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Pathological

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					Pathological
                    Adhesion
 An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that binds 2 parts
  of your tissue together. They should remain separate.
  Adhesions may appear as thin sheets of tissue similar
  to plastic wrap or as thick fibrous bands.

 The tissue develops when the body's repair
  mechanisms respond to any tissue disturbance, such
  as surgery, infection, trauma, or radiation. Although
  adhesions can occur anywhere, the most common
  locations are within the stomach, the pelvis, and the
  heart.
            Inflammation
 Inflammation is a process by which the body’s
 white blood cells and chemicals protect us from
 infection and foreign substances such as bacteria
 and viruses.
                        Sepsis
 The body may develop this inflammatory response to
  microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other
  tissues. An incorrect layman's term for sepsis is blood
  poisoning.

 Sepsis is usually treated in the intensive care unit with
  intravenous fluids and antibiotics.
Diagnostic
             Endoscopy
Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to
looking inside the body for medical reasons.
Endoscope
                Fluoroscopy
 Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous x-ray
  image on a monitor, much like an x-ray movie. It is used to diagnose or
  treat patients by displaying the movement of a body part or of an
  instrument or dye (contrast agent) through the body.
 During a fluoroscopy procedure, an x-ray beam is passed through the
  body. The image is transmitted to a monitor so that the body part and
  its motion can be seen in detail.
Uses: Fluoroscopy is used in many types of examinations and
       procedures. Some examples include
 Barium x-rays and enemas (to view movement through the GI tract)
 Catheter insertion (to direct the placement of a catheter during
  angioplasty or angiography)
 Blood flow studies (to visualize blood flow to organs)
 Orthopedic surgery (to view fractures and fracture treatments)
General Fluoroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Imagining
 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance
  imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly
  used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function
  of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft
  tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially
  useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and
  oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but
  uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually)
  hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to
  systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen
  nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This
  signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough
  information to construct an image of the body.
 Magnetic resonance imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image
  was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was
  published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were
  published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in
  1895.
The MRI system goes through the patient's body point by point,

building up a 2-D or 3-D map of tissue types to create images   .
MRI scans can be used to help surgeons accurately locate
structures within a patient's brain, in addition to tumors.
               Nuclear Scan
A radiotracer is injected into a peripheral vein. As the
radiotracer decays, gamma radiation is emitted and is
detected by a Gamma camera. When the tracer has
collected in the target organ the area is scanned.
Radionuclide scans can detect abnormalities such as
fractures, bone infections, arthritis, rickets, and
tumors that have spread, among other diseases.
Nuclear Scan
                         Radiography
 An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose
  and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the
  body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the
  body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.
 A bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm,
  foot, ankle, knee, leg or spine.
What are some common uses of the procedure?
 A bone x-ray is used to:
    diagnose broken bones or joint dislocation.
    demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony fragments following
      treatment of a fracture.
    guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and
      fracture reductions.
    look for injury, infection, arthritis, abnormal bone growths, bony changes seen
      in metabolic conditions.
    assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer.
    Locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones.
Steel Balls An X-ray shows steel balls and magnets inside of 8-year-old Haley Lents, after the Huntingburg, Ind. child swallowed the pieces from a magnetic toy set on May 8, 2008.
           Radiopharmaceutical
 Inventing ways to see inside bodies without cutting into them is one of
  the medical community's shining successes. Radioactive isotopes that
  can be injected safely into patients' bloodstreams and tissues get a lot
  of credit for that success. These so-called radiopharmaceuticals work
  like transient spies sending diagnostic signals from inside the body to
  external detectors and computers, which construct images of internal
  body structures from those signals. Like good spies too, the isotopes
  quickly disappear once their job is done, either by transforming into
  non-radioactive products or by passing out of the body.

 Radio pharmacology is the study and preparation of
  radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals.
  Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as
  tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases
    Oncology radipharmaceuticals – used in cancer treatments of lung,
     ovarian, uterine, and prostate cancer
                       Scan
 Technique for carefully studying an area, organ, or
 system by recording and displaying an image of an
 area.
   X-rays
   CT scan
   MRI
Positron Emission Tomography
 Positron emission tomography (PET) is a test that uses a
  special type of camera and a tracer(radioactive chemical) to
  look at organs in the body. The tracer usually is a substance
  (such as glucose) that can be used (metabolized) by cells in
  the body.
 During the test, the tracer liquid is put into a vein
  (intravenous, or IV) in your arm. The tracer moves through
  your body, where much of it collects in the specific organ or
  tissue. The tracer gives off tiny positively charged particles
  (positrons). The camera records the positrons and turns
  the recording into pictures on a computer.
        Single Photon Emission
        Computer Tomography
A Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
scan is a type of nuclear imaging test that shows how
blood flows to tissues and organs.
               How does a SPECT scan work?
A SPECT scan integrates two technologies to view your
body: computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive
material (tracer). The tracer is what allows doctors to see
how blood flows to tissues and organs.
A SPECT scan of a ptient with unctronolled complex partical
seizures. The temporal lope on the left side of the brain shows less
blood flow than the right, confirming for the surgeon te
nonfunctioning area of the brain causing seizures.
                    Tomography
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of
wave of energy. A device used in tomography is called a tomograph,
while the image produced is a tomogram. The method is used in
radiology, archaeology, biology, geophysics, oceanography, materials
science, astrophysics and other sciences. In most cases it is based on
the mathematical procedure called tomographic reconstruction. The
word was derived from the Greek word tomos which means "a section",
"a slice" or "a cutting". A tomography of several sections of the body is
known as a polytomography.

In conventional medical X-ray tomography, clinical staff make a
sectional image through a body by moving an X-ray source and the film
in opposite directions during the exposure. Consequently, structures in
the focal plane appear sharper, while structures in other planes appear
blurred. By modifying the direction and extent of the movement,
operators can select different focal planes which contain the structures
of interest.
Ultrasonography
Obstetric sonogram of a fetus at 16 weeks. The bright white circle center-right
is the head, which faces to the left. Features inlcude the forehead at 10 o’clock,
the left ear toward the center at 7 o’clock and the right hand covering the eyes
at 9:00.
               Anastomosis
An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two
structures. It usually means a connection that is created
between tubular structures, such as blood vessels or
loops of intestine.
For example, when part of an intestine is surgically
removed, the two remaining ends are sewn or stapled
together (anastomosed), and the procedure is referred to
as an intestinal anastomosis.
Anastomosis
                  Cauterize
To burn tissues by thermal heat, including steam, hot
metal, or solar radiation; electricity; or another agent
such as laser or dry ice, usually with the objective of
destroying damaged or diseased tissues, preventing
infections, or coagulating blood vessels
Cauterize