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Self-Determination for Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities Center for Self-Determination Laura Huber Marshall College of Education University of Colorado at Colorado Springs firstname.lastname@example.org 719-262-4168 Center for Self-Determination Mission To promote research and exemplary demonstrations that facilitate the capacities of individuals with disabilities to choose, set goals, and self manage their lives. What is self-determination? • Ward (1988) defines self-determination as attitudes that lead people to define goals for themselves and their ability to achieve those goals. • Field and Hoffman (1994) define self- determination as the ability to define and achieve goals based on a foundation of knowing and valuing oneself. Why is self-determination important? • Wehmeyer and Schwartz (1997) found that self- determined students were more likely to have achieved positive adult outcomes than peers who were not self-determined. • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students’ Individual Education Plan (IEP) activities must be based upon student preferences and interests. What are our past and current projects? We received four US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, model demonstration and outreach grants totaling $1.95 million. – ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Curriculum and Lessons – Choose and Take Action Software and Lessons – Choice Making for Elementary Students – ChoiceMaker Network ChoiceMaker Curriculum & Lessons Lessons and videos to teach students to identify their interests, skills, and limits then use this information to set and accomplish goals in different areas of their lives. ChoiceMaker Curriculum & Lessons Goals Lessons 1. Choosing Goals QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor A. Student Inte rests • Choosing Employment Goals are needed to see this picture. B. Student Skills & Limits • Choosing Personal Goals C. Student Goals • Choosing Education Goals 2.Expressing Goals D. Student Leading Meeting • Self-Directed IEP E. Student Reporting 3. Taking Action F. Student Plan • Take Action G. Student Action H. Student Evaluation I. Student Adjustment Sample Lessons @University of Colorado, 1999 School Work Habits and Academic Skills School Work Habits Habits I Think Teacher Thinks Matches 1. Attends class very good 3 very good 3 yes no regularly ok 2 ok 2 needs improvement 1 needs improvement 1 2. Arrives to very good 3 very good 3 yes no class on time ok 2 ok 2 needs improvement 1 needs improvement 1 3. Brings needed very good 3 very good 3 yes no materials ok 2 ok 2 needs improvement 1 needs improvement 1 4. Ready when very good 3 very good 3 yes no class begin s ok 2 ok 2 needs improvement 1 needs improvement 1 5. Turns in very good 3 very good 3 yes no completed ok 2 ok 2 homework needs improvement 1 needs improvement 1 @University of Colorado, 2000 CHOOSING GENERAL GOALS Name _________________________________________ Transition Area __________________________ CHRISTINA EDUCATION Goals 1. Do I k now YES Write interests NO my inter ests? Interests Find out interests COLLEGE DEGREE IN PHOTOGRAPHY 2. Do I k now YES Write requirements NO w hat is Find out requirements r equire d to Requirements do this? GOOD PHOTOGRA PY SKILLS GO TO COLLEGE GOOD GRADES 3. Do I k now YES Write skills NO m y skills? Skills Find out skills OTO AP Y GOODATPH GR H GRADES OK 4. Do I have YES NO Learn skills the sk ills to Go t o #5 and TAKE STUDY SKIL LS me et the consider your limits. YES CLASSES IN HIGH SCHOOL re quirem ents? Can I learn the skills? Re-evaluate interest NO @University of Colorado, 1997 @University of Colorado, 1997 TAKE ACTION (page 1) Name______________________________________________________________ Date __________________________ Dir e ctions Goal Write your goal on the line below . 1. Plan Write a plan to ac complis h your specific goal. Complete the three parts of the plan by answ ering the ques tions in each box. 2. Action Eac h day, review your action. Answ er the question, "Did I meet my Goal?" Ans wer the questions in each box. 3. EvaluateAfter you c omplete theAction questions, evaluate w hether eac h part of your plan w orked. Write the reas ons they did or Look at your reas ons in the didn't w ork in each box Answ er the question, "What w ere the main reason you got these results?" . Evaluate boxes. Decide which of thos e are the main reas ons you got the results you did. Write them in the spac e under the question. 4. Adjust Decide if you w ant to change your Goal. If you do w ant to change it, w rite a new one on the line. You w ill probably w ant to adjust the parts of your plan that didn't w ork. Write the changes in the boxes . Remember w hic h parts of your plan did w ork so you c an use them again. Goal___________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Student Plan STRATEGY SCHEDULE SUPPORT What methods will I use? When will I do this? What help do I need ? @University of Colorado, 1999 Research In a comparison of the McGill Action Planning System (MAPS) and the ChoiceMaker Curriculum’s Choosing Goals lessons taught to students with mental retardation, the results favored the ChoiceMaker lessons on teacher and student self-determination scales and efficiency of instruction. – Cross, Cooke, Wood, & Test (1999) Six adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation were taught to attain their IEP (Individual Education Plan) goals using the ChoiceMaker Curriculum’s Take Action lessons. Results show that all students learned to meet their daily goals and maintained this performance after withdrawal of instruction. – German, Martin, Huber Marshall, Sale (1999) Choose and Take Action Software & Lessons Interactive software, lessons, and community experiences designed to assist students with significant cognitive disabilities in making employment choices. Choose and Take Action Process Choose Select job activity and setting to try (on computer) Choose Again Plan Decide to try again or Develop a plan for try something else the setting (on computer) (on computer) Evaluate Try It Evaluate the Complete plan plan results at setting (on computer) (in community) @University of Colorado, 2001 Field Testing • Field tested in four states • Findings incorporated into the software and instructional materials • Revised and field tested again in 27 schools in six states Choice Making for Elementary Students Lessons to teach elementary students to use self-determination skills to meet academic standards and behavior and social expectations. Critical Topics to Teach in Elementary Schools Responsibility Organization Academics Self-Advocacy Respecting Others Goal Setting & Attainment Social Skills Education Participation Good Behavior Self-Evaluate & Adjust Self Esteem/Efficacy Safety & Health Choice Making Self-Awareness Findings from focus groups conducted in spring 2000 Choosing and Reaching Reading Goals Lessons • Student learns the reading standard. • Student chooses a goal focused on a reading skill. • Student writes plan. • Student acts on plan. • Student and teacher evaluate reading performance. • Student adjusts goal, plan, or action to meet standard. @University of Colorado, 2001 Name ______________________ Adjust Flow Chart - Decoding Lesson 16 Date _______________________ 1. Did I meet my goal? 2a. YES On my goal, did I set the words read NO 2b. Am I g etting better? in a minute and the book level h igh enough ? YES NO YES NO 3a. 3b. 3c. 3d. Set a new goa l Change my goa l. On my goal, did I set the words On my goal, did I set Change to Change to more per minute to o high? my b ook leve l too high? a different word s per minute rea ding skill. OR YES NO YES NO a high er book level. 4a. 4b. 4c. 4d. Change my Am I g oing to meet Change my Change my goal. my g oal by by date? goal. plan. Change to fewer Change to Change the word s per YES NO a lower bo ok strategies o r minu te. level. sche dules. 5a. 5b. I’m on track. Change my I’ll kee p goal. going. Change the date. @University of Colorado, 2001 ChoiceMaker Network Trained trainers in five states in ChoiceMaker and other self- determination curricula to teach teachers, parents, administrators, and students. ChoiceMaker Network End of Project Summary Before During ChoiceMaker ChoiceMaker Network Network Students Involved in self- 385 4404 determination activities People trained in self-determination Special Educat ors 73 671 Agency Personnel 26 203 General Educators 5 147 Administrators 1 154 Parents 56 682 Past and Current Project Collaborators • National, state, and local grant projects • Other universities, CU campuses and departments • Colorado Department of Education • Numerous school districts • Adult service agencies and parent and advocacy centers • Sopris West Educational Services - publication, technology, and training Future Projects Ideas Seek funds for the development and research of multi-media instructional materials and technology combining the self-determination skill instruction with acquisition of the following: • academic standards • positive post-school outcomes (personal, educational, and vocational) • family guidance and support • promotion of social skills and behavioral supports References Cross, T., Cooke, N. L., Wood, W. M., Test, D.W. (1999). Comparison of the effects of MAPS and ChoiceMaker on student self-determination skills . Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities 34(4), 499-510. Field, S., & Hoffman, A. (1994). Development of a model for self-determination. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 17(2), 159 - 169. German, S. L., Martin, J.E., Huber Marshall, L. & Sale, R. (2000). Promoting self- determination: Using Take Action to teach goal attainment. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals 23(1), 27-38. Martin, J. E., Huber Marshall, L, De Pry, R. L., (2001). Participatory decision-making: Innovative practices that increase student self-determination. In R. W. Flexer, Tl J. Simmons, P. Luft, & R. Baer (Eds.), Transition planning for secondary students with disabilities. Columbus: Merrill. P.L. 101-476, (1990). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Amendment of 1990, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 ff. Ward, M. J. (1988). The many facets of self-determination. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Handicaps: Transition Summary, 5, 2 - 3. Wehmeyer, M. & Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up of youth with mental retardation or learning disabiliti es. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 245- 255.
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