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					                        Promoter Activity of LTR Element of the Human FPRL2 Gene
                                                                                                                            Hong-Seok Ha1, Jae-Won Huh1, Dae-Soo Kim2, and Heui-Soo Kim1 2
                                                                                                                                   1Division
                                                                                                                        of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University
                                                                                                2PBBRC, Interdisciplinary Research Program of Bioinformatics, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University

                                                                                                                                              http://www.primate.or.kr




                                                                                 Abstract                                                                                                                Results & Discussion
               The human genome is estimated to consist of approximately 8% human
               endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related sequences. FPRL2 (fomyl
               peptide receptor-like 2) gene has a solitary LTR (long terminal repeat).
               The LTR is located between first exon and promoter region of the
               FPRL2 gene. The FPRL2 gene containing LTR element was expressed in
               various human tissues except fetal brain and cerebellum. The LTR
               element was detected in hominoid, Old World monkeys, and New World
               monkeys except for common marmoset, whereas LINE (long
               interspersed repetitive element) and SINE (short interspersed repetitive
               element) elements were detected in prosimian (ring-tailed lemur) and
               common marmoset. We also examined promoter activity of the LTR
               element in FPRL2 gene, and discussed its biological role. Taken together,
               the insertion of retroelements into primate genome could have different                                                                                                                               (A)             FPR1 FPRL1_2                                                                                                   FPRL2
               biological roles during primate evolution.aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FPRL1_1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (B)   FPRL2     ME      T   N   F   S   I   PL   NE    TEE      VL PE      P AG        HT      VLWI            F S L L V HG V T               F V FG       VLG       NG   L   V   I   WV A G       F RMT        RT      VN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_1   ME      T   N   F   S   T   PL   NE    YEE      V SYE      S AG        YT      VLR I           L PL VVLG VT                   FVLG         VLG       NG   L   V   I   WV A G       F RMT        RT      VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_2   ME      T   N   F   S   T   PL   NE    YEE      V SYE      S AG        YT      VLR I           L PL VVLG VT                   FVLG         VLG       NG   L   V   I   WV A G       F RMT        RT      VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1      ME      T   N   S   S   L   PT   N I   SGG      T PAV      S AG        YL      FLD I           I TYLV FAVT                    FVLG         VLG       NG   L   V   I   WV A G       F RMT        HT      VT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL2     T   I   CYL         NL      ALAD       FS   FS    AI   L   P   F RMV S V AMR E                         KW P        FG S F L       C K L V H VM I D            I   NL    FV     S   VYL      I   T I     I   A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_1   T   I   CYL         NL      ALAD       FS   FT    AT   L   P   F L I V S M A MG E                      KW P        FG W F L       CKL I H I VVD               I   NL    FG     S   V FL     I   G F     I   A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_2   T   I   CYL         NL      ALAD       FS   FT    AT   L   P   F L I V S M A MG E                      KW P        FG W F L       CKL I H I VVD               I   NL    FG     S   V FL     I   G F     I   A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1      T   I   SYL         NL      AVAD       FC   FT    ST   L   P   F F M V R K A MG G                      HW P        FG W F L       CKFV FT I VD                I   NL    FG     S   V FL     I   AL      I   A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL2     L   DRC I CVL                H   P A WA Q       NHRTMS             L   A K R VMT G                 LWI FT I           VL      T   L   PN   F I   F WT     T   I ST     T NG        DTYC I           FN      F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_1   L   DRC I CVL                H   P V WA Q       NHRT V S           L   AMK V I VG                  PW I L A L         VL      T   L   PV   FL    FLT      T   VT I     P NG        DTYCT            FN      F




                                                                Introduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_2   L   DRC I CVL                H   P V WA Q       NHRT V S           L   AMK V I VG                  PW I L A L         VL      T   L   PV   FL    FLT      T   VT I     P NG        DTYCT            FN      F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1      L   DRCVCVL                  H   P V WT Q       NHRT V S           L   AKKV I I G                  P WV M A L         LL      T   L   PV   I I   RVT      T   V PG     KTG         TVACT            FN      F

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL2     A   F WG D T A V E               RL    N V F I T MA K V F L                I   L   H   F I     I   G   F   S   V   PM S   I   I T V C YG         I   I   AAK      I   H R N HM I        K   S   S   R   PL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_1   A   S WG G T P E E               RL    K V A I T ML T A RG                 I   I   R   FV      I   G   F   S   L   PM S   I   V A I C YG         L   I   AAK      I   H K KG M I        K   S   S   R   PL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_2   A   S WG G T P E E               RL    K V A I T ML T A RG                 I   I   R   FV      I   G   F   S   L   PM S   I   V A I C YG         L   I   AAK      I   H K KG M I        K   S   S   R   PL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1      S   P WT N D P K E               R I   N V A V AML T V RG                  I   I   R   F I     I   G   F   S   A   PM S   I   V A V S YG         L   I   ATK      I   H KQ G L I        K   S   S   R   PL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL2     RV FAAVVA S                      F   F I   CW F   PYE      L I G I         L M A V WL              K E ML          L NG K Y K I        I   LVL I N PT             S   SL   A   F   FN   S   CL      N   P I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_1   RVLTAVVA S                       F   F I   CW F   P FQ     LVAL            L G T V WL              K E ML          F YG K Y K I        I   D I LVN PT             S   SL   A   F   FN   S   CL      N   PM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL1_2   RVLTAVVA S                       F   F I   CW F   P FQ     LVAL            L G T V WL              K E ML          F YG K Y K I        I   D I LVN PT             S   SL   A   F   FN   S   CL      N   PM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1      RVL S FVAAA                      F   FL    CW S   P YQ     VVAL            I ATVR I                RELL            - Q G MY K E        I   G I AVDVT              S   AL   A   F   FN   S   CL      N   PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPRL2     L   YV      F MG R N         FQ E      RL   I   R SL   PT      S   L   E   RAL         T   E   V   PD      S   AQ T   SNT         DTT      S   A S   P   PEE      TE   LQ      AM
                      SINE
                                                      Other region                                                                                                                                                         FPRL1_1   L   YV      F VG Q D         FRE       RL   I   HSL    PT      S   L   E   RAL         S   E   -   - D     S   A PT   NDT         AAN      S   A S   P   PAE      TE   LQ      AM
                      13%
                                                         16%
                                                                                                                               Retroelement                                                                                FPRL1_2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FPR1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         YV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         YV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 F VG Q D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 F MG Q D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FRE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FRE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HSL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        - D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        - D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TQ T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           NDT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SDT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       AAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ATN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PAE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       VE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AK



                                                                                                                                         RNA intermediate

    LINE
    20%                                                                                                       - LTR element                                         + LTR element

                                                                                                        Retroposon
                                                                                                                                                   - env                            + env
                                                                     Gene-related Sequence
HERV element
                                                                            36%                                                          Retrotransposon
   8%
               DNA element                                                                      - RT                 + RT
                  3%                  Pseudogene                                                                                   LTR    ORF1         ORF2    LTR
                      Coding sequence    1%                                                  SINE
                                                                                                                               Yeast Ty1/copia/truncated HERVs
                             3%


                                                                                                                                   LTR           LTR
                                                                                        P
                                                                                           Poly(A)                                 Human THE1
                                                                                       Human Alu

                                                                                                                                                                                                           1                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                          Retrovirus

                                                                                                                            LINE
                                                                                                                                                   LTR        gag        pol         env    LTR
                              LT R :      Long        Te r min al              Rep e at
                              LINE: Long Integrated nuclear element                                 P    ORF1    ORF2                             Full-length HERVs/exogenous retrovirus
                                                                                                                L1             Poly(A)
                              SINE: Short          Integrated nuclear element
                              H E RV: H u m a n E n d o g e n o u s R e t r o - Vi r u s




                                   Materials & Methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (A)

               Luciferase assay                    Bisulfite Sequencing PCR
                                                                                                                                   PCR, RT-PCR
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (B)

                                                                                                                                            BSP


               Bioinformatics                                                                                           PROMOTER ASSAY                                                             (C)


                                                                                                                            BIOINFOMATICS


                                                                                                                                         IMAGE J                                                                 …
                                                                            ImageJ




                                                                        References
               1.Maksakova IA, Mager DL. Transcriptional regulation of early
                 transposon elements, an active family of mouse long terminal repeat
                 retrotransposons. J Viro. 2005. 79(22):13865-74.…..................
               2.Yang D, Chen Q, Gertz B, He R, Phulsuksombati M, Ye RD,
                 Oppenheim JJ. Human dendritic cells express functional formyl
                 peptide receptor-like-2 (FPRL2) throughout maturation. J Leukoc
                 Biol. 2002. 72:598-607..                                          .




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