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					Manganese for Soybeans in Kansas




 Stu Duncan and Nathan Nelson
        Barney Gordon,
Dr. Barney Gordon, Kansas State Univ.
• Belleville
N. C. Kansas Expt. Fld.

         • Kansas State Univ
         Manhattan
PURDUE UNIVERSITY HAD
  BEEN WORKING ON THIS
  PROBLEM FOR YEARS
         Dr. Don Huber
Conclusions:
Glyphosate resistant beans have a
 problem with Mn uptake
May be related to changes in
 rhizosphere
Mn crucial in N utilization by plant
Function of Manganese
   Important in photosynthesis (splitting of
    water molecule and evolution of
    oxygen).
   Activates enzymes leading to the
    biosynthesis of lignin and flavonoids.
    Flavonoids in legumes stimulate
    nodulation gene expression.
   Responsible for degradation of fixed N
    transported from roots to shoots.
                 Glyphosate
   Glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway,
    responsible for the biosynthesis of phenolics,
    flavonoids and lignin.
   Mn reducing soil microorganisms also posses
    the shikimate pathway.
   Glyphosate is an organic compound and can
    persist in the rhizophere and can interfere
    with with MN-reducing microorganisms.
Mn nutrition problems with
herbicide resistant soybeans
   Insertion of gene giving herbicide
    resistance changed soybean root
    exudates. Plants solublize less Mn than
    conventional soybeans.
   Glyphosate application may interfere
    with Mn metabolism within the plant.
                        Availability of Mn+2 in Soil
                                  Solution

                        -2
log activity (mol/L)




                                       Mn+2
                        -6

                       -10

                       -14

                       -18
                             4    5     6     7    8
                                       pH
Manganese Deficiency
Manganese Deficiency
             Manganese Application Effects on
             Soybean Yield
             Kansas--2004
                 72
                 70                                    69.5
                 68       68.8
                                   67.5       67.2
Yield, bu/acre




                 66                           66.5
                 64                64.5
                                                       63.3
                 62
                 60
                 58       58.5                                Macon
                 56                                           Asgrow 3302 RR
                 54
                 52
                      0          2.5      5          7.5
                             lb/a Mn as MnSO4
             Manganese Application Effects on Leaf
             Tissue Mn Concentration at Full Bloom
             Kansas-2004

                 120                                 110
                                                     108
                 100                           92
                                    89
Tissue Mn, ppm




                                               88
                 80        80       85

                 60
                 40        41                              Macon
                 20                                        Asgrow 3302 RR

                  0
                       0          2.5      5        7.5
                                lb/a Mn as MnSO4
    Early Season Mn Response




No banded Mn           Banded Mn
               Mn Response in Glyphosate Resistant
               Soybeans---Kansas 2005
              80

              75
Yield, bu/a




                                                 KS 4202
              70
                                                 KS 4202RR
              65

              60
                   0     2.5         5    7.5
                          Mn-rate, lb/a
                        Mn Concentrations in Glyphosate
                        Resistant Soybeans---Kansas 2005
                      120
leaf tissue Mn, ppm




                      100
                      80                               KS 4202
                      60                               KS 4202RR

                      40

                      20
                            0    2.5        5    7.5
                                 Mn-rate, lb/a
FOLIAR Mn FOR GLYLPHOSATE
     RESISTANT BEANS
 Stage of Growth           Yield
                           bu/A
_______________________________
  Control                    62
  V-4                        68
  V-4 + V-8                  72
  V-4 + V-8 + R-2             80
    LSD .05                    3
  0.3 lb Mn/appln        Gordon, KSU
Mn Application Effects on
Soybean Yield, 2005-2006.

              85
              80
Yield, bu/a




              75                             KS 4202
              70                             KS4202 RR

              65
              60
                   0   2.5        5    7.5
                       Mn-Rate, lb/a
Mn Application Effects on Leaf Tissue Mn
      Concentration, 2005-2006

                      100
Leaf Tissue MN, ppm




                      80

                      60                              KS 4202
                      40                              KS 4202 RR

                      20
                       0
                            0   2.5        5    7.5
                                Mn-Rate, lb/a
Liquid Applied Manganese Effects
on Soybean Yield, 2006
Stage of Growth        Yield, bu/acre
Untreated check              66
Starter (.3 lb)              66
Starter (.6 lb)              70
Starter (.3 lb) + V4         74
V4                           66
V4+V8                        72
V4+V8+R2                     74
LSD (0.05)                   3
Research continuing with
support from the Kansas
Soybean Commission and the
Fluid Fertilizer Foundation
Maximizing Corn Yields in
 the Central Great Plains



       Barney Gordon
Application Method and Composition
Of Starter Fertilizer for Irrigated Corn
Treatments
    Application methods:
1)   In-Furrow
2)   2X2
3)   Dribble on soil surface 2” to the
     side
4)   8” band centered on row
                    Band Applications
  ‘2 x 2’ Starter      Surface Dribble        ‘Pop-up’     ‘Deep’ Band
                                             In-Furrow




Seed                  Seed                Seed           Seed



                                            Fertilizer      Fertilizer
                             Fertilizer
   Fertilizer
            Treatments
    Liquid Starter Fertilizer
1)    5-15-5
2)   15-15-5
3)   30-15-5   Total N applied=200 lb/a


4)   45-15-5
5)   60-15-5
              Plant Population
34,000


32,000

30,000

                                                5-15-5
28,000                                          15-15-5
                                                30-15-5
                                                45-15-5
26,000
                                                60-15-5

24,000

22,000


20,000
         In-Furrow   2X2   Dribble   Row Band
Starter N-Rate Effects on V-6 Stage Whole
             Plant P Uptake

                  2
                1.9
                1.8
P uptake lb/a




                1.7
                1.6
                1.5
                1.4
                1.3
                1.2
                1.1
                  1
                      0   5   15       30    45   60
                              N-Rate, lb/a
N Stimulation of P Absorption by
Plants
   Decrease in the rhizosphere pH and
    increased solubility of soil phosphates.
   Increased root length.
   Increased physiological capacity of the
    root to adsorb P. N treatment of corn
    roots resulted in higher P uptake than a
    10-fold increase in P concentration.
               (Kamprath, 1987)
  Starter Effects on Corn Yield (bu/a)
               3-year avg
Starter     In-    2x2   Dribble Row Band
          furrow
5-15-5     172     194    190     179
15-15-5    177     197    198     180
30-15-5    174     216    212     192
45-15-5    171     215    213     195
60-15-5    163     214    213     201
Average   171      207   205      189
Corn Yield response to starter
fertilizer, 3-year average
Starter                 Placement   Yield, bu/a
No starter check         --------     105
10-15-5                  Dribble      122
40-15-5                  Dribble      133
40-15-5                 In-furrow     120
40-15-5                   2x2         132
LSD (0.05)                              6
Lamond, KSU Manhattan
  Profile Distribution of bio-available P, 40 days after application
  Dribble applied 15-30-10 liquid starter fertilizer.




Kovar, USDA/ARS Ames, IA
               Conclusions
   Dribble applied starter fertilizer as
    effective as 2x2. In-furrow applied
    starter reduced plant populations and
    yields.
   Higher N analysis starters maximized
    grain yields.
   In reduced tillage systems, addition of K
    can be beneficial, even on high K soils.
Potassium Deficiency Symptoms
     Early Season
                   Potassium Stratification: Ridge-Till
               0
                               280                        260
Depth (in.)




                         160              80    80       160
                   80


              10
                                 30 in.                30 in.




                       24 consecutive years in ridge-till.
                       Localized high concentrations of K in inter-
                        rows of ridges.
              K Uptake Varies with Hybrid
                                                    9.0     8.2   Growth stage V4
                                                                               7.7
   Pioneer 3737                                    8.0                                                    7.2




                                10-5 lb K2O/plant
                                                    7.0
       Greater uptake in                           6.0
        ridge-till                                  5.0
                                                                           4.0
       More roots with                             4.0
        greater activity                            3.0

        located near the                            2.0
                                                    1.0
        surface                                     0.0
   Pioneer 3732                                          3732 CP        3732 RT        3737 CP        3737 RT
       Less uptake in ridge-                                       Pioneer hybrid and tillage system
        till                                                         (CP = chisel plow, RT = ridge till)

       Fewer roots and
        lower activity near
        the surface
                                Allan et al., 1997 (MN)
  Starter fertilizer effects on ridge-tilled
 corn, 2002-2005 (Soil Test K=220 ppm)

Treatment         V-6 Dry     V-6     Days from    Yield
                   Weight      K      Emergence
---------------- lb/acre-----------     Days      bu/acre
0-0-0-0          215        6.2          80        165
15-30-5          388        10.8         71        184
30-15-5          361        15.6         71        179
30-30-0          399        11.9         72        185
30-30-5          469        15.9         69        196
LSD(0.05)         26         1.5          2         9
               K-Application
   Temperature, soil moisture content, and
    compaction can limit K uptake and result in K
    deficiency on soils not low in available K.
   K stratification can occur in soils managed
    with reduced tillage systems.
   Hybrids may differ in ability to take up K from
    the soil.
Interactions Among Water,
          Fertility
   and Plant Population
Irrigation and Population Effects
    on Corn Yield (8 year avg)
                                   Full Irr     Limited Irr
                 240
                                                  Opt. 38,900
                 220
Yield, bu/acre




                 200

                 180

                 160

                 140
                       18000   24000    30000   36000     42000   48000
                                       Plant Population
  Maximizing Irrigated Corn Yields
  Carr sandy loam soil, 3-year avg.
Population P2O5 +K2O + S (lb/acre)  Response
plants/a    30+0+0        100+80+40
              grain yield (bu/acre)  bu/a

28,000        162         205         43
42,000        159         223         64
Response       -3          18
  Maximizing Irrigated Corn Yields
  Crete silt loam soil, 3-year avg.
Population P2O5 +K2O + S (lb/acre)    Response
plants/a   30+0+0       100+80+40
              grain yield (bu/acre)   bu/a

28,000         201          224          23
42,000         195          258          63
Response        -6           34
Strip-Tillage for Crop Production
                   No-Till
   Advantages of No-tillage include:
    reduction of soil erosion, increased soil
    water use efficiency, improved soil
    quality, and time and labor savings.
   Disadvantages: High residue production
    systems can depress early-season plant
    growth and reduce nutrient uptake.
               Strip-tillage
   Strip-tillage can provide an environment
    that conserves soil and water while
    establishing a seed-bed that is similar to
    conventional tillage.
Fall Strip-Tillage
Strip-Tillage
No-Till Vs Strip-Till Early Season Growth




                          Strip-Till


    No-Till
Strip-till vs No-till
      Soil Temperature at Planting Depth
                  Belleville

             80
             77              Strip-till
             74              No-till
             71
Degrees F




             68
             65
             62
             59
             56
             53
             50
            4/25/2003   5/5/2003   5/15/2003   5/25/2003
Early Season Growth and Nutrient
       Uptake, 3-year avg.
Treatment    V-6 Dry Wt.   V-6 N     V-6 P
                           Uptake   Uptake

                       lb/acre
Strip-Till     347         16.1      2.9

No-Till        205          9.2      1.3
          Belleville, 3-year avg.
Treat.        Day to       Moist,   Yield,*
              Mid-Silk      %        bu/a

Strip-Till       53        14.5     114


No-Till          65        17.1     100

*Includes unfertilized check
  Tillage and Fertilizer Timing Effects on
 Irrigated Corn Yield (Soybean Rotation)
                2004-2006.

Tillage          Fertilizer               Timing*                 Avg.

Strip            180-30-0                 Fall                   208
Strip            180-0-0                  Fall                   197
Strip            180-30-0                 Planting               208
No-Till          180-30-0                 Planting               200
No-till          180-0-0                  Planting               192
*Timing of fertilizer application. All Strip-Tillage was done in the fall.
•Planting time fertilizer was applied 2 x 2
  Tillage and Fertilizer Timing Effects on
  Irrigated Corn Yield (Continuous Corn)
                2004-2006.

Tillage           Fertilizer                Timing*                  Avg.


Strip             180-30-0                  Fall                      215
Strip             180-30-0                  Planting                  213
No-Till           180-30-0                  Planting                  202

*Timing of fertilizer application. All Strip-Tillage was done in the fall.
•Planting time fertilizer was applied 2 x 2
 Strip-Till Corn Yield Compared to No-Till

Previous Crop            Strip-till Yield
                        Advantage over
                             No-Till
Wheat                          14

Soybeans                       8

Corn                           12
          Conclusion


                             Strip-Till
Strip-Till has proven to improve early
season growth, nutrient uptake and yield
of crops grown in high-residue production
 systems

             No-Till
Use of AVAIL with Phosphorus
          Fertilizer
        Phosphorus Fertilizers
   Crop recovery of applied P fertilizer is
    often low- can be as little as 25%
    during season of application (Mortvet,
    1994).
   At high pH, P is fixed by Ca and Mg.
   At low pH, P is fixed by Fe and Al.
                   AVAIL
   Specialty Fertilizer Products has
    developed and patented a family of di-
    carboxylic co-polymers.
   Can be used as a coating on granular
    phosphate fertilizers or mixed into liquid
    phosphate fertilizers.
AVAIL- Mode of Action
   Polymer sequesters antagonistic cations
    out of the soil solution.
   P remains unfixed and available for
    plant uptake.
   Results in highly concentrated zones of
    available P for the plants.
                          Corn Grain Yield Scandia,
                                2001-2003
                    210
                                                          204
                    200                            198
Grain Yield, bu/a




                    190                192
                                                          186
                    180                            182
                                                                Avail+MAP
                    170                171                      MAP
                    160
                                154
                    150
                    140
                            0         20      40         60
                                      P2O5, lb/a
                 Summary
   Influencing or controlling reactions in
    the microenvironment around the
    fertilizer granule has proven to have a
    significant benefit to the availability of
    applied nutrient P.
   Use of AVAIL increased P uptake and
    yield of corn.
Nitrogen Fertilization Problems in
Reduced-Tillage Corn Production
   N immobilization can be a problem
    when N fertilizers are surface applied in
    high-residue production systems.
   Surface applications of urea-containing
    fertilizers are subject to volatilization
    losses.
   Leaching losses.
N Volatilization Losses
   N losses due to volatilization from broadcast
    urea-containing fertilizers in no-tillage
    productions system can be significant.
    Depending on conditions, losses can be 10-
    20% of applied N.
   In a study at Purdue (Keller and Mengel,
    1985) broadcasting urea in corn stubble
    resulted in a 29% N loss. Peak loss was
    nearly 3 lb N/acre/hour. Nearly all losses
    occurred within 50 hours of application.
Corn Yield as affected by
Method of UAN Application
                 190                    188

                 185
                 180
Yield, bu/acre




                             176
                 175
                 170   168

                 165
                 160
                 155
             Broadcast       Dribbled   Knifed
Scandia, 5-year average
     Tools to Manage N-Losses
      with Surface Applied N.
   Urease-Inhibitors (Agrotain)
   Controlled Release N. Urea granule is
    coated, but allows water to diffuse
    across membrane. N-release is then
    temperature controlled. (ESN).
   Long-Chain liquid Polymer coating of
    Urea (Nutrisphere-N, formerly N-
    Guard).
       Corn Yield as Affected by N-Source
           and Rate (3-year average)
                 220
                 210
                 200
Yield, bu/acre




                 190                     80
                                         160
                 180                     240
                 170
                 160
                 150
                       Urea   ESN   AN
Corn Yield as Affected by N
Source (2-year Average)
                 230
                 220

                 210
Yield, bu/acre




                 200
                 190
                 180

                 170
                 160
                       Urea   Agrotain-N   ESN   N-Guard   AN

                   N-Rate= 160 lb/acre
                Summary
   Subsurface application of N is the most
    efficient application method.
   If surfacing applying, banding is more
    efficient than broadcasting.
   If broadcasting on the soil surface there
    are products available that can minimize
    N losses and improve efficiency.
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