Docstoc

WATER ENERGY THE UNAVOIDABLE NEXUS

Document Sample
WATER ENERGY THE UNAVOIDABLE NEXUS Powered By Docstoc
					 WATER, ENERGY & SUSTAINABLE
        DEVELOPMENT


-----------------------------------------------------------

         Water Policy in the Americas Roundtable
            Organization of American States

                      Presentation by

                  Dr. Allan R. Hoffman
                U.S. Department of Energy
                                                              1
                      June 15, 2000
          OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

• Introductory material
     –   Energy & Environment Security Initiative
     –   DOE approach
     –   Perspectives
     –   Health issues
     –   Message
•   Water pumping
•   Desalination
•   Water treatment
•   DOE capabilities
•   Conclusions
•   Contact information

                                                    2
  ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

   At the U.S. Department of Energy, water issues are being addressed
   under the Energy & Environment Security Initiative, a formal joint
   activity with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S.
   Department of Defense (and supported by the U.S. Department of
   State).

The Initiative has two goals:

• The identification of energy and other environmental stresses that
  could lead to political and economic instability and/or the outbreak of
  political conflict

• The identification and implementation of measures that can help
  alleviate these stresses
                                                                            3
DOE’s APPROACH TO WATER ISSUES

 • Water is needed for a number of end-uses:
    •   drinking water
    •   agriculture
    •   power plants
    •   industrial processes
    •   sanitation

 • Optimal solutions can be obtained through a systems
   approach that integrates consideration of various end-
   uses, their energy requirements, and their associated
   economic and environmental costs

                                                            4
 SOME INTERESTING PERSPECTIVES


• “Many of the wars in this century were about oil,
  but wars of the next century will be about water.”
  (Ismail Serageldin, Vice President, World Bank,
  1996)

• “The next war in the Middle East will be over
  water, not politics.” (Boutros Boutros-Ghali,
  Secretary General, United Nations, 1991)

                                                       5
     BASIC FACTS: HEALTH ISSUES

• More than a billion people lack access to safe
  drinking water
• About 4 million children below age 5 die each
  year from waterborne diarrheal diseases (400 per
  hour)
• About 60 million children annually reach maturity
  stunted due to severe nutrient loss/complications
  from multiple diarrheal episodes
• About 1 billion people boil their drinking water at
  home
                                                    6
            A SIMPLE MESSAGE

• How to deal with water issues will be a major
  global concern in the 21st century
• An important part of addressing water issues is
  having the energy needed to transport, treat or
  desalinate water resources
• A systems approach (e.g., addressing water needs
  on a regional basis) can produce optimal solutions
• Water and energy are key components of
  sustainable economic development, and are
  inextricably linked
                                                       7
            PUMPING WATER
    Case Studies from the USAID/USDOE
    Renewable Energy Program in Mexico

• USAID development goals:
   – improved agriculture, health, education and
     environmental protection
   – rural community development
      • electrification
      • potable water


• Cost-effective renewable energy systems can help
  meet development goals
                                                     8
    LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
   Solar Powered vs. Conventional Water
            Pumping Systems

CHARACTERISTIC         SOLAR CONVENTIONAL

Initial capital cost   high   low
Replacement costs      low    high
O&M costs              low    high
Fuel costs             none   high
Environmental impact low      high
                                            9
           TWO CASE STUDIES

• El Jeromin, Chihuahua:
  – Cattle ranch – “chamizo” grown for cattle feed
  – Water required: 15,000 liters per day


• Agua Blanca, BCS
  – Livestock/irrigation ranch (1001 hectares)
  – Water required: 25,000 liters per day

                                                     10
       Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Case Study-El Jeromín, Chihuahua

                       PV water pumping        Conventional system
                            system           (15 kW generator & AC
                           (848 Wp)                  pump)
Initial capital cost        $10,491                  $3,785
Replacements           Grundfos Pump – 20      AC Pump – 6 years
                             years             Generator – 10 years

Operation and           1% initial capital          $200/year
maintenance                cost/year
O&M transportation       $72 -12 visits          $312 – 52 visits
Fuel costs                    None               7,980 liters/year
                                                   $3,770/year



                                                                      11
                                  Case Study - El Jeromín,
                                        Chihuahua
                                                                    Results
                $60,000
                                                                                                    • After 2
                $50,000
                                      Photovoltaic System                                             years, the
                                      Conventional System
                $40,000
                                                                                                      PV system
Dollars ($US)




                $30,000
                                                                                                      represents
                $20,000
                                                                                                      a lower
                                                                                                      overall
                $10,000
                                                                                                      expense to
                    $0
                          0   1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20     the user
                                                               Years



                                                                                                              12
             Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
        Case Study-Agua Blanca, BCS
                           PV water pumping       Conventional system
                                system           (6.0 kW gasoline motor
                               (800 Wp)                  pump)
Initial capital costs
     Initial system cost          $9,250                  $2,018
      Irrigation system           $1,325                  $1,325
      Water tank                  $2,160                  $2,160
Replacements               Solarjack pump – 10   Gasoline motor pump – 6
                                   years                   years

Operation and               1% initial capital          $200/year
maintenance                    cost/year
O&M transportation           $72 -12 visits          $312 – 52 visits
Fuel costs                        None               2,078 liters/year
                                                        $982/year
                                                                         13
                    Case Study - Agua Blanca, BCS
                                                                 Results
                $25,000                                                                            • Six years
                                                                                                     after
                $20,000
                                                                                                     installation,
                                                                                                     the PV
Dollars ($US)




                $15,000

                                                                                                     system
                $10,000
                                                                                                     represents a
                                                                       Photovoltaic System

                 $5,000                                                Conventional System           lower overall
                                                                                                     expense
                    $0
                          0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
                                                               Years




                                                                                                             14
               DESALINATION

• A process for removing dissolved minerals
  (including, but not limited to, salt) from
  seawater, brackish water, or treated
  wastewater

• A number of technologies have have been
  developed for desalination: reverse osmosis,
  electrodialysis, vacuum freezing, distillation,
  capacitive deionization.
                                                    15
       DESALINATION (continued)

• While much can be done to improve
  management of existing water supplies, there is
  broad agreement that extensive use of
  desalination will be required to meet the water
  needs of a growing world population

• At present, only 0.36% of the world’s waters in
  rivers, lakes and swamps is sufficiently
  accessible to be considered a fresh water
  resource
                                                16
KEY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES

• Reverse Osmosis:
   – pressure is applied to intake water, forcing water molecules through
     semipermeable membrane. Salt molecules do not pass through
     membrane. Product water that passes through is potable.
   – On average, energy (electrical) accounts for 41% of total cost.
   – 5,800-12,000 kWh/AF (4.7-5.7 kWh/m3)*
• Distillation:
   – intake water heated to produce steam. Steam is condensed to produce
       product water with low salt concentration.
   – energy requirements for distillation technologies (electrical and
       thermal) are higher than for reverse osmosis technologies.
   – 28,500-33,000 kWh/AF (23-27 kWh/m3)*
   ------------------------------------------------------------------
   * does not include energy required for pre-treatment, brine disposal and
       water transport                                                    17
       KEY DESALINATION FACTS

• Energy costs are a principal barrier to greater use
  of desalination technologies (disposal of residual
  brine is another)
• More than 120 countries are now using some
  desalted seawater, but mostly in the Persian Gulf
  where energy costs are low (oil, natural gas)
• Cost of seawater desalination using reverse
  osmosis has fallen:
   – $23 per 1,000 gallons in 1978 ($5.26/m3)
   – $2 per 1,000 gallons ($0.55/m3) today
     (Tampa: 35 million m3/day)                         18
        UV Waterworks: Motivation

• 1993 “Bengal Cholera” outbreak in India,
  Bangladesh and Thailand

• Existing alternatives for water treatment
  often have significant drawbacks
  – boiling (over biomass cookstove)
  – chlorination
  – reverse osmosis

                                              19
       UV Waterworks: Design Criteria

•   Energy efficient
•   Low cost
•   Reliable under field conditions
•   No overdose risk
•   Off-the-shelf components
•   Can treat unpressurized water
•   Rapid throughput
•   Low maintenance
•   Simple design/fabricable in developing countries
                                                       20
      UV Waterworks: How It Works

• Water flows by gravity under a UV lamp
  for 12 seconds
• UV radiation kills 99.9999% of bacteria,
  99.99% of viruses
• No change in taste or odor/no chemicals
  introduced
• Disinfects 4 gallons (15 liters) per minute

                                                21
      UV Waterworks: How It Works
              (continued)
• Power requirement: 60 watts
• Disinfects 1,000 liters of water for less than 5
  cents (annual cost per person: 14 cents)
• Unit needs maintenance only once every six
  months – performed by local technicians
• Energy consumption 6,000 times less than boiling
  water over cookstove
• Units extensively tested, commercially available
• Portable version developed for disaster-relief
                                                 22
23
   HOW CAN THE U.S. DOE HELP?

DOE has a number of technologies and capabilities that
would be useful in addressing water quantity and quality
issues:

 - UV Waterworks unit developed at DOE national
    laboratory (LBNL)
  - Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process under
     development at another DOE laboratory (LLNL)
 - modeling and simulation (using advanced computer
     capabilities)
 - monitoring, sensors and telemetry for remote monitoring
                                                           24
     HOW CAN THE U.S. DOE HELP?
                        (continued)


• Characterization of water resources
• Site remediation, pollution prevention and waste treatment
  (to be discussed at September meeting of the Roundtable)
• Application of renewable electric technologies to
  desalination and water pumping and treatment
• Planning and management of large projects




                                                           25
                  CONCLUSIONS

• Water issues will be a major global concern
  in the 21st century, and a potential source of conflict
• Addressing water issues requires joint consideration of a
  broad range of issues – health, agricultural, economic,
  political and energy
• Water and energy issues are closely linked
• Renewable energy is likely to play a major role in
  addressing water issues, especially in developing countries
• Where applicable, a systems approach will yield optimum
  results
                                                            26
          CONTACT INFORMATION

   NAME                  TEL. #             E-MAIL
Gene Delatorre (DOE)     202-586-6121 gene.delatorre@hq.doe.gov
Peter Ritzcovan (DOE)    202-586-1275 peter.ritzcovan@em.doe.gov
Barbara Bishop (DOE)     202-586-2065 barbara.bishop@hq.doe.gov
Jeff Richardson (LLNL)   925-423-5187 richardson6@llnl.gov
Richard Knapp (LLNL)     925-423-3328 knapp4@llnl.gov
Dennis Hjeresen (LANL)   505-665-7281 dennish@lanl.gov
Tom Scott (ORO)          410-384-7388 ts9@y12.doe.gov
Allan Hoffman (DOE)      202-586-1786 allan.hoffman@hq.doe.gov
EESI web site                          http://eesi.ornl.gov   27

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:4/1/2011
language:English
pages:27