Self Determination for In by nikeborome


									    Self-Determination for
  Individuals with Cognitive
    Center for Self-Determination
           Laura Huber Marshall
           College of Education
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs 719-262-4168
Center for Self-Determination
To promote research and
exemplary demonstrations that
facilitate the capacities of
individuals with disabilities to
choose, set goals, and self manage
their lives.
 What is self-determination?
• Ward (1988) defines self-determination
  as attitudes that lead people to define
  goals for themselves and their ability to
  achieve those goals.

• Field and Hoffman (1994) define self-
  determination as the ability to define and
  achieve goals based on a foundation of
  knowing and valuing oneself.
       Why is self-determination
• Wehmeyer and Schwartz (1997) found that self-
  determined students were more likely to have
  achieved positive adult outcomes than peers
  who were not self-determined.

• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  (IDEA) requires that students’ Individual
  Education Plan (IEP) activities must be based
  upon student preferences and interests.
  What are our past and
   current projects?
We received four US Department of
Education, Office of Special Education
Programs, model demonstration and
outreach grants totaling $1.95 million.
– ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Curriculum and
– Choose and Take Action Software and Lessons
– Choice Making for Elementary Students
– ChoiceMaker Network
ChoiceMaker Curriculum &
Lessons and videos to teach
students to identify their interests,
skills, and limits then use this
information to set and accomplish
goals in different areas of their
         ChoiceMaker Curriculum & Lessons
            Goals                         Lessons
1. Choosing Goals                                                    QuickTime™ and a
                                                               Photo - JPEG decompressor
 A. Student Inte rests         • Choosing Employment Goals   are needed to see this picture.

 B. Student Skills & Limits    • Choosing Personal Goals
 C. Student Goals              • Choosing Education Goals

2.Expressing Goals
  D. Student Leading Meeting   • Self-Directed IEP
  E. Student Reporting

3. Taking Action
  F. Student Plan              • Take Action
  G. Student Action
  H. Student Evaluation
  I. Student Adjustment
Sample Lessons

           @University of Colorado, 1999
                    School Work Habits and Academic Skills
                             School Work Habits

Habits                     I Think             Teacher Thinks           Matches
1. Attends class   very good           3   very good            3   yes no
  regularly        ok                  2   ok                   2
                   needs improvement   1   needs improvement    1
2. Arrives to      very good           3   very good            3   yes no
  class on time    ok                  2   ok                   2
                   needs improvement   1   needs improvement    1
3. Brings needed   very good           3   very good            3   yes no
  materials        ok                  2   ok                   2
                   needs improvement   1   needs improvement    1
4. Ready when      very good           3   very good            3   yes no
  class begin s    ok                  2   ok                   2
                   needs improvement   1   needs improvement    1
5. Turns in        very good           3   very good            3   yes no
  completed        ok                  2   ok                   2
  homework         needs improvement   1   needs improvement    1
                                                                @University of Colorado, 2000
                             CHOOSING GENERAL GOALS
Name _________________________________________ Transition Area __________________________
                CHRISTINA                                           EDUCATION
 1. Do I k now      YES                  Write interests       NO
    inter ests?           Interests                                                    Find out interests
                                    COLLEGE DEGREE IN

 2. Do I k now      YES                  Write requirements   NO
    w hat is                                                                         Find out requirements
    r equire d to         Requirements
    do this?
                              GOOD PHOTOGRA PY SKILLS
                                   GO TO COLLEGE
                                    GOOD GRADES

 3. Do I k now      YES                  Write skills          NO
    m y skills?
                           Skills                                                        Find out skills

                                         OTO AP Y
                                 GOODATPH GR H
                                      GRADES OK

 4. Do I have       YES                                        NO                         Learn skills
     the sk ills to
                          Go t o #5 and                                            TAKE STUDY SKIL LS
     me et the
                          consider your limits.                     YES         CLASSES IN HIGH SCHOOL
    re quirem ents?                                  Can I learn
                                                     the skills?                      Re-evaluate interest

                                                                          @University of Colorado, 1997
@University of Colorado, 1997
                                                    TAKE ACTION (page 1)
Name______________________________________________________________                    Date __________________________
                                                             Dir e ctions
Goal Write your goal on the line below .
1. Plan Write a plan to ac complis h your specific goal. Complete the three parts of the plan by answ ering the ques tions in each box.

2. Action Eac h day, review your action. Answ er the question, "Did I meet my Goal?" Ans wer the questions in each box.
3. EvaluateAfter you c omplete theAction questions, evaluate w hether eac h part of your plan w orked. Write the reas ons they did or
                                                                                                     Look at your reas ons in the
    didn't w ork in each box Answ er the question, "What w ere the main reason you got these results?"
    Evaluate boxes. Decide which of thos e are the main reas ons you got the results you did. Write them in the spac e under the question.
4. Adjust Decide if you w ant to change your Goal. If you do w ant to change it, w rite a new one on the line. You w ill probably
   w ant to adjust the parts of your plan that didn't w ork. Write the changes in the boxes . Remember w hic h parts of your plan did
   w ork so you c an use them again.


                                                        1. Student Plan
              STRATEGY                                   SCHEDULE                                       SUPPORT
         What methods will I use?                      When will I do this?                         What help do I need ?

                                                                                                       @University of Colorado, 1999
In a comparison of the McGill Action
Planning System (MAPS) and the
ChoiceMaker Curriculum’s Choosing
Goals lessons taught to students with
mental retardation, the results favored
the ChoiceMaker lessons on teacher
and student self-determination scales
and efficiency of instruction.
     – Cross, Cooke, Wood, & Test (1999)
Six adolescents with mild to moderate
mental retardation were taught to attain
their IEP (Individual Education Plan)
goals using the ChoiceMaker
Curriculum’s Take Action lessons.
Results show that all students learned to
meet their daily goals and maintained
this performance after withdrawal of
     – German, Martin, Huber Marshall, Sale (1999)
  Choose and Take Action
    Software & Lessons
Interactive software, lessons, and
community experiences designed
to assist students with significant
cognitive disabilities in making
employment choices.
   Choose and Take Action Process
        Select job activity and
      setting to try (on computer)
   Choose Again                Plan
Decide to try again or   Develop a plan for
 try something else         the setting
    (on computer)         (on computer)

      Evaluate                Try It
     Evaluate the        Complete plan
     plan results           at setting
    (on computer)        (in community)
@University of Colorado, 2001
           Field Testing
• Field tested in four states
• Findings incorporated into the software
  and instructional materials
• Revised and field tested again in 27
  schools in six states
   Choice Making for
  Elementary Students
Lessons to teach elementary
students to use self-determination
skills to meet academic standards
and behavior and social
     Critical Topics to Teach in
        Elementary Schools
Responsibility            Organization
Academics                 Self-Advocacy
Respecting Others         Goal Setting & Attainment
Social Skills             Education Participation
Good Behavior             Self-Evaluate & Adjust
Self Esteem/Efficacy      Safety & Health
Choice Making             Self-Awareness

  Findings from focus groups conducted in spring 2000
  Choosing and Reaching Reading
          Goals Lessons
• Student learns the reading standard.
• Student chooses a goal focused on a reading
• Student writes plan.
• Student acts on plan.
• Student and teacher evaluate reading
• Student adjusts goal, plan, or action to meet
@University of Colorado, 2001
      Name ______________________           Adjust Flow Chart - Decoding                             Lesson 16
      Date _______________________
                                                 Did I meet my goal?

                 2a.                        YES
  On my goal, did I set the words read
                                                                            NO                           2b.
                                                                                                Am I g etting better?
  in a minute and the book level h igh
               enough ?
     YES                      NO                                                       YES                       NO
     3a.                3b.                                  3c.                                           3d.
Set a new goa l    Change my goa l.             On my goal, did I set the words                  On my goal, did I set
  Change to        Change to more                   per minute to o high?                       my b ook leve l too high?
  a different      word s per minute
 rea ding skill.          OR                     YES                       NO                     YES              NO
                    a high er book

                                              4a.                          4b.                     4c.                  4d.
                                           Change my               Am I g oing to meet         Change my          Change my
                                             goal.                 my g oal by by date?           goal.               plan.
                                         Change to fewer                                       Change to          Change the
                                           word s per          YES                  NO        a lower bo ok       strategies o r
                                            minu te.                                              level.           sche dules.

                                                             5a.                    5b.
                                                           I’m on track.         Change my
                                                             I’ll kee p            goal.
                                                              going.             Change the

                                                                                                     @University of Colorado, 2001
   ChoiceMaker Network

Trained trainers in five states in
ChoiceMaker and other self-
determination curricula to teach
teachers, parents, administrators,
and students.
            ChoiceMaker Network
           End of Project Summary
                       Before          During
                       ChoiceMaker     ChoiceMaker
                       Network         Network
Involved in self-             385          4404
People trained in self-determination
Special Educat ors             73          671
Agency Personnel               26          203
General Educators              5           147
Administrators                 1           154
Parents                        56          682
Past and Current Project
• National, state, and local grant projects
• Other universities, CU campuses and
• Colorado Department of Education
• Numerous school districts
• Adult service agencies and parent and
  advocacy centers
• Sopris West Educational Services -
  publication, technology, and training
       Future Projects Ideas
Seek funds for the development and research
of multi-media instructional materials and
technology combining the self-determination
skill instruction with acquisition of the
• academic standards
• positive post-school outcomes (personal,
  educational, and vocational)
• family guidance and support
• promotion of social skills and behavioral supports
       Cross, T., Cooke, N. L., Wood, W. M., Test, D.W. (1999). Comparison of the effects of MAPS
and ChoiceMaker on student self-determination skills . Education and Training in Mental Retardation
and Developmental Disabilities 34(4), 499-510.
       Field, S., & Hoffman, A. (1994). Development of a model for self-determination. Career
Development for Exceptional Individuals, 17(2), 159 - 169.
       German, S. L., Martin, J.E., Huber Marshall, L. & Sale, R. (2000). Promoting self-
determination: Using Take Action to teach goal attainment. Career Development for Exceptional
Individuals 23(1), 27-38.
       Martin, J. E., Huber Marshall, L, De Pry, R. L., (2001). Participatory decision-making:
Innovative practices that increase student self-determination. In R. W. Flexer, Tl J. Simmons, P. Luft, &
R. Baer (Eds.), Transition planning for secondary students with disabilities. Columbus: Merrill.
       P.L. 101-476, (1990). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Amendment of 1990, 20
 U.S.C. § 1400 ff.
       Ward, M. J. (1988). The many facets of self-determination. National Information Center for
Children and Youth with Handicaps: Transition Summary, 5, 2 - 3.
       Wehmeyer, M. & Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A
follow-up of youth with mental retardation or learning disabiliti es. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 245-

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