The Counterculture Movements

					"You don't need a weatherman to know which
way the wind blows. “         Bob Dylan




       The Counterculture
          Movements
               J-Term 2011
                The Sixties
               Terry Bunde
   Gandhi and Margaret Mead
• "You must be the change you wish to
  see in the world.“ Mahatma Gandhi

• "Never doubt that a small group of
  thoughtful, committed citizens can
  change the world. Indeed, it's the only
  thing that ever has.“ Margaret Mead
               Abbie Hoffman
• "We are here to make a better world. No amount of
  rationalization or blaming can preempt the moment
  of choice each of us brings to our situation here on
  this planet. The lesson of the '60s is that people who
  cared enough to do right could change history. We
  didn't end racism but we ended legal segregation.
  We ended the idea that you could send half-a-million
  soldiers around the world to fight a war that people
  do not support. We ended the idea that women are
  second-class citizens. We made the environment an
  issue that couldn't be avoided. The big battles that
  we won cannot be reversed. We were young, self-
  righteous, reckless, hypocritical, brave, silly,
  headstrong and scared half to death. And we were
  right."
             June Jordan
• "...we condemned them, our children,
  for seeking a different future. We hated
  them for their flowers, for their love,
  and for their unmistakable rejection of
  every hideous, mistaken compromise
  that we had made throughout our
  hollow, money-bitten, frightened, adult
  lives."
           Abbie Hoffman
• "Smoking dope and hanging up Che's
  picture is no more a commitment than
  drinking milk and collecting postage
  stamps. A revolution in consciousness
  is an empty high without a revolution in
  the distribution of power. We are not
  interested in the greening of Amerika
  except for the grass that will cover its
  grave.“      (from Steal This Book)
             Abbie Hoffman
• "You are talking to a leftist. I believe in the
  redistribution of wealth and power in the
  world. I believe in universal hospital care for
  everyone. I believe that we should not have a
  single homeless person in the richest
  country in the world. And I believe that we
  should not have a C.I.A. that goes around
  overwhelming governments and
  assassinating political leaders, working for
  tight oligarchies around the world to protect
  the tight oligarchy here at home."
          Abraham Lincoln
• "This country, with its institutions, belongs
  to the people who inhabit it. Whenever they
 shall grow weary of the existing government,
 they can exercise their constitutional right of
   amending it, or their revolutionary right to
          dismember or overthrow it."

              Abraham Lincoln
         Source: First Inaugural Address
David Brothers, Black Panthers
• "When I was marching with King down in
  Selma and Washington, when the racist pig,
  the fascist cop, was beating me over my
  head to the tune of "We Shall Overcome" -
  you see, had I been politically educated, I
  would have taken that club, you see, and
  beaten the hell out of him. I'm not thinking
  about myself. I'm thinking about my people.
  Because I'm not persecuted as an individual.
  I'm persecuted because I'm black."
  Deborah Smullyan, HS Grad
• "General Motors wants crew cuts,
  punctuality and respectful conformity.
  Uncle Sam wants patriotic cannon
  fodder. A world like this deserves
  contempt. Only goodness in our
  generation can counter the decadence
  of the society we are inheriting. And
  our generation is good."
           Frederick Douglass
• "If there is no struggle there is no progress. Those
  who profess to favor freedom and yet depreciate
  agitation, are men who want crops without plowing
  up the ground, they want rain without thunder and
  lightening. They want the ocean without the awful
  roar of its many waters. This struggle may be a
  moral one, or it may be a physical one, and it may be
  both moral and physical, but it must be a struggle.
  Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never
  did and it never will. Find out just what any people
  will quietly submit to and you have found out the
  exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be
  imposed upon them, and these will continue till they
  are resisted with either words or blows, or with both.
  The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance
  of those whom they oppress."
                  Mario Savio
• "American society is a bleak scene, but it is all a lot
  of us have to look forward to. Society povides no
  challenge. American society in the standard
  conception it has of itself is simply no longer
  exciting. The most exciting things going on in
  America today are movements to change
  America...The "futures" and "careers" for which
  American students now prepare are for the most part
  intellectual and moral wastelands. This chrome-
  plated consumers paradise would have us grow up
  to be well-behaved children."

• Source: An End to History (1963)
            Timothy Leary
• "Hippies started the ecology movement.
  They combated racism. They liberated sexual
  stereotypes, encouraged change, individual
  pride, and self-confidence. They questioned
  robot materialism. In four years they
  managed to stop the Vietnam War. They got
  marijuana decriminalized in fourteen states
  during the Carter Administration."

 Source: Chaos and Cyberculture
      William S. Burroughs
• "The people in power will not
  disappear voluntarily, giving
  flowers to the cops just isn’t going
  to work. This thinking is fostered
  by the establishment; they like
  nothing better than love and
  nonviolence. The only way I like to
  see cops given flowers is in a
  flower pot from a high window."
  Student Groups in the 1960s
• Student Non-violent Coordinating
  Committee
• Black Panther Party
• Students for a Democratic Society
• Weather Underground (100,000 members)
• Berkeley Free Speech Movement
• Young Americans for Freedom
• National Student Association
Students for a Democratic Society
• Founded in 1959 as a branch of the older
  socialist organization, the League for
  Industrial Democracy
• Organized in 1960 at the University of
  Michigan
• Political Manifesto (The Port Huron
  Statement) was written by 22 year old
  Tom Hayden, then Field Secretary of SDS
  Other Student Organizations
• The Berkeley Free Speech Movement –
  founded by Mario Savio
  – Fought against “corporate” education where
    students were not as important as appeasing
    the big donors to the university
  – Fought to collect money on campus for civil
    rights organizations – led to sit-ins on campus
    and occupation of the Berkeley administration
    building
       Weather Underground
• Positions characterized by revolutionary,
  anti-imperialist, Black liberationist, and
  feminist rhetoric
• Started a campaign in 1969 to blow up
  government buildings and banks
• Took their name from Bob Dylan’s song
  Subterranean Homesick Blues, “You don’t
  need a weatherman to know which way
  the wind blows
   What Were They Protesting
• Protesting the War in Viet Nam
• Protesting Segregation anywhere
• Protesting for relevant courses in college
  that they wanted to take
• Protesting the lack of adequate healthcare
  and support for the poor in the richest
  country in the world
• Protesting for rights (women, gay/lesbian,
  African American, Native American)
          Port Huron Statement
• As we grew, however, our comfort was penetrated by
  events too troubling to dismiss. First, the permeating and
  victimizing fact of human degradation, symbolized by the
  Southern struggle against racial bigotry, compelled most
  of us from silence to activism. Second, the enclosing fact
  of the Cold War, symbolized by the presence of the
  Bomb, brought awareness that we ourselves, and our
  friends, and millions of abstract "others" we knew more
  directly because of our common peril, might die at any
  time. We might deliberately ignore, or avoid, or fail to feel
  all other human problems, but not these two, for these
  were too immediate and crushing in their impact, too
  challenging in the demand that we as individuals take
  the responsibility for encounter and resolution.[
     Basic Principles of SDS
• Civil Rights, Peace, and Student
  movements were too poor to make a big
  impact, labor unions were too weak so the
  university was the most logical place for
  protesting for rights and peace
• Students and like-minded faculty must
  wrest control from the administrative
  bureaucracy and raise the important
  questions in the curriculum
     The Weather Underground
    Split from SDS in June, 1969
• Off shoot of the SDS; students who felt
  that the way to stop the war was to create
  the greatest violence in the United States
  aimed at the government and universities
  that supported the government.
• Independent Lens The Weather
  Underground | PBS