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					Overview of Los Alamos Target Fabrication and
               Tracking Tasks

           Laser IFE Program Workshop
                Naval Research Laboratory
                  February 6 & 7, 2001

               A. Nobile, J. Hoffer, A. Schwendt,
      W. Steckle, D. Goodin, G. Besenbruch and K. Schultz
 Tasks to be discussed

IFE Target    3.5.2 Foam shells - Evaluate alternate, advanced foam
                  chemical systems
Fabrication
              3.5.6.2 Low-inventory methods for target filling - Develop
                  low-inventory tritium target filling methods to minimize
                  tritium facility inventory – void volume reduction and
                  alternate filling methods
                                                                                 NRL Radiation
                                                                                 Preheat Target
              3.5.6.3 Cryogenic target handling - Develop and evaluate
                  cradle-to-grave production scenarios including
                  fabrication, filling, layering, and handling of direct drive
                  targets in a high-volume process




Target        3.6.2.1 Target Property Measurements - Procure and setup
Injection         equipment to measure DT yield strength and modulus

              3.6.2.2 Target Thermal Response - Procure and setup
                  equipment to measure effects of high thermal radiation
                  exposure on DT-filled cryogenic targets
                               Target Fabrication and Injection Program Logic Flow
  Preliminary             Target design
    Target                 Work (NRL)
   Designs
   specified              Foam shells for
                                                        Warren Steckle
                           Direct Drive

                         Characterization
                          Of Foam Shells

                        Gold Overcoat for
                        Rad Preheat Target
                                                                      Demonstrate
                                                  Fabricate                                     Decision on
                          Fluidized Bed                                Integrated                                    Pilot-Scale Shell
                                              Single Prototype                                 Baseline Direct
                         MassProduction                              Fill, Layer and                                    Production
                                             Direct Drive Target                                Drive Target
                                                                   Thermal Exposure
     Target                Foam Shell
Fabrication              Mass Production

     Tasks              Mass Production
                        Layering Methods               Anita Schwendt                                                                           Fill/Injector
                           Low inventory                                                                                                       Demonstration
                          Filling methods
                                                       Art Nobile
                         Cryogenic Target
                             Handling



                          Target Thermal
                            Response                                                                                 Engineering Design
                                                                                                                      of Cryo Injector
     Target               Target Injection                                                                            Fill system Demo
  Injection              Accuracy & Track             Jim Hoffer
     Tasks               Target Property
                         Measurements

                         Electromagnetic                                               Demonstrate
                           Accelerator                                                  Tracking                                                 Target Fab, Fil
                                                                                        Accuracy                                                 And Injection
                           Experimental                                                                                                          Demonstrated
                          Injector Design                                                                                                        and ready for IRE




                Preliminary                   Prototype                    Fill, Layer and           Tracking       Baseline         Continuous
                Target Designs                Direct Drive                 Thermal Exposure          Accuracy       IRE Target       Shell Production
                Specified (complete)          Target Fabricated            Demonstrated              Demonstrated   Selected         Demonstrated
Target Fabrication and Injection Program Schedule
  Target              DT Thermal Response Exp.                    Integrated
  Thermal                                                         Thermal                           Thermal Resp
  Response                    Analy. Modeling                     Exposure
                                                                  Demo
                                                                               Upgrade to Cryo
  Accel. &          Design      Assemble Shakedown/                     Assm. Shakedown                 Cryo. Ops.
                                         Operate
  Tracking        Cryo                          R.T. Accur.                                IRE Design
                  Handling                      Demo

  Accel.
  Response                      Modeling                                        Target               Accel. Resp
                                                                               Injection
  Target                  DT Strength
  Property
  Meas.                   Reflectivity IR Absorption

  Evaluate            Design Study
  Advanced
  Injector
                     01             02            03           04              05            06            07
  Methods
                Prel.           Target Physics (NRL,                   Target
                Target          Ongoing Iterative                      Baseline Design
                Designs         Process)                               (NRL)

                                                                              Target
                                                Opt.
                                                                            Fabrication
                     Foam Shell R&D
  Matl’s                                                             Engineering Prototype Devel.
                     High-Z Overcoat            Opt.
  Fabrication                                                             Pilot            IRE Plant Design
                      Char. Support & Development                         scaleup
                                                                          Demo’s
  Matl’s
                            Strength Permeation
  Properties

                  Modeling,         R&D-Scale Exps.                   Engineering Prototype Devel.
  Filling         Concept
                  Selections                                                               IRE Plant Design

  Cryo            Modeling,         R&D-Scale Exps.                 Engineering Prototype Devel.
                  Concept
  Layering/       Selections                                                               IRE Plant Design
  Handling

                                           QC Meth. Eval.     Methods Development          QC Methods Impl.
  QC

                     01             02          03             04              05            06            07
                                              R&D Phase                                             IRE
           Summary of LANL/GA target fabrication tasks
             Title                                                    Task                                            GA $   LANL $
OFES Program
Indirect Drive Target          Demonstrate the synthesis of metal-doped organic foam samples for indirect drive        25     175
Materials Development          targets.

High-volume target             Propose one or more manufacturing schemes that have the possibilit y for                25     150
fabrication methods            fabricating the desired components.

                               TOTAL OFES                                                                              50     325
DP Program
3.5.2 Foam shells              Evaluate alternate, advanced foam chemical systems (Warren Steck le)                            75

3.5.4 Characterization of      Develop characterization methods for IFE targets with particular emphasis on           265
foam shells                    foam shells. Characterize foam shells under development (John Saurwein)

3.5.3.2 High-Z overcoat for    Develop high-z overcoating processes. Establish operating parameters to meet           100
radiation preheated target     requirements for permeabilit y, thickness, uniformity, and reflectivity in the IR
                               (John Saurwein)
3.5.3.1 Fluidized Bed for      Perform in-depth studies of fluidized bed operating parameters ; evaluate              120
mass-production of shells      advanced coating layers; explore feasibilit y for low-cost mass production (Dan
                               Goodin)
3.5.6.2 Low-inventory          Develop low-inventory tritium target filli ng methods to minimize tritium facility     250     125
methods for target filling     inventory Ğvoid volume reduction and alternate filling methods (Neil Alexander,
                               Anita Schwendt)
3.5.6.1 Layering methods for   Evaluate use of fluidized bed, fall-and-strike, gas levitation and fast-freezing for   120
mass-production                layering; define and recommend experiments for further demonstration in FY02
                               (Neil Alexander)
3.5.6.3 Cryogenic target       Develop and evaluate cradle-to-grave production scenario including fabrication,        100     100
handling                       filling, layering, and handling of direct drive targets in a high-volume process
                               (Ron Petzoldt, Art Nobile)

3.5.3.3 Foam-shell mass        Evaluate advanced (Ò         )
                                                   one-stepÓ foam shell production process; conduct scoping           100
production                     experiments (Dan Goodin)

                               TOTAL (DP)                                                                             1055    300
 WBS numbers from NRL HAPL FY2001 Implementation Plan
Summary of LANL/GA target injection tasks
       Title                                                  Task                               GA $         LANL $
OFES Program
Target Thermal Response         Design equipment to measure effects of high thermal radiation                          50
                                exposure.
Target Injection Accuracy &     Initiate Preliminary Design of new injector system for higher           325
Tracking                        precision, multi-shot, injections of Direct and Indirect Drive
                                targets.
Evaluation of Target            Calculate target heating during injection.                              50
Injection Issues


                                TOTAL OFES                                                              375            50


DP Program
3.6.1 Coordinate Target Tasks   Participate in workshops to ensure coordination between target          75
                                fabrication & injection, target design and chamber design (Dan
                                Goodin)
3.6.2.2 Target Thermal          Procure and setup equipment to measure effects of high thermal                     250
Response                        radiation exposure on DT-filled cryogenic targets (Jim Hoffer)

3.6.3.1 Target Injection        Complete Preliminary and Final Design of new injector system            700
Accuracy & Tracking             (Ron Petzoldt)

3.6.2.1 Target Property         Procure and setup equipment to measure DT yield strength and            20         150
Measurements                    modulus (Jim Hoffer)

 3.6.3.2 Electromagnetic        Develop design concepts and conduct feasibilit y testing for            200
 Accelerator                    advanced electromagnetic injector as backup for gas gun (Ron
                                Petzoldt)
                                TOTAL DP                                                                995        400
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios must be
developed to produce and handle targets

      3.5.6.3 Cryogenic target handling - Develop and evaluate cradle-to-grave
         production scenarios including fabrication, filling, layering, and handling of
         direct drive targets in a high-volume process


      FY01 Deliverables - Prioritized plan for addressing critical issues
                        - Begin Aspen Plus flowsheet development for capsule
                          manufacturing facility
                        - Report detailing the status of work on this task



                    DT            Cool
Manufacture                                     Evacuate           DT Ice
                Diffusion        to Cryo                                            Inject
 Capsules                                          DT              Layer
                   Fill          Temps
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios – Manufacture
capsules

                    DT           Cool
Manufacture                                   Evacuate           DT Ice
                Diffusion       to Cryo                                          Inject
 Capsules                                        DT              Layer
                   Fill         Temps


         Manufacture Capsules
         Goals:
            • Establish capsule manufacturing plant feasibility
            • Define capital cost, operating cost and waste streams

         Approach:
            • Define process chemistry for manufacturing capsules
            • Define type and approximate scale of processing equipment to
               manufacture capsules at the required rates (scaleup). Use commercial
               chemical process design software (Aspen Plus)
                  Quantities and types of feed materials
                  Other materials (solvents, purge streams, wash streams)
                  Energy requirements
                  Waste streams
            • Develop target handling methods (sorting, separation from liquids, etc.)
The process for making mandrels in the laboratory
will have to be scaled up for an HIF IFE plant



     Mandrel Production         Cure   Wash   EtOH Extract   Vac Dry at 60 C
     Aqueous
     (0.1 wt%      Organic (11
     PVA in        wt% PAMS in
     water), 0.3   fluorobenzene)
     L/min

(36,000
shells in
about 20
min)
  Target fabrication process modeling to produce targets
  at capacities necessary for HIF IFE plants is underway


                                                                                                                                            Fluidizd Bed
                                                                    Capsule Manufacture                                     Fluidized Bed    PI or GDP
                                                                                                                                Drier       Coat Capsule

                                     100 Liter PAMS Mandrel
                                          Polymerization                                               Ethanol Extraction
Input Streams       Stream Heaters
                                              Reactor         PAMS Mandrel/     Shell Water Wash
                                                              Water Separator




                                                                                 Water Decant Stream




                       Uses existing PAMS/GDP technology that is currently used
                        to produce ICF capsules.
                       Existing bench scale processes are being scaled up using
                        chemical plant design software (Aspen Plus)
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios – DT fuel fill

                   DT            Cool
Manufacture                                    Evacuate          DT Ice
                  Fuel          to Cryo                                                        Inject
 Capsules                                         DT             Layer
                  Fill          Temps


         DT Fuel Fill
         Goals:
            • Establish fuel filling facility feasibility
            • Define fuel filling concepts, DT inventory and approximate capital cost
                                                                                     1 wk (NRL IFE target)
        Approach:
                                                                         50
           • Define filling process (with General Atomics)                                              0 ppm 3He at t=0

                                                                         40
           • Define fuel filling concepts
                                                                         30




                                                                  Gain
                 Fill system concepts, scenarios and real DT
                                                                         20
                  inventories                                                     Gain vs. 3He r for
                                                                         10
                 DT processing, storage, and supply systems                      NIF Direct Drive Target
                                                                         0
                 DT compression systems                                      0          0.2     0.4        0.6            0.8
                 Waste streams                                                      He Mass Density (mg/cm3)
                                                                                     3

           • Develop target handling methods (how targets are
              placed and held in fill system)                        What is gain vs.
                                                                     3He r curve for

                                                                     IFE targets?
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios – Cool to cryo
temperatures

                   DT            Cool
Manufacture                                    Evacuate          DT Ice
                  Fuel          to Cryo                                          Inject
 Capsules                                         DT             Layer
                  Fill          Temps


         Cool to Cryogenic Temperatures
         Goals:
            • Define cooling systems, cooling times, capital costs and cryogen costs

         Approach:
            • Define filling process (with General Atomics)
            • Define cooling methods (more important for diffusion filling)
                 Liquid cryogens vs. helium refrigerators
                 Single vs. multiple liquid cryogens (just helium, vs. nitrogen then
                   helium)
                 Energy requirements
                 How are cryogens supplied?
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios – Evacuate
DT

                   DT            Cool
Manufacture                                   Evacuate        DT Ice
                  Fuel          to Cryo                                      Inject
 Capsules                                        DT           Layer
                  Fill          Temps


         Evacuate DT
         Goals:
            • Define pumping system concepts, evacuation times, capital costs and
                operating costs

         Approach:
            • Define filling process (with General Atomics)
            • Define evacuation methods
                 Evaluate pumping times
                 Effect of pumping times on DT inventory
                 Pumping capacity needed
                 Energy requirements
                 Is heat addition required?
Cradle-to-grave production scenarios – DT ice layer

                   DT            Cool
Manufacture                                   Evacuate          DT Ice
                  Fuel          to Cryo                                            Inject
 Capsules                                        DT             Layer
                  Fill          Temps


         DT Ice Layer
         Goals:
            • Define layering system concepts, layering times, capital costs and
                operating costs

         Approach:
            • Define layering process (with General Atomics and W. J. Schafer)
            • Define layering details
                 Beta, IR, joule heating, fluidized bed, fall-and-strike, etc.
                 Layering configuration (is layering sphere required?, how is target
                   held?)
                 Energy requirements
                 Mechanical manipulation of cryogenic targets before, during and after
                   layering
Summary

   LANL is addressing the following tasks in the NRL HAPL FY2001
    Implementation Plan:

  3.5.2 Foam shells - Evaluate alternate, advanced foam chemical systems

  3.5.6.2 Low-inventory methods for target filling - Develop low-inventory tritium
     target filling methods to minimize tritium facility inventory – void volume
     reduction and alternate filling methods

  3.5.6.3 Cryogenic target handling - Develop and evaluate cradle-to-grave
     production scenarios including fabrication, filling, layering, and handling of
     direct drive targets in a high-volume process

  3.6.2.1 Target Property Measurements - Procure and setup equipment to measure
    DT yield strength and modulus

  3.6.2.2 Target Thermal Response - Procure and setup equipment to measure
     effects of high thermal radiation exposure on DT-filled cryogenic targets
Summary – Cradle to grave cryogenic target handling



   Task 3.5.6.3 (Cryogenic target handling) deliverables include:
      Prioritized plan for addressing critical issues
      Begin Aspen Plus flowsheet development for target manufacturing facility
      Report at end of FY detailing status of this task

				
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