The Design and Implementation of Scientifically-based_ Technology

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					   The Design and Implementation of
Scientifically-based, Technology-enabled
     Reading Interventions for RTI
                   Presentation for
      Raising Student Achievement Conference
                  St. Charles, Illinois
                  December 4, 2007
             1:45 – 2:45pm (Jade Room)
Chris Cook, Ph.D.
VP - Curriculum Services
CSC Learning, Chicago
I. Essential elements necessary to effectively
     implement the Three-Tier Model/RTI
II. Criteria for evaluating scientifically-based,
     technology-enabled interventions
III. Specific Examples of Design Elements
     •   Headsprout Early Reading
     •   Soliloquy Reading Assistant
     •   Lexia Learning
IV. Case Studies from Illinois Districts
      RtI Core Principles

• We can effectively teach all children
• Intervene early
• Use a multi-tier model of service
• Use a problem-solving methodology
       RTI Essential Components

1. High-quality Instruction
    – Scientifically-based instruction
    – Matched to student needs
2. Learning rate and level of performance
    – Learning rate = growth in performance over time
    – Level of performance = relative standing compared to expected
      levels (criterion or norm-referenced)
3. Educational decisions based on individual student response
    – Adjust level of intensity
    – Decisions regarding need for more intense intervention
      (including special ed referrals) based on data
The Three-tier Intervention Model
       Tier I – Early Prevention
• Core Curriculum in general education classroom
• Universal Screening 3x/year using Curriculum-
  based Measures (e.g. DIBELS, AIMSweb,etc.)
• Early Prevention for at-risk students
   – 15-30 minutes/day, 3-5x/week
   – Supplement, not supplant core curriculum
   – Differentiated instruction, flexible grouping
    Tier 2 - Targeted Intervention
•   For students who fall below benchmark on universal screening
•   20-30 minutes/day, 3-5x week
•   Frequent (weekly or bi-weekly) progress monitoring
•   Small group instruction and flexible grouping
•   Student response to interventions interpreted by school-based
    problem-solving team
 Tier 3 - Intensive Intervention
• For students who do not respond to
  Tier 2 interventions and/or fall far
  below benchmark
• 30-60 minutes/day, 5x week
• Frequent progress monitoring
• Individualized or small group
  instruction by intervention specialist
  (Title I, ELL, Special Education, or
• If Tier 3 is not successful, the
  student may be considered for
  special education
 RTI…A System for Success

Through the multi-tier system of school supports
and a systematic decision-making process that uses
performance data to guide decision-making…

…RTI serves as a general problem-solving model to
ensure the success of all students...

…not just those in special education!
            Technology-based Support for the
             Nine Essential Elements of RTI
                    Criteria for Evaluation
         Scientifically-based Reading Interventions
1.   Formative Research Foundation
2.   Five Essential Elements of Reading
3.   Independently Reviewed
4.   Multi-sensory and differentiated instruction
5.   Adapts level of intensity
6.   Data-driven progress monitoring
7.   Support for flexible grouping
8.   Summative research on effectiveness
9.   Engaging for struggling readers
              Scientifically-based Intervention:
             1. Formative Research Foundation

Methodologies extensively studied with struggling readers,
    ELL, special education
Design process utilized feedback loops to engineer success
National-renowned reading scientists
Findings published in peer-reviewed journals
         Scientifically-based Intervention:
     2. Five Essential Components of Reading
           (National Reading Panel, 2000)

•   Phonemic awareness
•   Phonics
•   Fluency
•   Vocabulary
•   Comprehension
              Scientifically-based Intervention:
                3. Independently Reviewed

Florida Center for Reading Research
University of Oregon
           Technology-enabled Intervention:
4. Multi-sensory Learning and Differentiated Instruction

   • Auditory
   • Visual
   • Kinesthetic
           Technology-based Intervention:
            5. Adapts Level of Intensity to
           Match the Needs of Each Learner

1. Instructional time
2. Group size
3. Homogeneous grouping
4. Pace
5. Opportunities for practice, review, for
   automaticity and fluency
6. Opportunities for correction and feedback
7. Scaffolding by using, then fading cues
8. Instruction that is direct, explicit and systematic
 Scientifically-based Intervention:
6. Data-driven Progress Monitoring
     Scientifically-based Intervention:
           7. Flexible Grouping

      A. 1-on-1
                  B. Small Group


                  C. Whole Group
               Scientifically-based Intervention:
           8. Summative Research on Effectiveness

Implementation Results                            Darwin ISAT Improvement
  Darwin Elementary,                        80

       Chicago                              70


Student Population                          50

Caucasian: 2%               % Meets/Exceeds 40

African-American: 12%                       30

Hispanic: 85%                               20

ELL: 32%                                    10
Low SES: 94%                                 0
                                                     2004       2005          2006

                                      3rd Grade       36.7      36.5          67.5
Findings                              5th Grade       32.9       40            53
                                                      49.4       69           77.9
The percent of students               8th Grade

                          “I am proud of our students’ and teachers’
standards                 commitment to school improvement. Lexia
increased by :            and CSC are important contributors and
  83% (gr.3),             partners in this process.”
  61% (gr.5),                                - Graciela Shelley, Principal,
  93% (gr. 8).                                 Darwin Elementary School
       Scientifically-based Intervention:
      9. Engaging for Struggling Readers
Age appropriate content and interest level
Variable challenge levels
Game and fantasy element
Student control
Clear goals and feedback
         Examples of Design Elements:
                   Reading Intervention
1. Headsprout Early Reading
     •   Balanced approach for 5 essential
         elements of reading
     •   Grades preK-2
2. Soliloquy Reading Assistant
     •   Oral fluency, vocabulary, comprehension
     •   Grades 2-12 (Levels 2-10)
3. Lexia Learning
     •   Phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding,
         word analysis, fluency, vocabulary
     •   Grades 1-12 (Levels 1-6)
Headsprout Early Reading
    Research-based, proven effective, & kids love it too!
   Headsprout Early Reading™ is a research-based
    online reading program that teaches
    non-readers and struggling readers from
    Pre-K through Grade 3
   Covers all five essential elements:
    Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary,
    and Comprehension
 Engineering 100% Success
Through Formative Research
                  Educational Wind Tunnel

                                                                             Headsprout Early
                                                                             Reading was tested and
                                                                             retested by children!

                                                                                              Is it effective?
                                                                                              Is it engaging?
Layng, T. V. J., Johnson, K., Twyman, J. S. Ford, V., Layng, M. P., Gilbert, M., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Teaching method and system, U.S. Patent No.
                                            6,523,007. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
   Scientific Research &

Testing and Evaluation:
Every portion of Headsprout Early Reading has been measured and evaluated, from the
most basic level of instruction through the complete interlocking sets of skills and strategies.
This time consuming and painstaking process is essential to our guaranteed effectiveness.
  Headsprout Works across Grades &
                     Needs - Seattle, WA
           Title I Elementary School
               Headsprout Early Reading: Part I (Reading Basics - Episodes 1 - 40)
                    Woodcock Johnson Letter-Word Identification Subtest
                                  Pre- and Post Test Scores

                                                                                Pre Test
 Kindergarten (A)
                                                           1.2                  Post Test

 Kindergarten (B)

      ESL (early)

ESL (3rd Grade +)

                    0.0               0.5            1.0             1.5                2.0       2.5        3.0         3.5

                                Kindergarten                     First Grade                  Second Grade
                                                            Grade Equivalent
Woodcock-Johnson Outcome Scores
                 Headsprout Early Reading (Episodes 1 - 80)
              Woodcock-Johnson Word Identification Subtest
            Learners Who Completed the Program in Summer 2003

Scores Prior
 to Entering
 (Fall 2003):

Kindergarten                                         2.1

   1st Grade                                                         3.0

                0.0    0.5        1.0      1.5      2.0       2.5        3.0   3.5

                             Grade Level Equivalent - After Headsprout
ITBS: Reading Total Outcome Scores
                 Headsprout Early Reading (Episodes 1 - 80)
        Iowa Test of Basic Skills: Reading Total - Grade Equivalent
           Learners Who Completed the Program in Summer 2003

 Scores Prior
  to Entering
  (Fall 2003):

Kindergarten                                      1.6

   1st Grade                                                         2.3

               0.0       0.5          1.0         1.5         2.0          2.5
                         Grade Level Equivalent - After Headsprout
                                                                                                  It’s in

 Independent Program Review
                                                                   The FCRR is a nationally-
                                                                   recognized research center
                                                                   "The sole purpose of FCRR
                                                                   Reports is to be a reliable
                                                                   resource for teachers and
                                                                   administrators as they
                                                                   evaluate the alignment of
                                                                   instructional materials to
                                                                   Reading First guidelines and
                                                                   determine the degree to
                                                                   which programs are
                                                                   consistent with current
                                                                   scientific research in reading.”
                                                                    - From the FCRR web site

Research Support for Headsprout Early Reading
“In sum, the content and design of Headsprout Early Reading reflect scientific research with
an abundance of instructional strategies in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary
and comprehension. The developers of Headsprout Early Reading have produced a wide array
of evidence that most children who work with the program acquire the specific skills it is
designed to teach.”
Weaknesses Noted: None.
                                       Product Components
Online Instruction
80 online individualized episodes

Automated Assessment and
Performance Reports
Email and telephone instructional and technical support

                                         Educational Print Materials
                                         12 full-color Headsprout Readers
                                         Blackline Master of 80 “ready-to-read”
                                         Progress Map and Stickers
                                         Completion Certificates
                                         Classroom Progress Wall Charts
Optional Technical Materials             Benchmark Reading Assessments
Technical Coordinators’ Guide            Teachers’ Guide
Headsprout Bandwidth Optimizer
        Constructing the reading repertoire
Lessons 1 – 23 “Crack the Code”
    •    letters represent sounds
    •    sounds go together to make words
    •    critical strategies of:
                finding sounds in words (segmenting),
                saying contiguous sounds (blending), and
                saying the word based upon hearing themselves say blended sounds
    •    reading vocabulary up to 50 words
    •    10 print stories as part of their lessons

Lessons 24 – 40 “Reading Makes Sense”
    •    students learn in one lesson what previously took two or three lessons
    •    sounds make up words, words make sentences and stories
    •    stories increase in length and complexity
    •    reading vocabulary up to 500 words
    •    20 more print stories
       Constructing the reading repertoire
Lessons 41 – 56 “Accelerate and Diversify”
   •    the pace of the program again quickens
   •      multiple individual sounds are learned and applied in
          the very same lesson
   •      practices segmenting decoding with compound and nonsense words
   •      greater emphasis on comprehension
   •      11 stories are read that contain new vocabulary,
          decodable words, and themes

Lessons 57 - 80 “Reading for Meaning and Enjoyment”
   •    one to two stories are read per lesson
   •      poetry and expository text are introduced
   •      more challenging comprehension and critical thinking activities
   •      passage reading fluency is greatly extended
   •      vocabulary up to 5,000 words
   •      39 more stories, including chapter books
     Learning that Letters Represent
Interactive example:
Click graphic to begin.
The worm moves
forward 1 hole for
each correct selection
of the sound “an” -- a
visual indicator of the
mastery criteria of 5
consecutive correct.
Ensuring Learning: Tracking every
Beginning Comprehension
Soliloquy Reading Assistant

     Overview & Research
     What is Reading Fluency?
      Marilyn Jager Adams, Chief Scientist

Fluency is not Words Correct Per Minute
Fluency is the ability to read with
sufficient ease and accuracy that one can
focus attention on the meaning and
message of text.
How is Fluency Achieved?

Guided Oral Reading is the only
   research-proven method of
   developing reading fluency
         National Reading Panel 2000

 But, one-on-one guided oral reading is
 not practical!
               Soliloquy Reading Assistant
                    Increasing Time Spent Reading…

• Guided oral reading using the computer as a patient
  supportive listener

• Uses Speech Recognition to help students become
  proficient, fluent readers

• Develops fluency, vocabulary and comprehension while
  students read

• Engages students with interactive support and private
  play back
 An Extra 10 Minutes has a Big Impact

                      Cunningham & Stanovich. (1998) What reading does for the mind. American Educator,
Marilyn Jager Adams   Spring/Summer, pp. 8-15. From Anderson,Wilson,& Fileding (1988). Growth in reading
                      and how children spend their time outside of school.RRQ,23,285-303.
Primary Content
for Reading Assistant

                        • Grade Levels 1-5

                        • Content drawn
                          from authentic
Middle and High School Content
for Reading Assistant

                    • Grade Levels 5-

                    • Content based on
                      Science & Social
                      Studies standards
Soliloquy Reading Assistant

Data Analysis & Reports
               Data & Reports

• Predictive
• Real-time
• Supports
Predictive Reporting
Average WCPM By Month
  Trend Line and Goal
       Class List with
Most Recent Reading Selection
        Session Detail
Color Words with Audio Portfolio
Student Report
Average WCPM
Problem Words Report
Sequential, Systematic and Motivating
Reading Intervention for Grades K-12
     History & Research Foundations
Orton Gillingham Approach
   – Jointly developed by a neurologist (Orton) and an
     educator (Gillingham) for dyslexic children
   – Validated over 70 years by studies conducted by 17
     universities and the NIH
              Orton-Gillingham Approach
              Structured and Sequential
• English Language has 44 sounds represented by 150
  letter combinations!
   – 85% is regular (follows phonetic rules/patterns)           Etc.
   – 15% irregular
• Structured, sequential                                 Syllabication
    – Concrete to abstract                          Vowel-r
    – Simple to complex                             combinations
    – Regular to irregular                     Vowel
• Directly teaches phonics,
  decoding, word analysis,                  Long vowel
  vocabulary                                sounds
    – Symbol-to-sound
                                       Short vowel
    – Sound-to-symbol
    – Word study
         Orton-Gillingham Approach
           Multi-sensory Learning

Multiple pathways
are use simultaneously…

• Auditory
• Visual
• Kinesthetic-tactile
          Orton-Gillingham Approach
          Cumulative & Mastery Based

• New learning connected to prior learning
• Differentiated instruction adapts to each
  individual learner
   – Self-paced
   – Sophisticated branching
• Practice and Reinforcement
   – Automaticity
   – Fluency
       Orton-Gillingham Approach
Progress Monitoring for Students/Teachers
       Orton-Gillingham Approach
Motivating Activities and Challenge Levels
      Program Overview

Lexia Early Reading                   Ages 4-6
  – Introduces phonological principles and the alphabet, helping
    students master critical early literacy skills

Primary Reading                       Ages 5-8
  – Ensures mastery of basic phonological skills and introduces
    more advanced phonics principles

Strategies for Older Students         Ages 9-Adult
  – Sophisticated, age appropriate user interface engages older
    students with extensive practice in a wide range of skills,
    from basic phonological awareness to advanced word attack
    and vocabulary
Lexia Early Reading®
     Level   Develops phonemic and phonological
       1     awareness. Activities reinforce the precursors to
             reading; rhyming, word segmentations, and
             sound blending. The activities in this level do not
             require alphabetic knowledge.

     Level   Introduces alphabet skills. There are five
       2     activities; three activities introduce consonants,
             one activity focuses on short vowels and one
             activity introduces letter combinations.
             Students are asked to listen for beginning and
             ending sounds, including digraphs.
            Lexia Primary Reading                                          TM

                               Level   Transition to decoding.
                                 1     phonemic awareness, sound-symbol
                                       correspondence, basic decoding.

                               Level   Short Vowel Words:
                                 2     Short-vowel words; including CVC, blends, and

                               Level   Silent-e:
                                 3     long-vowel (silent-e) words, sound segmenting,
                                       contextual information.

Level   Vowel Combinations, Vowel-r:
  4     Vowel combinations,vowel-r words, word-attack strategies and conceptual reasoning.

Level   Review:
  5     Words in context (sentences and paragraphs)
Lexia Strategies for Older Students      TM

                             Level   Develops automatic recognition of short
                               1     vowel, one-syllable words. Phonological
                                     awareness of sound segments in initial, medial
                                     and final positions, including digraphs.

                             Level   Short vowel words with blends and
                               2     digraphs and long vowel words. Develop
                                     word-attack strategies, sound segmentation,
                                     short and long vowel sounds, practice in context.
                             Level   Decoding two-syllable words. Advanced
                               3     word-attack strategies and reinforce
                                     phonological awareness.

Level   Word-attack strategies for multi-syllable words. Open, closed and consonant-
  4     le syllables. Single word, sentences and paragraphs in contextual material.

Level   Structural analysis as a means of word-attack. Anglo-Saxon, Greek and Latin
  5     Word roots as well as special accents.
                  Criteria for Evaluating
       Scientifically-based Reading Interventions
                                         Definitely   Meets   Somewhat   Does not
                                          Meets                 Meets     Meet

1. Formative Research Foundation

2. Five Essential Elements of Reading

3. Independently Reviewed

4. Multi-sensory and Differentiated
5. Adapts Level of Intensity to Match
   the Needs of Each Learner
6. Data-driven Progress Monitoring

7. Support for Flexible Grouping

8. Summative Research on Effectiveness

9. Engaging for Struggling Readers
          RTI Case Studies in Illinois
               Goals, Results, Best Practices
Over 20 I-ASPIRE Schools across Illinois

Indian Prairie SD 204

Naperville SD 203

Saucedo Academy, Darwin Elementary School
Chicago Public Schools SD 299

Arlington Heights SD 59

Jacobs High School, Carpentersville SD 300

Oak Park River Forest High School

Waukegan SD 60
  Guidelines for Effective Implementation to
 Support School Reading Intervention Strategy
1.       Identify students struggling due to phonics, word analysis, fluency,
         vocabulary, comprehension
     •      Strategically connected to SIP
     •      Develop written plan
     •      Define interventions and roles of members of the problem solving team
2.       Provide training/coaching for reading specialists
3.       Group students flexibly and strategically
4.       Schedule to allow adequate time-on-task
     •      Tier 1: 20-30 minutes, 2-3x per week
     •      Tier 2-3: 20-30 minutes, 4-5x per week
5.       Observe and monitor students
6.       Meet with students to discuss progress/goals
7.       Use (interpret and share) performance data
   The Design and Implementation of
Scientifically-based, Technology-enabled
          Reading Interventions
         Presentation IAASE Conference
                  Tinley Park, Illinois
                 September 27, 2007
        1:00 to 3:15 pm – St. Andrews Room

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