Time -



Pulse –
Pus –



Sedimentation Rate -



Tachycardia -



Thrombosis -



Universal Donor –



Universal Recipient -
                               Chapter Notes and Questions
While reading and reviewing the assigned chapters(s) take notes of major concepts and
details that will help you to understand the content.
Read Chapter 18 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition.
Read Chapter 19 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition.
Read Chapter 20 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition.
Read Chapter 21 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition
Read Chapter 22 in Human Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition.
                                   Film Notes
Take a few notes concerning the major concepts in each film.
Film Name                   Notes
Diseases of the Blood-
Issues and Answers




Heapatitis C Unknown
Epidemic
Clinical Questions
Answer the following clinical questions using your knowledge of basic anatomy and
physiology obtained in this unit.

                                      Case Study 1
Cancer patients being treated with chemotherapeutic drugs to destroy rapidly dividing
cells are monitored closely for changes in their red and white blood counts.
Explain why this is true.




                                      Case Study 2
Mary Healy, a young woman with severe vaginal bleeding is admitted to the emergency
room. She is three months pregnant and the physician is concerned about the volume of
blood she is losing.
What type of transfusion will probably be given to this patient?




What blood tests will be performed before starting the transfusion?




                                       Case Study 3
A middle-aged college professor from Boston is in the Swiss Alps studying astronomy
during his sabbatical leave. He has been there for two days and plans to stay the entire
year. However, he notices that he is short of breath when he walks up steps and tires
easily with any physical activity. His symptoms gradually disappear, and after two
months he feels fine. Upon returning to the United States, he has a complete physical
exam and is told that his erythrocyte count is higher than normal.
Attempt to explain this finding.



Will his RBC count remain at this higher-than-normal level?




Why or why not?
                                     Case Study 4
A young child is diagnosed as having acute lymphocytic leukemia. Her parents cannot
understand why infection is a major problem for Janie when her WBC count is so high.
Can you provide an explanation to Janie’s parents?




                                        Case Study 5
Mrs. Ryan, a middle-aged woman, appears at the clinic complaining of multiple small
hemorrhaged spots in her skin and severe nosebleeds. While taking her history, the nurse
notes that Mrs. Ryan is taking Apronal (a sleeping medication) because she has problems
getting to sleep at night. This drug is known to be toxic to red marrow.
Using your knowledge of physiology, explain the connection between the bleeding
problems and the taking of Apronal.




                                      Case Study 6
A reticulocyte count indicated that 5% of Tyler’s red blood cells were reticulocytes. His
blood test also indicated he had polycythemia and a hematocrit of 65%.
Explain the connection between these three facts.




                                      Case Study 7
A gang member was stabbed in the chest during a crack-related street fight. He was
cyanotic and unconscious from lack of blood delivery to the brain. The diagnosis was
cardiac tamponade.
What is cardiac tamponade and how does it cause the observed symptoms?




                                       Case Study 8
You have been called upon to demonstrate the technique for listening to valve sounds.
Explain where you would position your stethoscope to auscultate
(1) The aortic valve of a patient with severe aortic semilunar valve incompetence


(2) A stenosed mitral valve


During which period(s) would you hear these abnormal valve sounds most clearly?
(During atrial diastole, ventricular systole, ventrivular diastole, or atrial systole)




 What cues would you use to differentiate between an incompetent and a stenosed valve?




                                       Case Study 9
Florida Santos, a middle-aged woman, is admitted to the coronary care unit with a
diagnosis of left ventricular failure resulting from a myocardial infarction. Her history
indicated the she was aroused in the middle of the night by severe chest pain. Her skin is
pale and cold, and moist sounds are heard over the lower regions of both lungs.
Explain how the failure of the left ventricle can cause these signs and symptoms.




                                       Case Study 10
Heather, a newborn baby, needs surgery because she was born with an aorta that arises
from the right ventricle and a pulmonary trunk that issues from the left ventricle, a
condition called transposition of the great vessels.
What are the physiological consequences of this defect?




                                         Case Study 11
Gabriel, a heroin addict, feels tired, is weak and feverish, and has vague aches and pains.
Terrified that he has AIDS, he goes to a doctor and is informed that he is suffering not
from AIDS, but from a heart murmur accompanied by endocarditis.
What is the most likely way that Gabriel contracted endocarditis?




                                      Case Study 12
As Cara worked at her dissection, she became frustrated that several of the structures she
had to lean about had more than one common name.
Write the second name for each of these structures:
(a) Atrioventricular groove

(b) Tricuspid valve

(c) Bicuspid valve (give two synonyms)

(d) Atrioventricular bundle

                                     Case Study 13
Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room after being involved in an auto accident.
She is hemorrhaging and has a rapid, thready pulse, but her blood pressure is still within
normal limits.
Describe the compensatory mechanisms that are acting to maintain her blood pressure in
the face of blood loss.




                                         Case Study 14
A 60-year-old man is unable to walk more than 100 yards without experiencing severe
pain in his left leg; the pain is relived by resting for 5-10 minutes. He is told that the
arteries of his leg are becoming occluded with fatty material and is advised to have the
sympathetic nerves serving that body region severed.
Explain how such surgery might help to relieve this man’s problem




.
                                      Case Study 15
Your friend, who knows little about science, is reading a magazine article about a patient
who had an “aneurysm at the base of his brain that suddenly grew much larger.” The
surgeon’s first goal was to “keep is from rupturing,” and the second goal was to “relieve
the pressure on the brain stem and cranial nerves.” The surgeons were able to “replace
the aneurysm with a section of plastic tubing,” so the patient recovered. Your friend asks
you what all this means.
 Explain. (Hint: Check this chapter’s Related Clinical Terms.)




                                        Case Study 16
Mrs. Jackson, a 59-year-old woman, has undergone a left radical masectomy (removal of
the left breast and left axillary lymph nodes and vessels). Her left arm is severely
swollen and painful, and she is unable to raise it more tan shoulder height.
Explain her signs and symptoms.




Can she expect to have relief from these symptoms in time?




How so?




                                     Case Study 17
A friend tells you that she has tender, swollen “glands” along the left side of the front of
her neck. You notice that she has a bandage on her left cheek that is not fully hiding a
large infected cut there.
Exactly what are her swollen “glands,” and how did they become swollen?




                                      Case Study 18
Jenny, a six-year old child who has been raised in a germ-free environment from birth, is
a victim of one of the most severe examples of an abnormal immune system. Jenny also
suffers from cancer caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Relative to this case:
What is the usual fate of children with Jenny’s condition and similar circumstances is no
treatment is attempted?




Why is Jenny’s brother chosen as the bone marrow donor?




Why is her physician planning to use umbilical blood as a source of stem cells for a bone
marrow transplant if transplant of her brother’s marrow fails (what are the hoped-for
results)?




Attempt to explain Jenny’s cancer.




What similarities and dissimilarities exist between Jenny’s illness and AIDS?

                                    Case Study 19
Some people with a deficit of IgA exhibit recurrent respiratory tract infections.
Explain these symptoms.




                                   Case Study 20
Explain the underlying mechanisms responsible for the cardinal signs of acute
inflammation:
Heat



Pain



Redness



Swelling
                            Medical Update for Extra Credit

Select a medical article concerning some aspect of this unit of study to analysis. The
article must have been written within the last year. Use only true medical articles written
by licensed medical personnel concerning new research. DO NOT USE newspapers or
lay magazines.


1. Attach article to this sheet. (Be sure it shows date of publication and who wrote it).

2. Give a brief summary of this article.
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3. Explain why this article is important in the medical field.
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4. In your opinion was this good research or not. Support your opinion with facts.
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