Chapter 8 Economic Systems

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					Chapter 8: Economic Systems

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. A(n) ____ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.
             a. economic
             b. political
             c. religious
             d. kinship
             e. industrial
____ 2. When a man works hard in his garden in the Trobriand Islands to produce yams, he does this to satisfy which
             of the following demands?
             a. to have food for his household to eat
             b. to gain prestige by giving yams away to his sister's husbands
             c. to prove to his wife that he can work as hard as she can
             d. to give the yams to his wife so that she can trade them for goods that they don't produce
             e. to trade for fish
____ 3. The productive resources used by all societies to produce goods and services include ____.
             a. raw materials
             b. labor
             c. technology
             d. labor unions
             e. all but d
____ 4. Kenya's first president was ____.
             a. Franz Boas
             b. Jomo Kenyatta
             c. Idi Amin
             d. Bashira Fox
             e. George Washington
____ 5. Which of the following situations represents a flexible/integrated pattern of gender division of labor?
             a. A pastoral nomadic camp in which the men spend most of the time with the herds, and
                  women remain in camp and make butter and clothing.
             b. An intensive agricultural society in which the men are out plowing the fields from dawn
                  until dusk while the women are making bread, gathering eggs, making baskets, and other
                  household work.
             c. An industrial society in which a factory worker leaves for work at 7 a.m. and returns home
                  at 5:30 p.m., while his wife takes care of the children at home.
             d. All of the above.
             e. None of the above.
____ 6. Which of the following situations involving gender division of labor are likely to produce a sense of equality
             among males and females?
             a. Societies in which both males and females do each others' work without embarrassment.
             b. Societies in which males and females have their own separate jobs, and certain jobs are
                  considered superior to others.
             c. Societies in which males and females have their own separate jobs, but the jobs are
                  considered complementary and equally important.
             d. a and c only.
             e. None of the above.
____    7. Among the Ju/'hoansi, children are not expected to contribute much to subsistence until ____.
           a. they are married
           b. they are 10
           c. they are 30
           d. their early 40s
           e. their late teens
____    8. Among the Ju/'hoansi, ____.
           a. children are expected to contribute to subsistence from the time they are 7 or 8
           b. elderly people past the age of 60 are expected to contribute hunted or gathered food to the
           c. elderly people are a valuable source of knowledge and wisdom about hunting and
           d. elderly people are taken care of grudgingly because after the age of 60 they contribute
               nothing to the group
           e. children are expected to set up their own separate households by the time they are 12
____    9. Cooperative work groups are found ____.
           a. in all societies
           b. only in nonliterate, nonindustrial societies
           c. only in households
           d. only in kinship groups
           e. only in pastoralist societies
____   10. In most societies, cooperation takes place in the basic unit of the ____, where both production and
           consumption occur.
           a. household
           b. men's club
           c. factory
           d. church
           e. local hotel
____   11. In many nonindustrial societies, ____.
           a. people prefer to have fun rather than work
           b. cooperative work is usually done with a festive, sociable air
           c. cooperative work is always done in the household
           d. cooperative work groups are organized primarily for profit
           e. solitary work is preferred to cooperative work
____   12. A typical Ju/'hoansi band requires about ____ square miles of land.
           a. 10
           b. 75
           c. 250
           d. 500
           e. 800
____   13. Among food foragers such as the Ju/'hoansi, ____.
           a. land is defined as a territory with usable resources and flexible boundaries that belongs to
               a band that has occupied it for a long time
           b. land is thought of as belonging to those who have bought it
           c. land is considered private property, and access to the land can be denied
           d. land has clear-cut boundaries marked by survey posts
           e. land is controlled by a corporation of strangers
____ 14. The Afar people of Ethiopia specialize in ____.
         a. mining gold
         b. mining salt
         c. mining coal
         d. extracting minerals from sea water
         e. sculpting quartz
____ 15. Tools tend to be fewer and simpler among ____.
         a. mobile food foragers and pastoralists
         b. semi-permanent horticulturalists
         c. sedentary agriculturalists
         d. wealthy industrialists
         e. rice farmers
____ 16. The following statements about land are made by persons who belong to food foraging, horticultural,
         pastoralist, intensive agriculturalist, and industrial societies. Which statement is most likely to be made by
         horticulturalists from a feudal system of land ownership in West Africa?
         a. "The land of my people is the land around Spirit Lake where my ancestors emerged and
             where we hold annual ceremonies."
         b. "I gave the land to my brother's son, who distributed it among his sons, for which they pay
             me ten days work a year. When the eldest son died, I gave his land to my cousin, who
             needs more land for his growing family."
         c. "I paid ten grand for that parcel of land in the desert, and expect it to double in value in the
             next five years."
         d. "In the summer we go to our land in the mountains, and in the winter we pass through the
             land corridor to the east, using the water holes and meadows for grass until we reach the
             summer pastures."
         e. "I inherited five acres of land from my mother, and rights to use the water from the river
             on three days a week."
____ 17. When a tool is complex and difficult to make, it is usually considered to be owned by ____.
         a. the whole village in which it is used
         b. a single individual
         c. the state
         d. all those who touch it
         e. all relatives
____ 18. Among horticulturalists, ____.
         a. the ax, machete and digging stick are very difficult to make and have to be made by
         b. tools are considered to be the sole property of individuals
         c. the mobility required by their technology reduces the number of tools to a bare minimum
         d. tools are considered to be owned equally by everyone
         e. none of the above

____ 19. Obligations by wealthier members of the community to give to less wealthy members so that no one
         accumulates more wealth than anyone else, is called ____.
         a. conspicuous consumption
         b. generalized reciprocity
         c. a leveling mechanism
         d. silent trade
         e. negative reciprocity
____ 20. "Greater wealth brings greater obligation to give." Such an obligation may be referred to as ____.
         a. reciprocity
         b. redistribution
         c. silent trade
         d. a leveling mechanism
         e. conspicuous consumption
____ 21. Leveling mechanisms ____.
         a. are more common in hunter-gatherer societies than in agricultural communities
         b. result in one family becoming more wealthy than others
         c. are found in communities where property must not be allowed to threaten an egalitarian
              social order
         d. are more common in industrial societies than in agricultural societies
         e. no longer exist
____ 22. Reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange are three modes of ____ goods.
         a. producing
         b. planting
         c. harvesting
         d. consuming
         e. distributing
____ 23. The mode of distribution called reciprocity refers to the exchange of goods and services ____.
         a. of unequal value
         b. between persons in hierarchical relationships
         c. for the purpose of maintaining social relationships and gaining prestige
         d. to make a profit
         e. to embarrass the person who gave the least
____ 24. When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what is expected in
         return, he is exemplifying ____.
         a. generalized reciprocity
         b. negative reciprocity
         c. redistribution
         d. potlatch
         e. market exchange
____ 25. A Navaho gives ten of his sheep that he knows are infected with disease to a Hopi in exchange for a jeep. This
         is an example of ____.
         a. generalized reciprocity
         b. balanced reciprocity
         c. negative reciprocity
         d. silent trade
         e. redistribution
____ 26. Balanced reciprocity ____.
         a. is part of a long-term process in which nothing is specified about what is expected in
              return or when it is expected
         b. involves the expectation of a specific and immediate exchange
         c. usually occurs between members of different communities who may have a hostile,
              distrustful relationship
         d. is exemplified by your stopping to give a stranger a lift, and replying, when he thanks you,
              "Pass it on to the next stranger you meet who needs your help"
         e. does not occur in industrial societies
____ 27. The Kula Ring ____.
         a. is a marriage ring made of shells
         b. is found among the Ju/'hoansi
         c. is found among the Andaman Islanders
         d. is a circular trade route along which various goods flow
         e. is a form of silent trade
____ 28. The Kula Ring functions to ____.
         a. distribute scarce resources over a broad ecological zone
         b. establish allies among potential enemies
         c. gain power through the ability to give and receive highly valued prestige items
         d. accumulate wealth in the hands of an upper class elite
         e. all but d
____ 29. The system by which goods flow into some central source, and then out again to the community is called
         a. a Kula Ring
         b. redistribution
         c. a cargo system
         d. reciprocity
         e. market exchange
____ 30. The U.S. system of paying income taxes every April is an example of ____.
         a. generalized reciprocity
         b. balanced reciprocity
         c. negative reciprocity
         d. redistribution
         e. market exchange
____ 31. For redistribution to be possible, a society must have ____.
         a. a cultural emphasis on generosity
         b. an egalitarian social order
         c. a centralized system of political organization
         d. slavery
         e. industrialization and urbanization
____ 32. The Kula ring is a form of ____ that reinforces trade relations among a group of seafaring Melanesians
         inhabiting a ring of islands off the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea.
         a. negative reciprocity
         b. balanced reciprocity
         c. market exchange
         d. silent trade
         e. generalized reciprocity

____ 33. The display of wealth for social prestige is called ____.
         a. A leveling mechanism
         b. conspicuous consumption
         c. redistribution
         d. balanced reciprocity
         e. Barter
____ 34. From an economist's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by ____.
         a. the purchase of goods in a marketplace
         b. the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and
         c. the role of middlemen who bring buyers and sellers together
         d. face-to-face bargaining for goods and services
         e. the role of multi-national corporations
____ 35. Market exchange is usually associated with ____.
         a. hunting and gathering bands
         b. horticultural tribes
         c. pastoral tribes
         d. some sort of complex division of labor as well as a centralized political organization
         e. the household as the unit of production and consumption
____ 36. A network of producing and circulating marketable commodities, labor, and services that escape government
         control is called ____.
         a. black market
         b. flea market
         c. parallel market
         d. formal market
         e. informal market
____ 37. Which of the following is not a reason why recruiters from multinational corporations might try to recruit
         a. Big businesses are becoming increasingly dependent on the raw materials and labor of
             "Third World countries," which are typically studied by anthropologists.
         b. Because anthropologists are intimately involved in the lives of the people they study, they
             can be recruited by the American government to spy on local insurgents and trouble-
             makers for big business.
         c. Anthropologists can provide important information about the everyday etiquette expected
             in arranging business deals.
         d. Anthropologists know the language of the people they study, and can provide translation
             and interpretation.
         e. None of the above is a reason.

____ 38. Which of the following is not a chemical found in chocolate?
         a. anandamide
         b. anandamidelike chemical compounds
         c. phenylethylamine
         d. trytophan
         e. Formaldehyde

____ 39. Cacao is better known as ____.
         a. coconuts
         b. candle wax
         c. chocolate
         d. almond paste
         e. Carob
____ 40. ____ first described the Kula Ring, he observed it during ethnographic research among the Trobriand
         islanders between 1915-1918.
         a. Franz Boas
         b. Gordon Childe
         c. Bronislaw Malinowski
         d. Margaret Mead
         e. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown
____ 41. Harvard-trained anthropologist ____ uses anthropological tools to research and analyze corporate "cultures"
         toward helping them solve problems and improve performance.
         a. Karen Stephenson
         b. Karen Harry
         c. Barbara Roth
         d. Jennifer Thompson
         e. Steve Barnett
____ 42. The fundamental characteristic of the market in non-Western societies is that ____.
         a. it is located in a rural area close to where produce is grown
         b. it is found only in towns where produce is carted in
         c. it is an abstract concept, where goods are exchanged over the internet
         d. it is a literal marketplace, where actual goods are exchanged
         e. there is no concrete marketplace where actual goods are exchanged
____ 43. Among the ____, men work in the fields to produce foods for the household; women prepare the food and
         take care of other chores that can be performed in or near the house.
         a. Maya
         b. Apache
         c. Ju/'hoansi
         d. Nuer
         e. Bakhtiari
____ 44. Among the ____, children are not expected to contribute significantly to subsistence until they reach their late
         a. Hadza
         b. Maya
         c. Ju/'hoansi
         d. Irish
         e. Nuer
____ 45. When Spanish invaded Mexico and Guatemala, they adopted the local practice of using ____ as money.
         a. coins
         b. gold
         c. feathers
         d. chocolate
         e. Salt

____ 46. With which international corporation did Karen Stephenson work as a visiting anthropologist for ten years?
         a. General Motors
         b. McDonald's
         c. Dell
         d. Coca Cola
         e. IBM
____ 47. In North American society the trading of baseball cards and the buying of drinks when one's turn comes at
         gatherings are examples of what type of reciprocity?
         a. generalized
         b. negative
         c. balanced
         d. derisive
         e. neither are examples of any type of reciprocity
____ 48. In North American society, the stereotypic car salesman would practice what type of reciprocal exchange?
         a. balanced
         b. negative
         c. general
         d. ambiguous
         e. deceptive
____ 49. The administration of the ____ was one of the most efficient the world has ever known, both in the collection
         of taxes and methods of control.
         a. Inca empire in Peru
         b. Aztec empire in Mexico
         c. Persian empire in Mesopotamia
         d. Mongol empire in Asia and Asia Minor
         e. Ottoman empire in the Near East
____ 50. Something used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value is called
         a. contracts
         b. IOUs
         c. credit
         d. barter
         e. money