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					          Computer Systems
               Outcomes
• 1 Computer Organisation
• 2 Computer Software
• 3 Input, Output & Storage Devices –
  Managing the Computer
• 4 System Specification
      1 Data Representation
             1.1 Text
– Each character was originally stored in 7 bits
  called ASCII. Now we use an 8 bit binary
  code called extended ASCII or ANSI code.
  E.g. A is stored as 65 (01000001 in Binary).
– 1 byte can store 256 different characters –
  enough for all the keys on the keyboard and
  several foreign symbols (for currency etc.).
– Languages with many characters such as
  Chinese or Japanese are represented by
  Unicode which uses 16 bits.
        1 Data Representation
            1.2 Numbers

– Numbers converted to binary – number base 2
– Example of 154 represented as a binary
  number

128 64    32   16   8   4    2    1
1   0     0    1    1   0    1    0
128 +0    +0   +16 +8   +0   +2   +0 =154
      1 Data Representation
          1.2 Numbers
2 69         How to convert decimal to binary e.g. 69

2 34 R1      Giving 1000101
2 17 R0   •Using 1 byte for storage gives 256
2 8 R1    possible numbers. (0-255)

2 4 R0    •2 bytes gives 65536, 0-65535
2 2 R0    •Increasing the size of the storage for
          numeric data increases the range of
2 1 R0
          numbers which can be stored.
2 0 R1
           Data Representation
               1.3 Integers
• Positive numbers
  – Converted directly to binary
  – 2 bytes = 16 bits gives 0 to 216-1 or 0 to 65535
            Data Representation
          1.5 Bit-mapped Graphics
• For a graphic drawn in a painting package the computer
  stores the data as a 2 dimensional array of pixels.
• Each pixel in a black and white image is 1 bit in memory.
• 2 bits can store 4 colours or shades of grey.
• 8 bits can store 256 colours.
• 2 bytes can store 65,536 colours.
• Bit mapped images are often generated from scanned
  pictures or digital cameras and can create huge files.
• Editing can be performed at pixel level using a painting /
  photo-editing package.
• When images are enlarged they can become “lumpy” and
  lose definition or when image reduced, fine detail is lost.
      2 Categories of Computers
• Mainframe – multiple users sharing memory and
  processors.
• Desktop Computer – single user with one processor.
• Laptop Computer – single user, all in one unit, LCD
  screen, trackball or touchpad mouse. Some now have
  screens which can be written on with a stylus.
• Palmtop Computer – May write on with a stylus,
  handwriting recognition and probably interfaces with a
  laptop or desktop. OS and Apps usually on ROM.
• Networked Computer – Usually a desktop with a
  network card connected to a local or remote server.
             3 Computer Organisation
             3.1 A two State Machine
• Typical 4 box
  diagram                             CPU
• Only 2 states used in     Input
                                    Processor
                                                Output
  all components and                Memory
  data storage, on or               RAM & ROM
  off, 1 or 0.
• Advantages of 2
  state.                            Backing
   – Simplicity – 2                 Storage
     voltage levels.
   – Good tolerance
   – Simple calculations.
      3 Computer Organisation
   3.1.1 Memory – RAM & ROM
• RAM
   •   Has same access time for all locations.
   •   Volatile – loses contents on power off.
   •   Static – holds contents as long as there is power.
   •   Dynamic – has to be refreshed (every 2 ms).
• ROM
   • Contents permanent or non-volatile.
   • Software & data fixed into ROM at manufacture.
   • Operating systems and specialised ROMs (e.g.
     cameras and CD players etc.).
          3 Computer Organisation
      3.1.2 Links between processor & memory
• To execute a program.
     • Program and data loaded from disk to memory.
     • Stored in RAM
     • Stored Program Concept
• Fetch – Execute Cycle
     • 1st instruction fetched from memory and decoded
       then executed.
     • Then next instruction and so on until program
       finished.
• Each memory location has a unique address.
          3 Computer Organisation
                    word length
• The Word Length is the size of data, in bits,
  which can be manipulated as a single unit by the
  processor.
            3 Computer Organisation
            3.2 The structure of the CPU (a)
• ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit)
   – Data is processed and manipulated.
   – Involves arithmetic operations and logical
     comparisons.
• Control Unit
   – Manages execution of instructions.
   – Sends control signals around the computer.
• Registers
   – Storage location with the CPU
   – Hold calculations, store addresses etc.
3 Computer Organisation
3.2 The structure of the CPU (b)

                    Processor
                    Control
                    unit



                     ALU

                    Registers,
                    A, MAR,
                    MDR, PC,
                    SP
    4 Factors Affecting Performance
         4.2 Measures of Processor Speed

• Clock Speed
  – Generally the faster the clock speed the faster
    the processor – 1.4 GHz is faster than 933
    MHz
                4.6 Networked Computers

• Main purpose of networks
  – To share system resources
     • In a LAN, file space on server, printers, multi-user software
  – To share information
     • Common files
     • Multi-user database files
     • E-mail & internet services
            2 – System Software
            2.1 -The Operating System

• Manages the hardware & communicates
  with the user.
• Some parts of O/S held in ROM chips, but
  most parts held on disk – can be corrupted.
• Bootstrap program held in ROM runs on
  start-up and loads in the rest of the O/S
  from disk.
              2 – System Software
         2.1.1 –Single-user Operating System
• The tasks of a single-user operating system is to
  manage all the resources of a computer system.

• The main resources are.
   – File management.
     Memory management.
     Command language interpreter.
     Input - Output System
     Process Management
                2 – System Software
   Single-user Operating System -File management
• The operating system supervises the creation, deletion
  and updating of files.
• A directory keeps track of where files are stored.
  This is a hierarchical directory structure in which files are
  placed in folders (directories) and sub-directories
             2 – System Software
       Single-user Operating System -Memory
                    management
• The operating system decides what programs and
  data ar to be placed in memory
• It also keeps track of what stage a program is at
  and this applies equally to the operating system's
  own memory space.
• If corrupted it could cause the computer to crash
             2 – System Software
      Single-user Operating System -Command
                Language Interpreter
• The operating system takes commands from the
  keyboard and mouse.
• Passes them to the operating system which;
  – Carries out the command.
  – If command cannot be understood an error is reported
    and a suitable message given.
              2 – System Software
     Single-user Operating System - Input-Output
                       System
• Peripherals all work at different speeds
• The I/O system hides the differences and it
  makes them all appear to operate in a similar
  manner.
• The I/O system does all the actual data transfers
  and issues the appropriate control signals to the
  peripherals.
• Manufacturer usually supplies software (called a
  driver) for the user to install on their hard disk.
               2 – System Software
                   2.2 Utility Programs
• Utility programs aid the maintenance of the
  computer or make the user’s life easier.
• Includes disk formatter, disk tools and
  defragmentation tools.
   – Files are saved wherever the system can find space in
     consecutive sectors. As files are added and deleted
     spaces become available and are all over the filing
     system. A de-fragger moves files around to create a
     contiguous system with no empty sectors.
             2 – System Software
                   2.3 Translators
• A Translator turns a program written in a high-
  level language into machine code.
• The high-level language is the source code and
  the machine code is the object code.
• Compilers – translate the source code in one go
  and produces executable machine code.
• Interpreters – Translate and execute a program
  line by line. Interpreted programs run much
  slower than compiled. Interpreter is simpler to
  learn and use.
             4 – Application Software
                4.1 Types of Applications
• You need to be aware of applications which
  handle:-
   –   Text (word processor, web browser)
   –   Number (spreadsheet, accounts package)
   –   Data (database, world wide web)
   –   Communications (e-mail, file transfer)
   –   Graphics (painting, drawing, CAD)
   –   Multimedia (sound, video)
   –   Integrated Packages (Works v Office)
             4 – Application Software
              4.2 Features and Requirements
• All application packages have features which distinguish
  them e.g.
   – Database – search and sort data, print reports.
   – Multimedia – allows user to create presentations using sound and
     video.
• Application packages have minimum hardware
  requirements.
   – Memory – Minimum RAM used is specified.
   – Hard Disk – Minimum disk space for installation and running
     usually specified.
   – Processor and operating system.
   – Any specific peripherals.
            4 – Application Software
                       4.3 Standards
• Each application package saves files in its own way.
  These are called native file formats.
• Saving as standard file formats allows other packages to
  read the data more easily but may affect the usefulness or
  appearance of the file.

   – Text or ASCII, simple text only with no formatting
   – RTF (Rich Text Format), standard for text and WP
   – JPEG, GIF and PNG for graphics
                 Outcome 3
  Input, Output and Storage Devices
• We will examine devices in terms of:-
  –   Accuracy
  –   Capacity
  –   Speed
  –   Cost
                    1 – Input Devices
                   1.1 Modified Keyboards
• Different layouts for ergonomic reasons and also to allow
  access for the disabled.
• Accuracy
   – Keyboard must be 100% accurate
• Capacity
   – No internal buffering. Any buffering will be at the interface.
• Speed
   – All keyboards the same.
• Cost
   – Generally more expensive than conventional keyboards which
     can be bought for around £5
                   1 – Input Devices
                         1.2 Digitisers
• A digitiser provides text, sound, graphics or
  video in a digital form (e.g. a scanner)
• Scanners
   – Modern scanners use high bit depths to allow high
     resolutions.
   – Images must be matched to their purpose
      • No point in scanning at a resolution of more than 75 dpi for a
        screen based display.
      • No point in scanning at 600 dpi for a printer rated at 300 dpi.
                    1 – Input Devices
                   1.2 Digitisers - Scanners
• Accuracy
   – Accuracy usually main reason for choosing a particular model.
   – Accuracy evident in the bit depth and resolution available.
• Capacity
   – Little internal buffering
   – Rely on techniques to transfer the data.
• Speed
   – Depends on the computer rather than the scanner
• Cost
   – Dropped dramatically in recent years
   – Bundled software often the major selling point.
             1 – Input Devices
               1.3 Digital Camera

• Film replaced by an array of photosensitive
  cells.
• Images stored electronically.
• Compression usually takes place.
• Image transferred to computer
  – Serial Cable
  – “Floppy Disk” adapter
                     1 – Input Devices
                       1.3 Digital Camera
• Accuracy
   – Accuracy depends on the array of photosensitive cells..
   – The more sensors and the smaller they are the higher the
     resolution.
• Capacity
   – Based on resolution and memory in the device.
   – Compression v altering resolution
• Speed
   – Download time depends on the computer and the interface
• Cost
   – Dropping as they become more common.
   – Resolution main factor and also facilities (zoom, flash etc.).
             1 – Input Devices
           1.4 Video Capture Devices

• Video capture card.
  – Converts analogue video to digital
  – Compresses video between 4:1 and 200:1
  – MPEG a common standard
  – Software used by the board is called CODEC
    (Compressor/Decompression)
  – Example is QuickTime by Apple.
                    1 – Input Devices
                 1.4 Video Capture Devices
• Accuracy
   – Based on the quality of the source
   – Resolution settings on the board (often via software)
• Capacity
   – Depends on the amount of VRAM on the board.
   – Computer’s ability to transfer data quickly to disk
• Speed
   – Need at least 15 frames/second for adequate results.
• Cost
   – Lower compression ratio then higher cost.
   – Video print facilities on same card push up price.
                 1 – Input Devices
                     1.5 Sound Input
• Naturally Occurring Sound
  – Natural sound is analogue in form
  – To input sound to a computer
     • Software samples the incoming signal
     • Coverts the signal into digital form
     • Usually compresses the file
  – This is called ADC – Analogue to Digital Conversion
  – Simplest input device is a microphone with sound card
  – Sound card performs the ADC and compression
                         1 – Input Devices
                                 1.Sound Input
• Sampling
 Sampler listens to sound
 repeatedly and stores a
 number representing the
 amplitude each time
  Sampling Rate
      No of times per second sampler listens to the sound e.g. 22 kHz is 22,000
      times a second
  Sample Size
      No of bits stored per sample e.g. 8 or 16 bit samples
  Compression
      Reduce storage space and reduce quality
  Speed
      Irrelevant in conversion
                    1 – Input Devices
                          1.Sound Input
• Digitised Sound
   – Sound can be created digitally.
   – Keyboards have a MIDI interface to allow direct connection to
     computer for sequencing.
   – ADC not required
• Accuracy
   – No of bits used to store sound.
• Capacity
   – No built-in cache. Depends on fast access via the sound card to
     hard disk storage
• Cost
   – 8-bit sound card quite cheap
   – 64-bit CD quality card fairly expensive.
                  2 – Output Devices
                    2.1 The Ink Jet Printer
• Colour
   – Colour printers now the norm and cost has
     reduced dramatically. Good quality at 720dpi.
• Accuracy
   – Resolution based on dots per inch (dpi)
• Capacity
   – Generally depends on background printing
     from computer.
• Speed
   – Ink jets becoming faster. Faster drying inks
     help.
• Cost
   – Prices have tumbled and are very low
     nowadays.
                    2 – Output Devices
                       2.1 The Laser Printer
• High quality results but quite expensive
• Usually a page is composed in the printer (often
  PostScript).
• Capacity
   – On board RAM & processor needed to compose
     pages. The more RAM the higher quality graphics
     can be printed.
• Accuracy
   – 600 dpi quite common (300 cheaper, 1200 expensive)
• Speed
   – The faster in pages per minute (ppm) the dearer.
• Cost
   – Can be cheap for personal lasers but high quality,
     fast (20ppm) networked printers still expensive.
               2 – Output Devices
            2.3 Speakers for Sound Output
• Accuracy
  – CD audio requires 16 bits
  – Stereo needs 32 bits to store data
• Cost
  – Cost of sound card based on number of bits used in
    the ADC/DAC conversion.
  – Quality of audio amplifier and speakers will affect
    cost
• Quality
  – Modern PC based speakers and sound systems as
    good as music centre systems.
                     2 – Output Devices
                       2.4 Multiscan Monitor
The CRT is the basis of most visual display technology.
The screen is arranged as a series of lines of dots and each dot is made
up of three small areas of red, green and blue called a triad. The
intensity of light shone on each triad determines the actual colour of the
pixel.
The picture is redrawn between 25 and 75 times a second. This is the
refresh rate.
A monitor which operate at different refresh rates is known as a
multiscan or multisync monitor. The refresh rate is controlled by the
video adapter.
Screen resolution is quantified by the dot pitch, the distance between
the dots on the screen. Typically between 0.28 and 0.38mm,
corresponding to 100 to 70 dpi.
                    2 – Output Devices
                         2.5 Video Output
To playback video on a standard computer it will need to be
decompressed by hardware or software, usually on the card.
Standards
AVI – (Audio Video Interleave) or Video for Windows. Being replaced
by Active Movie which will playback AVI, QuickTime and MPEG.
QuickTime – CODEC s/w developed by Apple but used by both Mac
and PC.
MPEG – Video board uses hardware to make compression much faster.

Accuracy – Depends on Compression Technique, frame rate and
resolution.
Speed – Hardware must be fast enough to cope with stream of data to
memory and to the hard disk.
Cost – Not only card but good Multiscan Monitor required (17” and 19”
nowadays)
                  3 – Storage Devices
                      3.1 Magnetic Disk
Widely used for a long time as a fast backing storage media.
Floppy disks cheap and rugged. Hard disks fairly fast,
capacity growing fast and cost per Mb (or even Gb) is
dropping rapidly.
Capacity – increased dramatically for hard disks (40Gb
typical – 1Tb soon?). Floppy disks stuck at 1.4Mb.
Speed – Access time is seek time + search time (latency).
Seek time is average time for head to get to right track and
latency is time for disk to rotate to correct part (average is ½
a rev)
Cost – Based on cost per Mb or even Gb. Dropping rapidly
even now.
Access – Direct or Random access
                 3 – Storage Devices
                     3.2 Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape used in commercial situations for many years.
Advantages, cheap, huge capacity & secure. Disadvantages,
slow due to serial access.
Tape now used in cartridges for backup of hard disks and
servers.

Capacity - Typical max capacity 50% more than largest
common disk.
Speed – Relatively slow. Used in batch processes.
Cost – Very cheap which is why it used for backups.
Access - sequential
                      3 – Storage Devices
                           3.3 Optical Storage
CD-ROM
CD – R
CD - RW
A plastic disk is scanned
using a laser. It reflects off
                                 Capacity – About 650Mb
pits on the surface
differently from lands           Speed – from single to 32x (or even
(bumps)                          40x). The x refers to the times faster
                                 than CD Audio.
                                 Cost – CD-ROM Drives fairly cheap.
                                 Access – Always random
                 3 – Storage Devices
               3.4 Magneto - Optical Storage
Based on a combination of magnetic and optical technologies.
Active layer is magnetic material.
Recording – magnetic material heated beyond a particular
temperature by laser, allows magnetisation to be reversed.
Reading – laser operates at much lower temp and reflected
beam rotated by magnetic field and detected by read head.
Capacity – 3.5” disks of 128, 230 and 384 Mb
Speed – Varies as multiple of standard single speed
Cost – decreasing with time with different formats and
capacities becoming available.
             3 – Storage Devices
                    3.5 DAT

Digital Audio Tape (DAT) widely used in
music industry for professional quality tapes.
Now used in micro-computers as backup
medium.
Capacity – 90m tape holds 2Gb of data
Speed – Typically data read at 2
megabits/sec
Access – sequential as with all tape.

				
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