Electrocardiogram Analysis by nikeborome


									Electrocardiogram Analysis

ECG Analysis Module for                                                                                       Features &
LabChart ® & PowerLab®
                                                                                                              n Speeds up analysis of
                                                                                                                  ECG data from humans,
                                                                                                                  large and small animals

                                                                                                              n Includes tailored
                                                                                                                  algorithms for mouse and
                                                                                                                  rat ECG analysis

                                                                                                              n Allows real-time analysis
                                                                                                                  of incoming ECG signals

                                                                                                              n Features ECG Beat
                                                                                                                  Classifier for detection of
                                                                                                                  typical as well as atypical

                                                                                                              n Provides tabular and
                                                                                                                  graphical reports of
                                                                                                                  start, end, amplitude and
                                                                                                                  interval times of PQRST

                                                                                                              n Allows averaging of any
                                                                                                                  number of ECG beats
Rabbit ECG showing PQRST components highlighted with markers. The averaged ECG signal is shown in black and
the individual cycles that constitute the average are shown in green.

The ECG Analysis Module automatically detects and reports the onset, amplitude and
intervals of the PQRST complex, either online or offline. The raw data are unaltered by any
calculations, ensuring that the ECG recording can be reanalyzed at any time. The module
allows you to analyze recordings from any species, and features default parameters for quick
                                                                                                              Below: LabChart ECG recording
and easy analysis of signals from humans, pigs, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and mice.                    (top channel) with QT Interval
                                                                                                              (bottom channel) calculated
The unique ECG Beat Classifier allows easy selection of ECG waveforms for analysis. The user
                                                                                                              in real time. Bottom channel
can identify any noise-contaminated waveforms, or those with abnormal QRS shapes or RR                        illustrates QT prolongation
intervals and include or exclude these from analysis.                                                         following the addition of dofetilide.

Every valid ECG beat is automatically displayed in
the ECG Averaging View, with markers indicating                                                                                                       ADINSTRUMENTS.com
P Start, P Peak, QRS Start, QRS End, T Peak and
T End. The time, amplitudes and intervals are
logged into the ECG Table. These values can also be
displayed in real time as continuous data on separate
LabChart channels.

In addition, the ECG Analysis Module displays the
parameters online or offline as graphical plots. Scatter
plots of QT vs RR, QT vs Time and RR vs Time,
provide the user with an easy method of viewing
changes in cardiac function.

■ Data Acquisition and Analysis
ECG Analysis Module
Data Acquisition
ADInstruments PowerLab data acquisition systems include
an analog-to-digital data acquisition unit and LabChart
software. PowerLab systems are ideal for cardiovascular and
biopotential measurements, offering speeds of up to 200
samples per second per channel (400 samples per second
aggregate), powerful online and offline calculations, high-
resolution display and quick and easy data extraction. The
systems also provide software control of the ADInstruments
range of Bio Amps.
                                                                 ECG Recorded using ADInstruments data acquisition system and Telemetry
                                                                 Research equipment. Data analyzed with ADInstruments ECG Analysis Module.
ECG Settings
The ECG Analysis Module operates online or offline, so
analysis settings can be chosen before or after recording. The
ECG Settings dialog allows choice of the appropriate beat
detection algorithm and ECG beat averaging number. Default
settings for large and small animals (including mice and rats)
as well as humans are available. For species not listed, the
user can manually enter values in the Detection and Analysis
panes. For rodent ECG analysis, a special algorithm takes into
account the lack of an ST segment.

The Averaging function allows the user to specify the number     The ECG Settings dialog.
of ECG beats from which an average beat is calculated.
Averaging can be used to eliminate signal noise and provide
a more accurate representation of the ECG waveform.

ECG Beat Classification
ECG recordings can contain regions of ‘noise’ generated          Chart View showing markers identifying detected ECG beats. The Split
                                                                 Bar (middle of screen) allows reviewing of two different sections of data
by movement or electrical interference. After ECG beats          simultaneously, even while recording. Premature ventricular contractions
are detected, the left pane of the ECG Beat Classifier           are visible on the right.
displays beats according to Activity and Isoelectric Noise.
Large Activity values indicate high frequency noise, whereas
large Isoelectric Noise values correspond to either T wave
contamination or baseline drift. The right pane of the ECG
Beat Classifier allows the user to detect and identify changes                                                                                ADINSTRUMENTS.com
in the shape of the QRS complex and the RR interval. For
example, beats such as premature ventricular contractions
have a smaller form factor than normal beats.

                                                                                      ECG Beat Classifier Views showing beats classified on
                                                                                      the basis of noise and form factor.

■ Data Acquisition and Analysis                                                                                              <2>
ECG Analysis Module
ECG Averaging View
In addition to reducing the effects of noise and
movement artifacts, averaging is useful when
comparing effects on the ECG waveform before and
after experimental intervention. In the Averaging
View, each average can be previewed individually
with automatic labelling of PQRST. The PQRST
markers can be adjusted manually. With mouse or
                                                        ECG Averaging Views. The rabbit ECG
rat ECG analysis, an algorithm takes into account
                                                        (above) shows a prolonged QT interval.
the unique characteristics of rodent ECG. As seen       The mouse ECG (right) shows a typical
on the right in the ECG Averaging View for mouse        rodent waveform, lacking the ST segment.
data, the T wave occurs immediately after the QRS

ECG Table View
The ECG Table View displays one row for each
averaged beat. Any manual edits to markers in
the Averaging View are displayed in red for the
corresponding row in the ECG Table View. Rows
are linked to the beats in the Averaging View so
that highlighting a row will automatically show
the corresponding averaged group and raw data
in the LabChart channel.

Calculated parameters include:
                                                       ECG Table View displays logged values of PQRST. The table contents can be exported, with
n RR Interval       n QRS Interval                     a click of a button, as .txt files and opened in a number of popular graphical or statistical
n P Amplitude       n T Amplitude                      analysis programs.
n  PR Interval      n QT Interval
n R Amplitude
ECG Analysis Plots
Scatter plots are available to display the results of ECG analyses. The QT vs Time and QT vs RR Plots are ideal for illustrating the
effects of drugs on QT interval, while the RR vs Time Plot gives an indication of changes in heart rate. The plots are generated
automatically and are easily selected from the ECG Analysis menu. The user can perform further comparisons of interval length
and amplitude by displaying the incoming values as standard LabChart channels.


       Analysis Plot of QT vs Time.                    Analysis Plot of QT vs RR.                               Analysis Plot of RR vs Time.

■ Data Acquisition and Analysis                                                                                                       <3>
Additional Software
GLP for PowerLab Systems
For those working in GLP and FDA 21 CFR Part 11
environments, the GLP Client and GLP Server provide the
required user interface, audit trail and signing components
for validation of data. In conjunction with a PowerLab and
LabChart, the GLP Client and GLP Server provide:

n Securely signed data files to avoid tampering
n Non-editable audit trail recording operations
n Preservation of raw data
n Date and time stamping
n Visual indication of file validity
n Centralized authorization and user validation
                                                                                                       Above: The GLP Client adds a GLP Status Bar to the LabChart application
                                                                                                       window and an Audit Log (right panel) that records the user, GLP status,
Heart Rate Variability Module
                                                                                                       configuration and recorded data information.
The HRV Module analyzes beat-to-beat interval variation
in ECG recordings from mice through to humans. You
can investigate the effects of exercise or stress on cardiac
function using specialized analysis features. These include
Poincaré Plots, Period Histograms, Delta NN Histograms,
Tachograms, Spectral Analyses as well as generating Heart
Rate Variability reports.
                                                                                                       HRV Report (top) and
R waves are detected using a threshold detector, with a                                                HRV Poincaré Plot
variety of filter options available for ECG signals. Beats are                                         (right) HRV Tachogram
                                                                                                       (far right).
classified as normal, ectopic or artifact, and can be included
or excluded from the final analyses.

Ordering Information
 MLS060/7 LabChart                                                                                   MLS330/7 GLP Client and MLS335 GLP Server

  MLS260/7 LabChart Pro                        (Includes the modules listed below. Modules are also available for individual purchase.)

    MLS390/7 Dose Response                        (Win)               MLS310/7 Heart Rate Variability               (Win and Mac)         MLS340/7 Cardiac Output              (Win)

    MLS065/7 DMT Normalization                    (Win and Mac)       MLS240/7 Metabolic                            (Win and Mac)         MLS320/7 Video Capture               (Win and Mac)

    MLS370/7 Blood Pressure                       (Win)               MLS062/7 Spike Histogram                      (Win and Mac)         MLS395/7 Circadian Analysis          (Win)

    MLS360/7 ECG Analysis                         (Win)               MLS380/7 Peak Analysis                        (Win)

       Share your data with colleagues. Free LabChart Reader – download to view and analyze LabChart data.

PowerLab, MacLab, LabChart, LabTutor and LabAuthor are registered trademarks and Chart and Scope are trademarks of ADInstruments Pty Ltd.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. ECG02/09                                                                                                 GLP     21CFR Part11
PowerLab systems and signal conditioners meet the European EMC directive. ADInstruments signal conditioners for human use are approved to the
IEC60601-1 patient safety standard and meet the CSA C22.2 No. 601.1-M90 and UL Std No. 2601-1 safety of medical electrical equipment standards.

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