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					                         DRAFT May 2004

UK Learning Object Metadata Core
                                 Draft 0.2


                                  May 2004




                                 Feedback to:

Lorna M. Campbell, Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards,
                               lmc@strath.ac.uk
                                                  DRAFT May 2004

Contents


INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 3
   O VERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 3
   RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 3
   DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................. 4
ACCESSIBILITY METADATA ................................................................................................... 4
   CEN/ISSS (EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION/INFORMATION SOCIETY
   STANDARDIZATION SYSTEM ) APLR (ACCESSIBILITY P ROPERTIES FOR LEARNING RESOURCES ) .. 4
   DCMI (DUBLIN CORE M ETADATA INITIATIVE) ACCESSIBILITY ROADMAP ................................... 5
   IMS ACCLIP (ACCESSIBILITY FOR LEARNER INFORMATION PACKAGE) SPECIFICATION .............. 5
   IMS ACCPRF (ACCESSIBILITY PROFILE) SPECIFICATION ............................................................. 5
   IMS GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING ACCESSIBLE LEARNING APPLICATIONS ................................. 5
   TECH DIS ACCESSIBILITY METADATA SPECIFICATION ................................................................... 5
PARTICIPANTS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................................................... 6
   FEEDBACK ..................................................................................................................................... 6
REVISION HISTOR Y ................................................................................................................... 7
UK LOM CORE ELEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES ............................. 9
APPENDIX 1 UK EDUCATIONAL LEVELS .......................................................................... 46
APPENDIX 2 UK AND EUROPEAN TYPE AND LEARNING RESOURCE TYPE
VOCABULARIES ........................................................................................................................ 48
   RDN/LTSN LOM APPLICATION PROFILE ................................................................................... 48
   FERL METADATA SCHEME ......................................................................................................... 48
   N ATIONAL LEARNING NETWORK ................................................................................................. 49
   CURRICULUM ONLINE .................................................................................................................. 49
   E-GOVERNMENT METADATA STANDARD TYPE ENCODING SCHEME............................................ 50
   THE H IGHER LEVEL SKILLS FOR INDUSTRY PROJECT ................................................................... 52
   FACILITATING ACCESS AND I NFORMATION TO LEARNING AND TEACHING RESOURCES IN
   ENGINEERING............................................................................................................................... 52
   EDINBURGH ENGINEERING VIRTUAL LIBRARY M ETADATA FORMAT .......................................... 52
   CELEBRATE.............................................................................................................................. 53
   COLA ASSESSMENT ITEM LEVEL M ETADATA .............................................................................. 53
APPENDIX 3 UK LOM CORE APPLICATION PROFILES COMPARISON .................... 54




                                                                        2
                                          DRAFT May 2004
Introduction

Overview

The development of the UK Learning Object Metadata Core (formerly the UK Common Metadata
Framework) stems from a position paper presented to the UK Metadata for Education Group 1 in
April 2002. This paper called for the formation of a community of practitioners to identify
common UK practice in the use of metadata in packaged e- learning content. A subsequent
comparison was undertaken of twelve metadata schemas based on the IEEE Learning Object
Metadata Standard 2 . The full comparison of these schemas, which include those produced by
SCORM3 , CanCore 4 , FAILTE5 , the National Learning Network 6 and the University for Industry7
can be found in Appendix 3. As a result of this comparison, a set of guidelines has been drafted
to inform UK practitioners on the implementation of a minimum common core of LOM elements
and associated value spaces. The UK LOM Core is essentially an application profile of the IEEE
1484.12.1 - 2002 Standard for Learning Object Metadata that has been optimised for use within
the context of UK education.

The aim of the UK LOM Core is to identify common practice and provide guidelines for metadata
implementers, creators and users. In this respect the UK LOM Core has been heavily influenced
by the work of CanCore, the Canadian Core Guidelines for the Implementation of Learning
Object Metadata. This current draft of the UK LOM Core application profile contains an
information model only and is not accompanied by a binding.

Recommendations

The UK LOM Core identifies elements as being mandatory, optional and optional
(recommended).

In order for a UK LOM Core instance to be valid, values must be supplied for all mandatory
elements. Container elements are regarded as mandatory if one or more of their sub elements are
also mandatory. Values for optional elements may be supplied if they are deemed to meet the
requirements of the user community. It is recommended that optional (recommended) elements
should be used where possible. In the table below, mandatory elements are highlighted in grey
cells and the number and name of container elements are printed in bold.

It is recognised that many users will develop application profiles based on the UK LOM Core
tailored to meet their own specific requirements. In order to maximise interoperability, all
application profiles based on the UK LOM Core must contain all mandatory elements.
Developers should publish their application profiles, including vocabularies, on a project website
for example, to ensure they are accessible to other UK LOM Core implementers.

Where practical, applications should implement the entire LOM conceptual data schema, even if
many elements remain hidden from the end user. This will help to ensure interoperability with

1
  UK Metadata for Education Group http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ metadata/education/
2
  IEEE Standard for Learning Ob ject Metadata http://www.ieee.o rg/
3
  ADL Shared Content Object Reference Model http://www.adlnet.org/
4
  Can Core http://www.cancore.ca/
5
  Facilitating Access to Informat ion on Learn ing Technology for Engineers . http://www.failte.ac.u k/
6
  National Learning Network http://www.n ln.ac.uk/
7
  University of Industry http://www.ufiltd.co.uk/


                                                            3
                                        DRAFT May 2004
other application profiles of the UK LOM Core and the IEEE 1484.12.1 Learning Objects
Metadata Standard.

Definitions

Application profile: An application profile is an assemblage of metadata elements selected from
one or more metadata schemas and combined in a compound schema. Application profiles
provide the means to express principles of modularity and extensibility. The purpose of an
application profile is to adapt or combine existing schemas into a package that is tailored to the
functional requirements of a particular application, while retaining interoperability with the
original base schemas. 8

Binding: A formal method of representing a metadata record using a particular technology, for
example XML.

Learning object: An aggregation of digital assets that represents an educationally meaningful
stand-alone unit.

Inte roperability: The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and
to use the information that has been exchanged 9 .

Metadata: Structured data that describes data.

Schema: A structured                 representation       that     defines     and      identifies     the     data
elements in an element set.


Accessibility Metadata
Accessibility metadata is information about the accessibility of a resource or learning obje ct,
which can be used for filtering or manipulating those resources, so that a learner can find learning
objects that will match their requirements or preferences. Although this draft of the UK LOM
Core does not currently include accessibility metadata elements, a number of organisations are
working on producing accessibility metadata guidelines.

CEN/ISSS (European Committee for Standardization/Information Society
Standardization System) APLR (Accessibility Properties for Learning Resources)
Working in collaboration with IMS, W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and Dublin Core, the
APLR work has two main strands:

    1. To develop an accessibility application profile of IEEE 1484.12.1. Standard for Learning
       Object Metadata that will work with the AccessForAll element of the IMS ACCLIP
       (Accessibility for Learner Information Package) Specification. Funding for this work
       began at the beginning of 2004.



8
  Duval, E., Hodgins, W., Sutton, S., Wiebel, S. L., 2002. Metadata Principals and Practicalit ies. D-Lib Magazine, 8
(4). http://www.d lib.o rg/dlib/april02/weibel/ 04weibel.ht ml
9
  IEEE 90: Institute of Electrical and Electron ics Engineers. IEEE Standard Co mputer Dict ionary: A Co mpilation of
IEEE Standard Co mputer Glossaries. New Yo rk, NY: 1990

                                                         4
                                  DRAFT May 2004
   2. To produce an accessibility metadata vocabulary and develop guidance for labelling the
      suitability of learning content for specific cognitive disorders, such as dyslexia, using the
      the IEEE LOM.

Further details are available from the APLR website: http://www.cen-aplr.org.

DCMI (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative) Accessibility Roadmap
The DCMI are also working on developing accessibility metadata and are collecting examples of
current practice, including the TechDis Accessibility Metadata Specification, for inclusion in an
“Accessibility Roadmap”. The Roadmap is designed to show the work being done in the field of
accessibility metadata and to determine whether there are any gaps. Further information is
available from (http://dublincore.org/groups/access/).

IMS ACCLIP (Accessibility for Learner Information Package) Specification
The ACCLIP Specification provides a model for describing and recording user preferences for
content, display, and control of interfaces for online learning with an emphasis on access for all
learners. Although it does not relate strictly to metadata, some of the work already done on
vocabularies, elements and values may be useful. The IMS ACCPRF (Accessibility Profile) is
currently building on this work.                    This specification     is available      from
http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/.

IMS ACCPRF (Accessibility Profile) Specification
This specification is currently under development but is likely to be released by June 2004. It will
provide guidance for tagging learning objects with accessibility metadata and on matching this
metadata with IMS ACCLIP preferences.


IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications
IMS have published a set of Accessibility Guidelines, which consist of a set of recommendations
and resources for ensuring that learning environments are accessible to disabled people. Version
1.0 of the guidelines is available from
http://www.imsproject.org/accessibility/accessiblevers/index.html.


TechDis Accessibility Metadata Specification
TechDis has drafted an “Accessibility Metadata Specification” for describing the accessibility of
learning objects and resources. This work will feed into the APLR work and the IMS ACCPRF
Specification.

At present, the specification only consists of a data model, i.e. a list of optional elements and
attributes. Work on syntax, multiplicity, data type, and documentation may be carried out at a
later stage once the elements have been finalised. Many of the element/attribute values are
numerical (with a text description where appropriate), so that the metadata can be computer
readable.

A section on the user skills required in order to interact or access the learning resource has also
been included. These elements include graphicacy skills (interpretation of graphical images),
language skills (interpretation of written text), and assistive technology skills (competence level
required to use an assistive technology). Version 1.2 of the specification is available from
http://www.techdis.ac.uk/metadata/spec.html.

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                                  DRAFT May 2004

Participants and Acknowledgments
The following participants have contributed to this work:

       Phil Barker            CETIS
       Lorna M. Campbell      CETIS
       Charles Duncan         Intrallect Ltd.
       Gerry Graham           Learning and Teaching Scotland
       Pete Johnson           UKOLN
       Howard Noble           University of Oxford
       Sharon Perry           CETIS
       Andy Powell            UKOLN
       Alan Slevin            Learning and Teaching Scotland
       Jenny Slater           Ex CETIS

The authors if this document would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Norm Friesen
and the CanCore team and the members of the CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories Special
Interest Group.

Feedback

This document represents an application profile of the IEEE 14484.12.1-2002 Standard for
Learning Object Metadata, for use within UK educational communities.

The UK LOM Core should be viewed as a draft discussion document. Feedback is actively
sought from the UK and international educational community. Please forward all comments
to Lorna M. Campbell of CETIS at lmc@strath.ac.uk




                                                6
                              DRAFT May 2004
Revision History

Version Number   Release      Comments
                 Date
Draft 0.1        July 2003    First full public release of the UK Learning Object Metadata
                              Core
Draft 0.2        April 2004    Introduction restructured.
                               Accessibility Guidelines updated.
                               Revision history added.
                               1.1 General.Identifiers, 3.1 Meta- metadata.Identifier, 7.2.1
                                  Relation.Resource.Identifier guidelines amended to
                                  mandate use of URI encoding.
                               1.1.1 General.Identifier.Catalog, 3.1 Meta-
                                  metadata.Identifier, 7.2.1 Relation.Resource.Identifier
                                  recommended value is specified as URI.
                               1.2 General.Title guidelines expanded to include CanCore
                                  1.9 recommendations.
                               1.3 General.Language and 3.4 Meta- metadata.Language
                                  use of ISO 639-2:1988 two character language code
                                  specified in addition to ISO 3166-1:1997 two character
                                  country code where necessary.
                               1.5 General.Keyword guidelines expanded and additional
                                  organisational and hierarchical name examples added.
                               1.6 General.Coverage guidelines on recording temporal
                                  coverage added.
                               2.3 Lifecycle.Contribute.Role guidelines expanded.
                               2.3.2 Lifecycle.Contribute.Entity, 3.2.2 Meta-
                                  metadata.Contribute.Entity, 8.1 Annotation.Entity
                                  guidelines amended and expanded and new examples
                                  added. Two new mandatory vCard type elements added:
                                  FN and VERSION. Recommendation for null entries
                                  changed to recommend leaving type value spaces empty
                                  rather than entering the value “none”.
                               2.3.3 Lifecycle.Contribute.Date, 3.2.3 Meta-
                                  metadata.Contribute.Date and 8.2 Annotation.Date
                                  guidelines changed to recommend use of ISO 8601:2000.
                               3.3.3 Meta- metadata.Schema UK LOM Core profile name
                                  specified as UKLOMCorev0.2
                               4.1 Technical.Format changed from Mandatory to Optional
                                  (recommended); guidelines for recording non digital and
                                  unknown formats added.
                               4.4 Technical.Requirement fields CanCore guidelines
                                  updated.
                               4.5 Technical.Installation Remarks CanCore guidelines
                                  updated.
                               4.7 Technical.Duration guidelines expanded.
                               5.2 Educational.Learning Resource Type guidelines
                                  expanded.
                               5.6 Educational.Context name of recommended vocabulary
DRAFT May 2004
    changed to UKEC. Best practice guidelines from LOM
    added.
   5.7 Educational.Typical Age Range: example added.
   7 Relation category: CanCore guidelines updated.
   8.3 Annotation.Description: CanCore guidelines added.
   9.1 Classification.Purpose.Educational Level recommended
    vocabulary changed from Scottish Credit and
    Qualifiactions Framework to UK Educational Levels.
   9.3 Classification.Description: CanCore guidelines added.
   9.4 Classification.Keyword: CanCore guidelines added.
   Appendix 1 Using Metadata in Packaged e-Learning
    Content: Common Practice in the UK paper removed and
    replaced by UK Educational Levels table representing a
    draft mapping between UK Educational Levels, Scottish
    Credit and Qualifications Framework and other UK
    qualification frameworks
   Appendix 2 UK LOM Core Educational Levels removed
    and replaced by UK and European Type and Learning
    Resource Type Vocabularies
   Appendix 3 UK LOM Core Spreadsheet renamed UK
    LOM Core Application Profiles Comparison.




             8
                                                                      DRAFT May 2004
UK LOM Core Element and Implementation Guidelines

    Nr       Name           Explanation                Size            Order      Value space      Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                    Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                  Opti onal
1        General       This category groups 1                       unspecified                 Container      Mandatory
                       the general informat ion                                                 element
                       that describes this
                       learning object as a
                       whole.
1.1      Identi fier   A globally unique label Smallest permitted   unspecified                 Container      Mandatory      Implementers may choose from a
                       that identifies this     maximu m: 10 itemes                             element                       range of persistent, globally unique
                       learning object.                                                                                       identifier schemata which include,
                                                                                                                              but are not restricted to, URI,
                                                                                                                              URN, PURL, Handle, DOI, POI,
                                                                                                                              ISSN, ISBN, XRI.

                                                                                                                              In       order      to     facilitate
                                                                                                                              interoperability within distributed
                                                                                                                              environments it is recommended
                                                                                                                              that the chosen scheme is encoded
                                                                                                                              in the form of a URI. For specific
                                                                                                                              examples see UKOLN / CETIS
                                                                                                                              “Guidelines       for      encoding
                                                                                                                              identifiers in Dublin Core and
                                                                                                                              IEEE         LOM          metadata”
                                                                                                                              http://www.uko ln.ac.uk/ metadata/d
                                                                                                                              cmi-ieee/identifiers/

                                                                                                                              For further general guidance refer
                                                                                                                              to CanCore‟s “Reco mmendations
                                                                                                                              for Globally Un ique, Location-
                                                                                                                              Independent,             Persistent
                                                                                                                              Identifiers”,
                                                                                                                              http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                              html and the IMS "Persistent,
                                                                                                                              Location-Independent, Resource
                                                                                                                              Identifier         Imp lementation


                                                                                    9
                                                             DRAFT May 2004
  Nr            Name        Explanation             Size     Order         Value space      Data type      Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                              Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                            Opti onal
                                                                                                                        Handbook"
                                                                                                                        http://www.imsglobal.org/imp leme
                                                                                                                        ntationhandbook/imsrid_handv1p0.
                                                                                                                        html
1.1.1   Catalog        The name or designator 1            unspecified Repetoire of      CharactersString Mandatory     Following the guidelines for 1.1
                       of the identification or                        ISO/ IEC 10646-   (minimu m-                     above, the recommended value is
                       cataloguing scheme for                          1:2000            maximu m: 1000                 URI.
                       this entry. A                                                     char)
                       namespace scheme.
1.1.2   Entry          The value of the         1          unspecified Repetoire of      CharacterString Mandatory      The actual value of the identifier.
                       identifier within the                           ISO/ IEC 10646-   (minimu m-                     This value should be generated by
                       identification or                               1:2000            maximu m: 1000                 the application whenever possible.
                       cataloguing scheme that                                           char)
                       designates or identifies
                       this learning object. A
                       namespace specific
                       string.
1.2     Title          Name g iven to this      1          unspecified -                 LangString     Mandatory       Transcribe the title preserving the
                       learning object                                                   (smallest                      original wording, order and
                                                                                         permitted                      spelling. Only capitalize proper
                                                                                         maximu m: 1000                 nouns.       Subtitles  should    be
                                                                                         char)                          separated fro m the tit le using a
                                                                                                                        colon (':'). This element may not be
                                                                                                                        repeated, so only one title may be
                                                                                                                        encoded.

                                                                                                                        For untitled objects, mult iple tit les,
                                                                                                                        mu ltilingual titles and surrogate
                                                                                                                        objects     refer    to     CanCore
                                                                                                                        Gu idelines        Version          1.9
                                                                                                                        http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                        html
                                                                                                                        o Untitled If the learning object
                                                                                                                             does not have a title, create
                                                                                                                             one that is succinct and
                                                                                                                             descriptive. If a work is


                                                                             10
                                 DRAFT May 2004
Nr   Name   Explanation   Size   Order   Value space   Data type   Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                      Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                    Opti onal
                                                                                     deliberately      untitled     (for
                                                                                     example, an artwork purposely
                                                                                     left untitled by its creator), use
                                                                                     “Untitled” as its title but, if
                                                                                     possible, provide a description
                                                                                     of the learning resource in 1.4:
                                                                                     Description.
                                                                                o    Multiple titles If an object is
                                                                                     known by two competing yet
                                                                                     equally valid t itles (e.g. a
                                                                                     painting        is       officially
                                                                                     "Untitled" but historically
                                                                                     known as "Field of Flowers"),
                                                                                     provide the title most useful
                                                                                     for resource discovery first,
                                                                                     followed by the second in
                                                                                     parentheses.
                                                                                o    Multilingual titles Enter the
                                                                                     title in as many languages as is
                                                                                     appropriate for your context,
                                                                                     ensuring that the language of
                                                                                     each instance is identified.
                                                                                     Each of these titles will be
                                                                                     interpreted as a single title
                                                                                     with mult iple translations in
                                                                                     the        metadata        record.
                                                                                     However, translated titles are
                                                                                     not always literal equivalents
                                                                                     of the original. For examp le,
                                                                                     1993 A merican film Grumpy
                                                                                     Old Men was released in
                                                                                     French as les Grincheux; a
                                                                                     more literal t ranslation would
                                                                                     be “les vieillards grognons".
                                                                                     Alternate titles of this kind can
                                                                                     be      included     using      the
                                                                                     recommendations provided for

                                           11
                                                                     DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name           Explanation                Size            Order         Value space     Data type      Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                     Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                   Opti onal
                                                                                                                                    "Multiple Titles", above.
                                                                                                                               o    Surrogate      objects    Some
                                                                                                                                    learning objects, especially
                                                                                                                                    works of art and archival
                                                                                                                                    materials, are representations
                                                                                                                                    or surrogates of physical or
                                                                                                                                    analog objects (e.g. a jpeg
                                                                                                                                    image of Van Gogh's Starry
                                                                                                                                    Night is only a surrogate for
                                                                                                                                    the painting).     Indicate the
                                                                                                                                    original title in the title
                                                                                                                                    element, but make certain their
                                                                                                                                    surrogate nature is described
                                                                                                                                    in other key elements within
                                                                                                                                    your metadata record (e.g.
                                                                                                                                    1.4:Description,
                                                                                                                                    2.3:Lifecycle.Contribute, and
                                                                                                                                    4:Technical
1.3    Language      The primary human       smallest permitted    unordered   ISO 639:1988 and CharacterString Mandatory      This element is mandatory as the
                     language or languages   maximu m: 10 items                ISO 3166-1:1997 (smallest                       UK is mult i-lingual (ethnic, Welsh,
                     used within this                                                           permitted                      Gaelic, etc.) and a member of the
                     learning object to                                                         maximu m: 100                  European Union. The appropriate
                     communicate to the                                                         char)                          two character language code
                     intended user.                                                                                            should be chosen from ISO 639-
                                                                                                                               2:1988.       An additional two
                                                                                                                               character country code from ISO
                                                                                                                               3166-1:1997 should also be used
                                                                                                                               where appropriate. The default
                                                                                                                               entry for this element is 'en-GB'.
1.4    Description   A textual description of smallest permitted   unordered   -                 LangString     Mandatory      The description should be a
                     the content of this      maximu m: 10 items                                 (smallest                     concise, keyword - intensive
                     learning object.                                                            permitted                     description of the object. If the
                                                                                                 maximu m: 2000                learning object has an abstract or
                                                                                                 char)                         table of contents, that informat ion
                                                                                                                               may be included here. The general
                                                                                                                               description should not be confused
                                                                                                                               with the educational description of

                                                                                     12
                                                                  DRAFT May 2004
  Nr      Name         Explanation                Size            Order     Value space      Data type     Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                              Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                            Opti onal
                                                                                                                          the object.
1.5    Keyword    Keywords or phrases smallest permitted        unordered                 LangString     Optional         These keywords should ideally be
                  describing this learning maximu m: 10 items                             (smallest      (reco mmended)   created by the author of the
                  object.                                                                 permitted                       resource rather than through a
                  This data element                                                       maximu m: 1000                  classification process. Choose
                  should not be used for                                                  char)                           specific significant terms for
                  characteristics that can                                                                                keywords, avoiding those that are
                  be described by other                                                                                   too general to describe the object
                  data elements.                                                                                          effectively.

                                                                                                                          If the subject of the learning object
                                                                                                                          is a person, enter their name using
                                                                                                                          the 'familyname, forename' format.
                                                                                                                          E.g. Shakespeare, William

                                                                                                                          If the subject of the learning object
                                                                                                                          is an organisation, enter its name.
                                                                                                                          E.g. Royal National Institute for
                                                                                                                          the Blind.

                                                                                                                          If the name is hierarchical, list the
                                                                                                                          parts of the hierarchy fro m largest
                                                                                                                          to smallest, separated by full stops.
                                                                                                                          E.g. University of Edinburgh.
                                                                                                                          School of Literatures Languages
                                                                                                                          and Cultures. Celtic and Scottish
                                                                                                                          Studies.

                                                                                                                          For mult iple free-text keywords
                                                                                                                          repeat the element for each term.
1.6    Coverage   The time, cu lture,    smallest permitted     unordered                 LangString     Optional         Refer to Dublin Core Coverage
                  geography or region to maximu m: 10 items                               (smallest                       element:
                  which this learning                                                     permitted                       Typically, Coverage will include
                  object applies.                                                         maximu m: 1000                  spatial location (a p lace name or
                                                                                          char)                           geographic coordinates), temporal
                                                                                                                          period (a period label, date, or date
                                                                                                                          range) or jurisdiction (such as a

                                                                              13
                                                         DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name         Explanation             Size      Order        Value space      Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                         Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                       Opti onal
                                                                                                                   named ad ministrative entity).
                                                                                                                   Reco mmended best practice is to
                                                                                                                   select a value fro m a controlled
                                                                                                                   vocabulary (for examp le, the
                                                                                                                   Thesaurus of Geographic Names
                                                                                                                   [TGN]) and to use, where
                                                                                                                   appropriate, named p laces or time
                                                                                                                   periods in preference to numeric
                                                                                                                   identifiers such as sets of
                                                                                                                   coordinates or date ranges.
                                                                                                                   http://www.dublincore.org/docume
                                                                                                                   nts/dces/

                                                                                                                   For temporal coverage, the date
                                                                                                                   must be recorded in           ISO
                                                                                                                   8601:2000 format e.g. YYYY-
                                                                                                                   MM-DD.                        See
                                                                                                                   http://www.w3.org/TR/ NOTE-
                                                                                                                   datetime for further details.

1.7    Structure   Underlying               1          unspecified atomic            Vocabulary     Optional       Refer to CanCore Guidelines
                   organizational structure                        collection        (State)                       Version 1.9:
                   of this learning object.                        networked                                       CanCore does not recommend the
                                                                   hierarchical                                    use of this element.
                                                                   linear                                          o Resources incorporating
                                                                                                                       mu ltip le levels of aggregation
                                                                                                                       will likely include more than
                                                                                                                       one kind of structure (e.g. a
                                                                                                                       Website that includes both
                                                                                                                       hierarchical and linear
                                                                                                                       structures or linkages). The
                                                                                                                       expressive power of this
                                                                                                                       element is consequently
                                                                                                                       limited in that it does not
                                                                                                                       accommodate more than one
                                                                                                                       value, and does not
                                                                                                                       recommend a value that would

                                                                         14
                                                            DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name            Explanation           Size      Order        Value space      Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                            Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                          Opti onal
                                                                                                                           indicate that a multip licity of
                                                                                                                           structures are incorporated
                                                                                                                           into a single aggregate
                                                                                                                           resource.
                                                                                                                      o It is also not clear how the
                                                                                                                           underlying structure of a
                                                                                                                           resource might relate to
                                                                                                                           learning styles or user
                                                                                                                           preferences.
                                                                                                                      o The fact that this element
                                                                                                                           recommends the use of non-
                                                                                                                           numeric vocabulary values
                                                                                                                           also presents difficult ies for
                                                                                                                           implementation in mu ltilingual
                                                                                                                           contexts.
                                                                                                                      http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                      html
1.8      Aggregation   The functional         1           unspecified 1                 Vocabulary     Optional       Use as is, if at all, until such time
         Level         granularity of this                            2                 (Enumerated)                  as there is generally agreed
                       learning object.                               3                                               consensus as to how this element
                                                                      4                                               can be used appropriately. It is
                                                                                                                      not recommended that this element
                                                                                                                      is used as part of the basic UK
                                                                                                                      LOM Core element set. Other
                                                                                                                      application profiles of the LOM
                                                                                                                      may wish to make this element
                                                                                                                      mandatory to support ongoing
                                                                                                                      work on categorising the
                                                                                                                      aggregation level of learning
                                                                                                                      objects.
2        Life Cycle    This category describes 1          unspecified                   Container      Mandatory
                       the history and current                                          element
                       state of this learning
                       object and those who
                       have affected this
                       learning object during
                       its evolution.

                                                                            15
                                                                        DRAFT May 2004
  Nr           Name        Explanation                 Size              Order       Value space      Data type      Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                         Or         Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                      Opti onal
2.1     Version       The edition of this      1                      unspecified                  LangString     Optional       As many learning object
                      learning object.                                                             (smallest      (reco mmended) developers may not use formal
                                                                                                   permitted                     version control methods,
                                                                                                   maximu m: 50                  appropriate use of this element can
                                                                                                   char)                         not be gauranteed and
                                                                                                                                 consequently it is not mandatory.
                                                                                                                                 However developers of learning
                                                                                                                                 objects are strongly encouraged to
                                                                                                                                 systematically control versions of
                                                                                                                                 their resources.
2.2     Status        The complet ion status if 1                     unspecified draft            Vocabulary     Optional       As many learning object
                      condition of this                                           final            (State)                       developers may not use formal
                      learning object                                             revised                                        version control methods,
                                                                                  unavailable                                    appropriate use of this element can
                                                                                                                                 not be guaranteed and
                                                                                                                                 consequently its use is optional.
                                                                                                                                 This element may prove useful for
                                                                                                                                 resources held in repositories that
                                                                                                                                 are not yet publicly available, o r
                                                                                                                                 resources that have previously
                                                                                                                                 been available but have
                                                                                                                                 subsequently been withdrawn.
2.3     Contri bute   Those entities (i.e.,      smallest permitted   ordered                      Container      Mandatory
                      people, organizat ions) maximu m: 30 items                                   element
                      that have contributed to
                      the state of this learning
                      object during its life
                      cycle (e.g., creation,
                      edits, publication).
2.3.1   Role          Kind of contribution. 1                         unspecified author           Vocabulary     Mandatory        For co mmercially sourced learning
                                                                                  publisher        (State)                         objects or those created by
                                                                                  unknown                                          institutions or projects the
                                                                                  initiator                                        minimu m mandatory requirement
                                                                                  terminator                                       is 'publisher'. For objects created
                                                                                  validator                                        by individual authors e.g. teachers
                                                                                  editor                                           or lecturers, 'author' sould be used


                                                                                        16
                                                                   DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name        Explanation                Size            Order      Value space       Data type       Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                   Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                 Opti onal
                                                                           graphical                                         to denote the person who created
                                                                             designer                                        the object and 'publisher' should be
                                                                           technical                                         used to denote their
                                                                             implementer                                     institution/employer. If an authoer
                                                                           content provider                                  is acting independantly they may
                                                                           technical                                         record their own name as both
                                                                             validator                                       „publisher‟ and „author‟ Multip le
                                                                           educational                                       authors may be recorded.
                                                                             validator
                                                                           script writer
                                                                           instructional
                                                                             designer
                                                                           subject matter
                                                                             expert
2.3.2   Entity     The identification of    smallest permitted   ordered   vCard               CharacterString Mandatory     The mandatory minimu m set of
                   and information about maximu m: 40 items                http://www.imc.o rg (smallest                     element types declared by the
                   people or organizat ions                                /pdi/               permitted                     vCard specificat ion
                   contributing to this                                                        maximu m: 1000                 http://www.imc.org/pdi/ are:
                   learning object, most                                                       chars)
                   relevant first.                                                                                           FN (formatted name) the formatted
                                                                                                                             text corresponding to the name of
                                                                                                                             the object the vCard represents,
                                                                                                                             based on the semantics of the
                                                                                                                             X.520 Co mmon Name attribute.
                                                                                                                             E.g. FN:Ms Jane A. Smith, MA

                                                                                                                             N (structured name) the structured
                                                                                                                             components of the name of the
                                                                                                                             object the vCard represents. The
                                                                                                                             structured type value corresponds,
                                                                                                                             in sequence, to the Family Name,
                                                                                                                             Given Name, Additional Names,
                                                                                                                             Honorific Prefixes, and Honorific
                                                                                                                             Suffixes. The text co mponents are
                                                                                                                             separated by the semi-co lon
                                                                                                                             character (ASCII decimal 59).
                                                                                                                             Individual text components can

                                                                                17
                                 DRAFT May 2004
Nr   Name   Explanation   Size   Order   Value space   Data type   Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                      Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                    Opti onal
                                                                                include mult iple text values
                                                                                separated by the comma character
                                                                                (ASCII decimal 44). This type is
                                                                                based on the semantics of the
                                                                                X.520 individual name attributes.
                                                                                E.g. N:Smith;Jane;Anne;Ms;MA

                                                                                VERS ION the version of the
                                                                                vCard specification used. The
                                                                                LOM states that the value of this
                                                                                property must be 3.0.
                                                                                E.g. VERSION:3.0

                                                                                In addition, UK LOM Core 0.2
                                                                                mandates the use of the ORG type:

                                                                                ORG specifies the organizat ional
                                                                                name and units associated with the
                                                                                vCard. The type is based on the
                                                                                X.520 Organizat ion Name and
                                                                                Organization Unit attributes. The
                                                                                type value is a structured type
                                                                                consisting of the organization
                                                                                name, followed by one or mo re
                                                                                levels of organizational unit names.
                                                                                Text co mponents are separated by
                                                                                the semi-co lon character (ASCII
                                                                                decimal 59).
                                                                                E.g. ORG:Un iversity of
                                                                                Ed inburgh; School of Literatures
                                                                                Languages and Cultures; Celt ic
                                                                                and Scottish Studies

                                                                                Values    must    be   structured
                                                                                according to vCard as defined by
                                                                                IMC vCard 3.0 and must be
                                                                                enclosed between BEGIN:VCARD

                                           18
                                                  DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name        Explanation       Size      Order      Value space      Data type        Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                   Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                 Opti onal
                                                                                                             and END:VCARD. It is required
                                                                                                             that vCard          components      are
                                                                                                             separated with '\n' and escape ';'
                                                                                                             and ',' using '\;' and '\,' where these
                                                                                                             characters appear in a co mponent
                                                                                                             value.

                                                                                                             Additional vCard elements may be
                                                                                                             used but it is reco mmended that the
                                                                                                             total number of elements used
                                                                                                             should be kept to a minimu m for
                                                                                                             the sake of simp licity.

                                                                                                             Multiple authors may be recorded.
                                                                                                             If the author of the object is not
                                                                                                             associated with an organisation the
                                                                                                             ORG entry should be left empty.
                                                                                                             If the author of an object is
                                                                                                             identified as an institution or
                                                                                                             organisation then the FN and N
                                                                                                             entries should be left empty.

2.3.3   Date      The date of the    1          unspecified                 DateTime          Mandatory      Typically this will be the date of
                  contribution.                                                                              creation or publication of the
                                                                            See LOM                          learning object.
                                                                            Standard, Table
                                                                            3 page 38 for                    The Data type for this element,
                                                                            further                          DateTime , is described in Section
                                                                            guidelines.                      8, Tab le 3 of the LOM Standard.

                                                                                                             Date must be recorded in ISO
                                                                                                             8601:2000 format e.g. YYYY-
                                                                                                             MM-DD.                           See
                                                                                                             http://www.w3.org/TR/ NOTE-
                                                                                                             datetime for further details. If the
                                                                                                             exact date is not know the first day
                                                                                                             of the month may be substituted

                                                                19
                                                            DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name           Explanation            Size      Order      Value space      Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                          Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                        Opti onal
                                                                                                                    e.g. YYYY-MM-01. If the month
                                                                                                                    is not know only the year may be
                                                                                                                    recorded e.g. YYYY.

                                                                                                                    If the date cannot be recorded in
                                                                                                                    ISO     8601:2000      format,    or
                                                                                                                    additional informat ion is required,
                                                                                                                    a textual description of the date
                                                                                                                    may be added.

                                                                                                                    This element could be used to
                                                                                                                    identify a specific version of a
                                                                                                                    resource in the absence of a formal
                                                                                                                    method of version control.
3        Meta-         This category describes 1          unspecified                 Container      Mandatory      The      meta-metadata      elements
         Metadata      this metadata record                                           element                       describe the creation of the
                       itself (rather than the                                                                      metadata record, not the creation of
                       learning object that this                                                                    the learning object itself.
                       record describes).
3.1      Identi fier   A globally unique label 1          unspecified                 Container      Mandatory      Implementers may choose from a
                       that identifies this                                           element                       range of persistent, globally unique
                       metadata record.                                                                             identifier schemata which include,
                       This is not and shall not                                                                    but are not restricted to, URI,
                       be used, as there is no                                                                      URN, PURL, Handle, DOI, POI,
                       specified method for the                                                                     ISSN, ISBN, XRI.
                       creation of a globally
                       unique identifier.                                                                           In       order     to      facilitate
                                                                                                                    interoperability within distributed
                                                                                                                    environments it is recommended
                                                                                                                    that the chosen scheme is encoded
                                                                                                                    in the form of a URI. For specific
                                                                                                                    examples see UKOLN / CETIS
                                                                                                                    “Guidelines       for      encoding
                                                                                                                    identifiers in Dublin Core and
                                                                                                                    IEEE         LOM          metadata”
                                                                                                                    http://www.uko ln.ac.uk/ metadata/d


                                                                          20
                                                                       DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name           Explanation                 Size            Order        Value space       Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                       Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                     Opti onal
                                                                                                                                 cmi-ieee/identifiers/

                                                                                                                                 For further guidance refer to
                                                                                                                                 CanCore‟s “Reco mmendations for
                                                                                                                                 Globally      Unique,    Location-
                                                                                                                                 Independent,             Persistent
                                                                                                                                 Identifiers”,
                                                                                                                                 http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                 html and the IMS "Persistent,
                                                                                                                                 Location-Independent, Resource
                                                                                                                                 Identifier         Imp lementation
                                                                                                                                 Handbook"
                                                                                                                                 http://www.imsglobal.org/imp leme
                                                                                                                                 ntationhandbook/imsrid_handv1p0.
                                                                                                                                 html
3.1.1   Catalog       The name or designator 1                       unspecified Repertoire of     CharacterString Mandatory     Following the guidelines for 3.1
                      of the identification or                                   ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                     above, the recommended value is
                      cataloging scheme for                                      1:2000            permitted                     URI.
                      this entry. A namespace                                                      maximu m: 1000
                      scheme.                                                                      char)
3.1.2   Entry         The value of the          1                    unspecified Repertoire of     LangString      Mandatory     The actual value of the identifier.
                      identifier within the                                      ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                     This value should be generated by
                      identification or                                          1:2000            permitted                     the application whenever possible.
                      cataloging scheme that                                                       maximu m: 1000
                      designates or identifies                                                     char)
                      this metadata record. A
                      namespace specific
                      string.
3.2     Contri bute   Those entities (i.e.,     smallest permitted   ordered                       Container      Mandatory
                      people or organizat ions) maximu m: 10 items                                 element
                      that have affected the
                      state of this metadata
                      instance during its life
                      cycle (e.g., creation,
                      validation).



                                                                                      21
                                                                  DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name        Explanation               Size             Order         Value space       Data type        Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                       Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                     Opti onal
3.2.1   Role       Kind of contribution. 1                      unspecified creator             Vocabulary        Mandatory      It is important to trust the validity
                   Exactly one instance of                                  validator                                            of informat ion contained in a
                   creator should exist.                                                                                         metadata record therefore the
                                                                                                                                 creator of the record is mandatory.
3.2.2   Entity     The identification of   smallest permitted   ordered       vCard               Characterstring Mandatory      See guidelines for 2.3.2 Life Cycle
                   and information about maximu m: 10 items                   http://www.imc.o rg (smallest                      . Contribute . Entity above.
                   the people or                                              /pdi/               permitted
                   organizations                                                                  maximu m: 1000
                   contributing to this                                                           char)
                   metadata instance, most
                   relevant first.
3.2.3   Date       The date of the         1                    unspecified                     DateTime          Mandatory      The Data type for this element,
                   contribution.                                                                                                 DateTime, is described in Section
                                                                                                See LOM                          8, Tab le 3 of the LOM Standard.
                                                                                                Standard, Table
                                                                                                3 page 38 for                    Date must be recorded in ISO
                                                                                                further                          8601:2000 format e.g. YYYY-
                                                                                                guidelines.                      MM-DD, and should preferably be
                                                                                                                                 generated automatically by the
                                                                                                                                 metadata authoring tool. See
                                                                                                                                 http://www.w3.org/TR/ NOTE-
                                                                                                                                 datetime for further guidelines.
3.3     Metadata   The name and version    smallest permitted   unordered     Repertoire of     CharacterString Mandatory        This value should identify the
        Schema     of the authoritative    maximu m: 10 items                 ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                        latest version of the IEEE LOM
                   specification used to                                      1:2000            permitted                        Standard, currently LOMv 1.0.
                   create this metadata                                                         maximu m: 30                     Records created using application
                   instance.                                                                    char)                            profiles of the LOM should also
                                                                                                                                 identify the current version of these
                                                                                                                                 profiles e.g. UKLOMCo rev0.2.




                                                                                   22
                                                                           DRAFT May 2004
    Nr          Name         Explanation                   Size             Order         Value space         Data type Mandatory                   UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                           Or                  Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                         Opti onal
3.4      Language      Language of this             1                    unspecified ISO 639:1988 and CharacterString Mandatory             The appropriate two character
                       metadata instance. This                                       ISO 3166-1:1997 (smallest                              language code should be chosen
                       is the default language                                                        permitted                             fro m ISO 639-2:1988. An
                       for all LangString                                                             maximu m: 100                         additional two character country
                       values in this metadata                                                        char)                                 code from ISO 3166-1:1997 should
                       instance. If a value for                                                                                             also be used where appropriate.
                       this data element is not
                       present in a metadata                                                                                                The default entry for this element
                       instance, then there is                                                                                              is 'en-GB'. Th is value should be
                       no default language for                                                                                              generated automatically by the
                       LangString values.                                                                                                   metadata authoring tool.
4        Technical     This category describes      1                    unspecified                       Container      Mandatory
                       the technical                                                                       element
                       requirements and
                       characteristics of this
                       learning object.
4.1      Format        Technical data type(s)       smallest permitted   unordered     MIME types based    CharacterString Optional         Use MIME types only. LOM
                       of (all the components       maximu m: 40 items                 on IANA             (smallest       (reco mmended)   stipulates that the technical data
                       of) this learn ing object.                                      registration (see   permitted                        types of all co mpenents are
                                                                                       RFC2048:1996) or    maximu m: 500                    recorded. For example for a Flash
                                                                                       'non-digital'       char)                            animation in an HTM L Web page,
                                                                                                                                            repeat this element to encode both
                                                                                                                                            'text/html' and 'application/ x-
                                                                                                                                            shockwave-flash'.

                                                                                                                                            Non digital objects should be
                                                                                                                                            recorded as „non-digital‟.

                                                                                                                                      If it is not possible to acurately
                                                                                                                                      determine the MIM E type(s) of an
                                                                                                                                      object use „application/x-
                                                                                                                                      unknown‟.
4.2      Size          The size of the digital 1                         unspecified ISO 646:1991, but CharacterString Optional       Ideally the size of the learn ing
                       learning object in bytes                                      only the digits   (smallest       (reco mmended) object should be generated
                       (octets). The size is                                         '0'..'9'          permitted                      automatically by the tool that
                       represented as a                                                                maximu m: 30                   packages or stores it.


                                                                                            23
                                                                    DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name        Explanation                 Size             Order      Value space       Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                  Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                Opti onal
                  decimal value (radix                                                        char)
                  10). Consequently, only                                                                                   The size must refer to the
                  the digits "0" through                                                                                    uncompressed size of the resource.
                  "9" should be used. The
                  unit is bytes, not                                                                                        Although LOMv1.0 stipulates that
                  Mbytes, GB, etc. Th is                                                                                    the number is stored in bytes it
                  data element shall refer                                                                                  should be displayed to the user in
                  to the actual size of this                                                                                the most appropriate format e.g.
                  learning object. If the                                                                                   Kb, Mb etc.
                  learning object is
                  compressed, then this
                  data element shall refer
                  to the uncompressed
                  size.
4.3    Location   A string that is used to smallest permitted     Yes       Repertoire of     CharacterString Mandatory     This refers to the location of the
                  access this learning       maximu m: 10 items             ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                     object rather than the location of
                  object. It may be a                                       1:2000            permitted                     the metadata record. The value
                  location (e.g., Un iversal                                                  maximu m: 1000                must resolve to a location where
                  Resource Locator), or a                                                     char)                         the learning object can be found
                  method that resolves to                                                                                   e.g. a URL. If the resource is held
                  a location (e.g.,                                                                                         in a repository system this element
                  Universal Resource                                                                                        would refer to the location of the
                  Identifier). The first                                                                                    object in the repository and should
                  element of this list shall                                                                                be generated automatically.
                  be the preferable                                                                                         For bib liographic physical objects
                  location.                                                                                                 (books and journals), encode an
                                                                                                                            OpenURL as follows:

                                                                                                                            openurl:?genre=article&
                                                                                                                            atitle=Information%20ga
                                                                                                                            teways:%20collaboration
                                                                                                                            %20on%20content&title=O
                                                                                                                            nline%20Information%20R
                                                                                                                            eview&issn=1468-
                                                                                                                            527&volume=24&spage=40&
                                                                                                                            epage=45&artnum=1&aulas


                                                                                 24
                                                                        DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name            Explanation                 Size            Order     Value space      Data type     Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                    Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                  Opti onal
                                                                                                                              t=Heery&aufirst=Rachel

                                                                                                                              Note that this has been wrapped for
                                                                                                                              readability. For non-bibliographic
                                                                                                                              physical resources (e.g. VHS
                                                                                                                              videos), provide the URL of a Web
                                                                                                                              page or service that describes how
                                                                                                                              to obtain the resource.
4.4     Require ment The technical            smallest permitted      unordered                 Container      Optional       Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                     capabilit ies necessary maximu m: 40 items                                 element
                     for using this learning                                                                                  CanCore does not recommend the
                     object. If there are                                                                                     use of this aggregate element for
                     mu ltip le requirements,                                                                                 the purposes of interoperation in
                     then all are required,                                                                                   distributed environments. CanCore
                     i.e., the logical                                                                                        recommends that any technical
                     connector is AND.                                                                                        requirements be exp ressed in
                                                                                                                              human readable form in 4.6:Other
                                                                                                                              Platform Requirements.

4.4.1   OrComposite Grouping of mu ltiple        Smallest permitted   unordered                 Container      Optional           The formalized statements that
                    requirements. The            maximu m: 40 items                             element                            can be created with this
                    composite requirement                                                                                          element aggregate can specify
                    is satisfied when one of                                                                                       the type, name, and
                    the component                                                                                                  permissible version numbers
                    requirements is                                                                                                or number ranges for the
                    satisfied, i.e., the logical                                                                                   required technology. This
                    connector is OR.




                                                                                    25
                                                        DRAFT May 2004
 Nr        Name        Explanation             Size     Order        Value space         Data type     Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                           Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                         Opti onal
4.4.1.1 Type      The technology           1          unspecified operating system    Vocabulary     Optional             aggregate element also allows
                  required to use this                            browser             (State)                             record creators to indicate
                  learning object. E.g.                                                                                   whether all such requirements
                  hardware, software,                                                                                     need to be satisfied (using the
                  network, etc                                                                                            Boolean connector "And", and
                                                                                                                          repeating element
                                                                                                                          4.4:Requirement), o r whether
                                                                                                                          only one of a group of
                                                                                                                          requirements needs to be met
                                                                                                                          (using the Boolean connector
                                                                                                                          "Or", and repeating element

4.4.1.2 Name      Name of the required     1          unspecified if Type='operating Vocabulary      Optional        4.4.1 OrCo mposite).
                  technology to use this                          system', then:     (State)
                  learning object.                                pc-dos                                                 Such formulat ions may be
                                                                  ms-windows                                              useful for standard, default
                                                                  macos                                                   requirements expressions.
                                                                  unix                                                   The imp lementation of this
                                                                  mu lti-os                                               aggregate element may present
                                                                  none                                                    challenges, and can be avoided
                                                                                                                          by exp loiting other LOM
                                                                  if Type='browser'                                       elements:
                                                                  then :
                                                                  any
                                                                  netscape                                           o    It may be difficult to establish
                                                                    co mmunicator                                         and maintain vocabulary
                                                                                                                          values for 4.4.1.2:Name.
                                                                  ms internet
                                                                    exp lorer                                             Bro wsers and operating
                                                                  opera                                                   systems are developing rapidly
                                                                                                                          and proliferating, especially as
                                                                  amaya




                                                                       26
                                                        DRAFT May 2004
 Nr        Name         Explanation            Size     Order        Value space       Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                          Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                        Opti onal
4.4.1.3 Minimu m   Lowest possible version 1          unspecified Repertoire of     CharacterString Optional             they move into mobile devices
        Version    of the required                                ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                            and information appliances.
                   technology to use this                         1:2000            permitted                            The suggested value of
                   learning object.                                                 maximu m: 30                         "netscape communicator", for
                                                                                    char)                                example, is already
                                                                                                                         superannuated by other,
                                                                                                                         differently named versions of
                                                                                                                         Netscape. Maintaining an up-
                                                                                                                         to-date list of such software is
                                                                                                                         difficult (and testing
                                                                                                                         requirements against such a
                                                                                                                         list, likely prohibit ive).
                                                                                                                    o    Requirement statements are
                                                                                                                         likely to describe conditions




                                                                       27
                                                          DRAFT May 2004
 Nr       Name          Explanation              Size     Order        Value space       Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                            Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                          Opti onal
4.4.1.4 Maximu m   Highest version of the    1          unspecified Repertoire of     CharacterString Optional             that cannot be accommodated
        Version    technology known to                              ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                            in the formalized elements and
                   support the use of this                          1:2000            permitted                            permissible values. For
                   learning object.                                                   maximu m: 30                         example, this aggregate
                                                                                      char)                                element lacks a qualifier to
                                                                                                                           indicate that certain software
                                                                                                                           is optimal or preferred.
                                                                                                                      o    The recommended vocabulary
                                                                                                                           for 4.4.1.1:Type (consisting
                                                                                                                           only of "operating system",
                                                                                                                           "browser") may be insufficient
                                                                                                                           for exp ressing some technical
                                                                                                                           requirements (e.g. those
                                                                                                                           related to computer hardware,
                                                                                                                           network capabilit ies, etc.)
                                                                                                                      o    General software requirements
                                                                                                                           informat ion is in many cases
                                                                                                                           already indicated
                                                                                                                           economically in the MIM E
                                                                                                                           type values supplied in
                                                                                                                           4.1:Format.

                                                                                                                      As the LOM notes for element
                                                                                                                      4.6:Other Platform Requirements,
                                                                                                                      "This element is intended for
                                                                                                                      descriptions of requirements that
                                                                                                                      cannot be exp ressed by data
                                                                                                                      element
                                                                                                                      4.4:Technical.Requirement." Given
                                                                                                                      the expressive limitations that
                                                                                                                      apply to element 4.4, Can Core
                                                                                                                      recommends the use of 4.6:Other
                                                                                                                      Platform Requirements for the




                                                                         28
                                                           DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name            Explanation            Size      Order      Value space      Data type     Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                         Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                       Opti onal
                                                                                                                   o    description of all technical
                                                                                                                        requirements not already
                                                                                                                        indicated by 4.1:Formal

                                                                                                                   http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                   html
4.5    Installation   Description of how to   1          unspecified                 LangString     Optional       Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
       Remarks        install this learning                                          (smallest                      This element should be used to
                      object.                                                        permitted                          describe only those
                                                                                     maximu m: 1000                     requirements and procedures
                                                                                     char)                              specific to software or
                                                                                                                        resource installation. Other
                                                                                                                        technical requirements should
                                                                                                                        be expressed using other LOM
                                                                                                                        elements.
                                                                                                                   This element is not included in
                                                                                                                   CanCore for the following reasons:
                                                                                                                    It is useful only in exceptional
                                                                                                                        cases, most likely where an
                                                                                                                        educational resource is stand-
                                                                                                                        alone software requiring
                                                                                                                        special installation procedures.
                                                                                                                    It is of limited use for resource
                                                                                                                        discovery and selection
                                                                                                                        (installation instructions are
                                                                                                                        not likely to form a primary
                                                                                                                        criterion for the selection of
                                                                                                                        resources by students or
                                                                                                                        educators).
                                                                                                                    For those resources requiring
                                                                                                                        it, installation in formation is
                                                                                                                        likely to be provided with the
                                                                                                                        object itself (e.g. in a
                                                                                                                        "readme" file), and would
                                                                                                                        preferably be presented via a
                                                                                                                        set-up "wizard" or other


                                                                         29
                                                                     DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name            Explanation              Size            Order        Value space      Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                      Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                    Opti onal
                                                                                                                                       mechanis m developed for
                                                                                                                                       increased usability.
                                                                                                                                  http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                  html
4.6      Other Platform Information about other 1                  unspecified                   LangString     Optional          Use as a general comment element
         Requirements software and hardware                                                      (smallest                        to describe any technical
                        requirements.                                                            permitted                        informat ion the user may require in
                                                                                                 maximu m: 1000                   order to use the object that has not
                                                                                                 char)                            already been described in 4.1
                                                                                                                                  technical format.
4.7      Duration       Time a continuous       1                  unspecified -                 Duration       Optional          This element should only be used
                        learning object takes                                                                                     to describe time based media files,
                        when played at intended                                                  See LOM                          e.g. sound, video or animat ion. Use
                        speed.                                                                   Standard, Table                  5.9 Educational. Typical Learning
                                                                                                 4 page 40 for                    Time to describe the time needed
                                                                                                 further                          for a learner to use the resoruce.
                                                                                                 guidelines.
5        Educational    This category describes Smallest permitted unspecified                   Container       Optional
                        the key educational or maximu m: 100 items                               element         (reco mmended)
                        pedagogic
                        characteristics of this
                        learning object.
                        This is the pedagogical
                        informat ion essential to
                        those involved in
                        achieving a quality
                        learning experience.
                        The audience for this
                        metadata includes
                        teachers, managers,
                        authors and learners.




                                                                                     30
                                                                      DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name             Explanation               Size            Order        Value space       Data type      Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                        Or          Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                     Opti onal
5.1    Interactivity   Predominant mode of     1                    unspecified active            Vocabulary     Optional       Until the vocabulary for this
       Type            learning supported by                                    expositive        (State)        (reco mmended) element is used more widely by
                       this learning object                                     mixed                                           educators it will remain relatively
                                                                                                                                obscure and therefore can not be
                                                                                                                                mandatory. Further work is
                                                                                                                                required to develop an
                                                                                                                                understanding of this element and
                                                                                                                                its common usage.
5.2    Learn ing     Specific kind of          smallest permitted   ordered     exercise          Vocabulary     Optional       Use of the LOMv1.0 vocabulary is
       Resource Type learning object. The      maximu m: 10 items               simu lation       (State)        (reco mmended) problemat ic as it includes terms
                     most dominant kind                                         questionnaire                                   that describe both the form (e.g.
                     shall be first.                                            diagram                                         diagram) and the function (e.g
                                                                                figure                                          exam) of the object. In recognition
                                                                                graph                                           of this, many application profiles
                                                                                index                                           recommend the use of customised
                                                                                slide                                           vocabularies to describe this
                                                                                table                                           element.
                                                                                narrative Text
                                                                                exam                                              A range of UK and European Type
                                                                                experiment                                        and Learning Resource Type
                                                                                problem                                           vocabularies are presented in
                                                                                    statement                                     Appendix 2 belo w. Can Core
                                                                                self assessment                                   Gu idelines 1.9 also present a
                                                                                lecture                                           survey of Learning Resource Type
                                                                                                                                  vocabularies in Appendix A.
                                                                                                                                  http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                  html

                                                                                                                                  It is reco mmended that customised
                                                                                                                                  vocabularies should be used in
                                                                                                                                  conjunction with the LOMv1.0
                                                                                                                                  vocabulary to facilitate
                                                                                                                                  interoperability with other
                                                                                                                                  applications. This follows the
                                                                                                                                  LOM reco mmendations for
                                                                                                                                  element 5.6 Educational. Context :
                                                                                                                                  “Suggested good practice is to use

                                                                                      31
                                                              DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name             Explanation              Size     Order        Value space      Data type     Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                             Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                           Opti onal
                                                                                                                       one of the values of the value space
                                                                                                                       and to use an additional instance of
                                                                                                                       this data element for further
                                                                                                                       refinement.”
5.3    Interactivity   The degree of             1          unspecified very low         Vocabulary     Optional       Until the vocabulary for this
       Level           interactivity                                    low              (Enumerated)   (reco mmended) element is used more widely by
                       characterising this                              med iu m                                       educators it will remain relatively
                       learning object.                                 high                                           obscure and therefore can not be
                       Interactivity in this                            very high                                      mandatory. Further work is
                       context refers to the                                                                           required to develop an
                       degree to which the                                                                             understanding of this element and
                       learner can influence                                                                           its common usage.
                       the aspect or behaviour
                       of the learning object.
5.4    Semantic        The degree of             1          unspecified very low         Vocabulary     Optional       It is recognised that educators
       Density         conciseness of a                                 low              (Enumerated)   (reco mmended) routinely make judgements on the
                       learning object. The                             med iu m                                       appropriateness of learning
                       semantic density of a                            high                                           resources based on a subjective
                       learning object may be                           very high                                      notion of 'semantic density', even
                       estimated in terms of its                                                                       though they may not use this term.
                       size, span or – in the                                                                          For examp le a children's book may
                       case of self-timed                                                                              be at an appropriate reading level
                       resources such as audio                                                                         but contains too much detail on a
                       or video – duration.                                                                            subject area to be of use for a
                                                                                                                       particular pupil, it is too
                                                                                                                       semantically dense. At the mo ment
                                                                                                                       it is difficult to see how this
                                                                                                                       element could be used effectively
                                                                                                                       without mo re objective methods of
                                                                                                                       determining the value. Until the
                                                                                                                       vocabulary in this element is used
                                                                                                                       more widely by educators it will
                                                                                                                       remain relat ively obscure and
                                                                                                                       therefore can not be mandatory.
                                                                                                                       Work is required to develop an
                                                                                                                       understanding of this element and
                                                                                                                       its common usage.

                                                                             32
                                                                   DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name           Explanation              Size            Order        Value space         Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                       Or          Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                    Opti onal
5.5    Intended End Principal user(s) for   smallest permitted               teacher             Vocabulary     Optional       Until the vocabulary for this
       User Ro le   which this learning     maximu m: 10 items               author              (State)        (reco mmended) element is used more widely by
                    object was designed,                                     learner                                           educators it will remain relatively
                    most dominant first.                                     manager                                           obscure and therefore can not be
                                                                                                                               mandatory. Further work is
                                                                                                                               required to develop an
                                                                                                                               understanding of this element and
                                                                                                                               its common usage.
5.6    Context       The principal          smallest permitted   unordered   LOMv1.0             Vocabulary     Optional       The reccomended vocabulary for
                     environment within     maximu m: 10 items               school              (State)        (reco mmended) this element is now UK
                     which the learning and                                  higher education                                  Educational Contexts (previously
                     use of this learning                                    training                                          UK LOM Co re v0p 1). This
                     object is intended to                                   other                                             vocabulary contains terms relevant
                     take place.                                                                                               to the UK educational context and
                                                                             UKEC:                                             is identified by the following URI:
                                                                             nursery                                           http://www.uko ln.ac.uk/ metadata/e
                                                                               education                                       ducation/ukec/
                                                                             primary
                                                                               education                                        It is reco mmended that this
                                                                             secondary                                          vocabulary should be used in
                                                                               education                                        conjunction with the LOMv1.0
                                                                             sixth form                                         vocabulary to facilitate
                                                                               co llege                                         interoperability with other
                                                                             further education                                  applications. This follows the
                                                                             higher education                                   LOM reco mmendations for this
                                                                             continuous                                         element: “Suggested good practice
                                                                               pro fessional                                    is to use one of the values of the
                                                                               develop ment                                     value space and to use an
                                                                             vocational                                         additional instance of this data
                                                                               training                                         element for further refinement.”
                                                                             community
                                                                               education




                                                                                  33
                                                                   DRAFT May 2004
  Nr       Name           Explanation               Size            Order        Value space      Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                     Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                  Opti onal
5.7    Typical Age   Age of the typical     smallest permitted   Unordered                     LangString     Optional       It is reco mmended that this
       Range         intended user. This    maximu m: 5 items                                  (smallest      (reco mmended) element should only refer to the
                     element shall refer to                                                    permitted                     chronological age of a user and not
                     the developmental age,                                                    maximu m: 1000                their developmental age as
                     if that wou ld be                                                         chars)                        sugegsted by the LOM
                     different fro m the                                                                                     explanation. Therefo re the element
                     chronological age.                                                                                      is used to indicate the
                                                                                                                             appropriateness of the object for a
                                                                                                                             particular age group.
                                                                                                                             Develop mental 'age' o r level
                                                                                                                             should be described uding 9.1
                                                                                                                             Classification. Pu rpose.
                                                                                                                             Educational Level.

                                                                                                                              E.g to describe a learn ing object
                                                                                                                              designed for use with adult learners
                                                                                                                              with basic reading skills 5.7
                                                                                                                              Educational. Typical Age Range
                                                                                                                              should should be “18 –“ or “adult
                                                                                                                              learners” and 9.1 Classification.
                                                                                                                              Purpose. Educational Level should
                                                                                                                              be UK Educational Level 2.
5.8    Difficulty    This data element         1                 unspecified very easy         Vocabulary      Optional       It is recognised that educators
                     defines how hard it is to                               easy              (Enumerated)    (reco mmended) routinely make judgements on the
                     work through this                                       med iu m                                         appropriateness of learning
                     learning object fo r the                                difficult                                        resources based on a subjective
                     typical target audience.                                very difficult                                   notion of 'difficu lty'. At the
                                                                                                                              mo ment effective use of this
                                                                                                                              element is problemat ic without
                                                                                                                              more objective methods of
                                                                                                                              determining the value. Until the
                                                                                                                              vocabulary for this element is used
                                                                                                                              more widely by educators it will
                                                                                                                              remain relat ively obscure and
                                                                                                                              therefore can not be mandatory.
                                                                                                                              Work is required to develop an
                                                                                                                              understanding of this element and

                                                                                    34
                                                                       DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name           Explanation                Size             Order          Value space      Data type      Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                          Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                        Opti onal
                                                                                                                                      its common usage.
5.9      Typical        Approximate or typical 1                     unspecified                     Duration       Optional (not     As there is no commonly accepted
         Learn ing Time time it takes to work                                                                       recommended)      method of determining how long a
                        with or through this                                                         See LOM                          learner should work with any given
                        learning object fo r the                                                     Standard, Table                  resource, this element should be
                        typical intended target                                                      4 page 40 for                    used with caution.
                        audience.                                                                    further
                                                                                                     guidelines.
5.10     Description   Co mments on how this Smallest permitted      unspecified -                   LangString      Optional  This element describes potential
                       learning object is to be maximu m: 10 items                                   (smallest                 educational uses of a resource. For
                                                                                                                     (reco mmended)
                       used.                                                                         permitted                 example "use as an introduction to
                                                                                                     maximu m: 1000            the topic". This element should not
                                                                                                     char)                     be confused with 1.4
                                                                                                                               General.Description.
5.11     Language      The human language       smallest permitted   unordered ISO 639:1988 and CharacterString Optional       This is distinct fro m 1.3 General.
                       used by the typical      maximu m: 10 items               ISO 3166-1:1997 (smallest      (reco mmended) Language. For example, in a
                       intended user of this                                                      permitted                    metadata record describing an
                       learning object.                                          See 1.3          maximu m: 100                object designed to support the
                                                                                 general.language char)                        teaching of French to English
                                                                                                                               speakers, 1.3 General. Language
                                                                                                                               would be 'fr' and 5.11 Educational.
                                                                                                                               Language would be 'en-GB'. That
                                                                                                                               is, it is a resource in French
                                                                                                                               designed to be used by a student
                                                                                                                               whose first language is English.
6        Rights        This category describes 1                     unspecified -                Container     Mandatory
                       the intellectual property                                                  element
                       rights and conditions of
                       use for this learning
                       object.
6.1      Cost          Whether use of this       1                   unspecified yes                 Vocabulary     Optional       If "yes", details of the actual cost
                       learning object requires                                  no                  (State)        (reco mmended) sould be included in 6.3 Rights.
                       payment.                                                                                                    Description.




                                                                                         35
                                                                       DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name             Explanation               Size            Order          Value space      Data type     Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                         Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                       Opti onal
6.2      Copyright and Whether copyright or 1                        unspecified yes                 Vocabulary     Mandatory      If "yes", details of the restrictions
         Other         other restrictions apply                                  no                  (State)                       sould be included in 6.3 Rights.
         Restrictions  to the use of this                                                                                          Description.
                       learning object.
6.3      Description   Co mments on the          1                   unspecified                     LangString     Mandatory      A description of costs, copyright
                       conditions of use of this                                                     (smallest                     restrictions, conditions of use or
                       learning object.                                                              permitted                     where to find further informat ion
                                                                                                     maximu m: 1000                regarding usage rights.
                                                                                                     char)
7        Relati on      This category defines smallest permitted      unordered                      Container      Optional       Appropriate use of these elements
                        the relationship          maximu m: 100 items                                element                       can be labour intensive. Refer to
                        between this learning                                                                                      CanCore Guidelines 1.9 for further
                        object and other                                                                                           advice:
                        learning objects, if any.
                                                                                                                                   The utility of the Relation category
                                                                                                                                   is highly dependent on the
                                                                                                                                   provision and interoperation of
                                                                                                                                   infrastructure elements other than
                                                                                                                                   metadata (e.g. identification and
                                                                                                                                   resolution services, content
                                                                                                                                   packaging technology, aggregation
                                                                                                                                   and disaggregation mechanis ms).
                                                                                                                                   Properly supported and integrated,
                                                                                                                                   the Relation category can support
                                                                                                                                   important functionality and add
                                                                                                                                   considerable value to an
                                                                                                                                   implementation. Such support and
                                                                                                                                   integration, however, is not likely
                                                                                                                                   to be available across domains, or
                                                                                                                                   in highly d istributed
                                                                                                                                   environments. All of these factors
                                                                                                                                   should be taken into account in
                                                                                                                                   decisions to use these elements.

                                                                                                                                   http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                   html


                                                                                         36
                                                                        DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name           Explanation                 Size              Order       Value space      Data type     Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                        Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                      Opti onal
7.1     Kind          Nature of the            1                      unspecified Note: Based on   Vocabulary     Optional        Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                      relationship between                                        Dublin Core:     (State)                        The LOM vocabulary and the
                      this learning object and                                    ispartof                                        Dublin Core vocabulary on which
                      the target learning                                         haspart                                         it is based differ in two respects.
                      object, identified by                                       isversionof                                     The LOM vocabulary o mits the
                      7.2:Relation.Resource.                                      hasversion                                      "replaces" and "is replaced by"
                                                                                  isformatof                                      values in the Dublin Core
                                                                                  hasformat                                       vocabulary. The LOM includes "is
                                                                                  references                                      based on" and "is basis for" values
                                                                                  isreferencedby                                  that are not in Dublin Core.
                                                                                  isbasedon                                       However, the crosswalk to Dublin
                                                                                  isbasisfor                                      Core included in the LOM data
                                                                                  requires                                        model indicates thaequivalent of
                                                                                  isrequiredby                                    the "Source" element in Dublin
                                                                                                                                  Core.
                                                                                                                                  http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                  html
7.2     Resource      The target learning      1                      unspecified                                 Optional        Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                      object that this                                                                                            This element aggregate refers
                      relationship references.                                                                                    explicit ly to the learning resource
                                                                                                                                  being described by the metadata
                                                                                                                                  record. It does not refer to the
                                                                                                                                  metadata record itself.exception is
                                                                                                                                  if the related resource exists only
                                                                                                                                  as a metadata record.
                                                                                                                                  http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                  html
7.2.1   Identi fier   A globally unique label Smallest permitted      unspecified                  Container      Optional        Implementers may choose from a
                      that identifies the target maximu m: 10 items                                element                        range of persistent, globally unique
                      learning object.                                                                                            identifier schemata which include,
                                                                                                                                  but are not restricted to, URI,
                                                                                                                                  URN, PURL, Handle, DOI, POI,
                                                                                                                                  ISSN, ISBN, XRI.

                                                                                                                                  In      order     to      facilitate
                                                                                                                                  interoperability within distributed


                                                                                       37
                                                         DRAFT May 2004
  Nr        Name        Explanation             Size      Order         Value space       Data type      Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                                                            Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                          Opti onal
                                                                                                                      environments it is recommended
                                                                                                                      that the chosen scheme is encoded
                                                                                                                      in the form of a URI. For specific
                                                                                                                      examples see UKOLN / CETIS
                                                                                                                      “Guidelines       for      encoding
                                                                                                                      identifiers in Dublin Core and
                                                                                                                      IEEE         LOM          metadata”
                                                                                                                      http://www.uko ln.ac.uk/ metadata/d
                                                                                                                      cmi-ieee/identifiers/

                                                                                                                      For further gu idance refer to
                                                                                                                      CanCore‟s “Reco mmendations for
                                                                                                                      Globally Unique, Location-
                                                                                                                      Independent, Persistent
                                                                                                                      Identifiers”,
                                                                                                                      http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                      html and the IMS "Persistent,
                                                                                                                      Location-Independent, Resource
                                                                                                                      Identifier Imp lementation
                                                                                                                      Handbook"
                                                                                                                      http://www.imsglobal.org/imp leme
                                                                                                                      ntationhandbook/imsrid_handv1p0.
                                                                                                                      html
7.2.1.1 Catalog    The name or designator 1            unspecifed    Repertoire of     CharacterString Optional       Following the guidelines for 7.2.1
                   of the identification or                          ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest                      above the recommended value is
                   cataloguing scheme fot                            1:2000            permitted                      URI.
                   his entry. A namespace                                              maximu m:1000
                   scheme                                                              char)
7.2.1.2 Entry      The value of the         1          unspecified                     LanString       Optional       The actual value of the identifier.
                   identification or                                                   (smallest                      This value should be generated by
                   cataloguing scheme that                                             permitted                      the application whenever possible.
                   designates or identifies                                            maximu m: 1000
                   the target learning                                                 char)
                   object. A namespace
                   specific string.



                                                                          38
                                                                       DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name           Explanation                Size             Order      Value space      Data type       Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                        Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                      Opti onal
7.2.2    Description   Description of the target 1                   unspecified                 LangString       Optional         Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                       learning object.                                                          (smallest                         CanCore does not recommend the
                                                                                                 permitted                         use of this element for the purposes
                                                                                                 maximu m: 1000                    of interoperation in distributed
                                                                                                 char)                             environments.
                                                                                                                                    A description of the resource
                                                                                                                                        is not required for its retrieval.
                                                                                                                                    CanCore reco mmends that
                                                                                                                                        descriptions be less than 1000
                                                                                                                                        characters in length. Keep in
                                                                                                                                        mind that this element is
                                                                                                                                        intended only to identify what
                                                                                                                                        the related resource is to the
                                                                                                                                        end-user. It is not meant to act
                                                                                                                                        as a surrogate metadata record
                                                                                                                                        for that resource. Otherwise,
                                                                                                                                        see the CanCore
                                                                                                                                        recommendations for
                                                                                                                                        1.4:General.Description for
                                                                                                                                        further guidance. (E.g. Just
                                                                                                                                        the title of the related resource
                                                                                                                                        can be included as its
                                                                                                                                        description.)

                                                                                                                                 http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                 html
8        Annotation    This category provides smallest permitted     unordered                   Container        Optional       Implementors and educators should
                       comments on the          maximu m: 30 items                               element          (reco mmended) aspire to using the annotation
                       educational use of this                                                                                   category elements as they have the
                       learning object, and                                                                                      potential to significantly enhance
                       informat ion on when                                                                                      the richness of the metadata record
                       and by whom the                                                                                           by recording additional qualitat ive
                       comments were created.                                                                                    informat ion about the obejct and its
                       This category enables                                                                                     usage.
                       educators to share their
                       assessments of learn ing


                                                                                     39
                                                                         DRAFT May 2004
    Nr       Name            Explanation                 Size            Order        Value space        Data type       Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                            Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                          Opti onal
                        objects, suggestions for
                        use, etc.
8.1      Entity         Entity (i.e. people,     1                     unspecified vCard               CharacterString Optional         See guidelines for 2.3.2 Life Cycle
                        organisation) that                                         http://www.imc.o rg (smallest       (reco mmended)   . Contribute . Entity above.
                        created this annotation.                                   /pdi/               permitted
                                                                                                       maximu m: 1000
                                                                                                       char)
8.2      Date           Date that this          1                      unspecified                     DateTime        Optional         The Data type for this element,
                        annotation was created.                                                                        (reco mmended)   DateTime, is described in Section
                                                                                                       See LOM                          8, Table 3 of the LOM Standard.
                                                                                                       Standard, Table                  Date must be recorded in ISO
                                                                                                       3 page 38 for                    8601:2000 format e.g. YYYY-
                                                                                                       further                          MM-DD.
                                                                                                       guidelines.
8.3      Description    The content of this     1                      unspecified                     LangString      Optional         This element can be used to enable
                        annotation.                                                                    (smallest       (reco mmended)   educators to describe the
                                                                                                       permitted                        experience of using the object in a
                                                                                                       maximu m: 1000                   teaching and learning situation.
                                                                                                       char)
                                                                                                                                        CanCore Guidelines 1.9 also
                                                                                                                                        recommemdusing this element to
                                                                                                                                        describe educational characteristic
                                                                                                                                        that cannot be accommodated by
                                                                                                                                        the elements in 5. Educational
                                                                                                                                        category.

                                                                                                                                        http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                                        html
9        Classification This category describes smallest permitted     unordered                     Container        Optional
                        where this learning       maximu m: 40 items                                 element          (reco mmended)
                        object falls within a
                        particular classification
                        system.




                                                                                        40
                                                        DRAFT May 2004
  Nr      Name        Explanation              Size      Order        Value space        Data type      Mandatory               UK LOM Core
                                                                                                            Or         Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                         Opti onal
9.1    Purpose   The purpose of            1          unspecified discipline          Vocabulary     Optional       Classification may be used for
                 classifying this learning                        idea                (State)        (reco mmended) mu ltip le puposes. The UK LOM
                 object.                                          prerequisite                                      Core reco mmends the following
                                                                  educational                                       usage at present.
                                                                    object ive
                                                                  accessibility                                      Discip line - formal subject
                                                                     restrictions                                    classification or idenification in
                                                                  educational level                                  use by the institution or sector. E.g.
                                                                  skill level                                        National Curricu lu m 5-14
                                                                  security level                                     http://www.nc.uk.net/home.html,
                                                                  competency                                         learndirect Subject Classificat ion
                                                                                                                     (Levels 1-2)
                                                                                                                     http://www.learndirect-
                                                                                                                     advice.co.uk/provider/standardsand
                                                                                                                     classifications/classpage/, Joint
                                                                                                                     Academic Coding System
                                                                                                                     http://www.hesa.ac.uk/jacs/comple
                                                                                                                     teclassification.htm, Dewey
                                                                                                                     Decimal Classificat ion (Su mmary
                                                                                                                     Levels 1-2)
                                                                                                                     http://www.oclc.org/dewey/about/d
                                                                                                                     dc_21_summaries.htm.

                                                                                                                     Idea - relates to the concept
                                                                                                                     contained in the resource. It is
                                                                                                                     possible to use vocabularies
                                                                                                                     already used for Discipline but to a
                                                                                                                     deeper level e.g. LDSC, DDC.
                                                                                                                     Other excamp les include subject
                                                                                                                     specific vocabularies e.g. M ESH
                                                                                                                     http://www.nlm.n ih.gov/mesh/mes
                                                                                                                     hhome.html




                                                                        41
                                                                   DRAFT May 2004
  Nr      Name           Explanation               Size            Order     Value space      Data type     Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                               Or             Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                             Opti onal
                                                                                                                           Accessibility Restrictions - no
                                                                                                                           suitable vocabulary exists at
                                                                                                                           present.

                                                                                                                           Educational Level - the
                                                                                                                           cognitive/grade level for which the
                                                                                                                           resource is intended. It is
                                                                                                                           recommended that the UK
                                                                                                                           Educational Levels vocabulary
                                                                                                                           should be used.
                                                                                                                           http://www.uko ln.ac.uk/ metadata/e
                                                                                                                           ducation/ukel/ The UKEL terms
                                                                                                                           correspond directly to the Scottish
                                                                                                                           Cred it and Qualifications
                                                                                                                           Framework
                                                                                                                           http://www.ngflscotland.gov.uk/nq
                                                                                                                           /cqframework.asp
                                                                                                                           Appendix 2 provides a draft
                                                                                                                           mapping between UKEL, the
                                                                                                                           SCQF and other UK qualificat ion
                                                                                                                           frameworks.
9.2    Taxon Path   A taxono mic path in a smallest permitted    unordered                 Container      Optional
                    specific classification maximu m: 15 items                             element        (reco mmended)
                    system. Each
                    succeeding level is a
                    refinement in the
                    definit ion of the
                    preceding level.
                    There may be different
                    paths, in the same or
                    different classifications,
                    which describe the
                    same characteristic.




                                                                               42
                                                                      DRAFT May 2004
  Nr         Name          Explanation                Size             Order       Value space       Data type         Mandatory              UK LOM Core
                                                                                                                           Or         Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                                        Opti onal
9.2.1   Source        The name of the           1                   unspecified Repertoire of     LangString        Optional       Where possible use a vocabulary
                      classification system.                                    ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest         (reco mmended) that is already in co mmon usage
                      This data element may                                     1:2000            permitted                        e.g. DDC, LDSC, M ESH.
                      use any recognized                                                          maximu m: 1000
                      "official" taxonomy o r                                                     char)
                      any user-defined
                      taxono my.
9.2.2   Taxon         A particular term within smallest permitted   ordered                       Container         Optional
                      a taxonomy. A taxon is maximu m: 15 items                                   element           (reco mmended)
                      a node that has a
                      defined label or term.
                      A taxon may also have
                      an alphanumeric
                      designation or identifier
                      for standardized
                      reference. Either or
                      both the label and the
                      entry may be used to
                      designate a particular
                      taxon.

9.2.2.1 Id            The identifier of the    1                    unspecified Repertoire of     CharacterString   Optional       Use a notation or classmark fro m
                      taxon, such as a number                                   ISO/ IEC 10646-   (smallest         (reco mmended) the chosen classification scheme
                      or letter co mb ination                                   1:2000            permitted                        described by 9.2.1 Classification.
                      provided by the source                                                      maximu m: 100                    Taxon Path. Source.
                      of the taxono my.                                                           char)
9.2.2.2 Entry         The textual label of the 1                    unspecified                   LangString        Optional       Use a term fro m the chosen
                      taxon.                                                                      (smallest         (reco mmended) classification scheme described by
                                                                                                  permitted                        9.2.1 Classification. Taxon Path.
                                                                                                  maximu m: 500                    Source.
                                                                                                  char)
9.3     Description   This is the description 1                     unspecified                   Langstring        Optional         Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                      of the learning object                                                      (smallest                          CanCore does not recommend the
                      relative to the stated                                                      permitted                          use of this element for the purposes
                      9.1:Classification.                                                         maximu m: 2000                     of interoperation in d istributed
                      Purpose of this specific                                                    char)                              environments.


                                                                                     43
                                                                DRAFT May 2004
  Nr      Name        Explanation               Size            Order   Value space      Data type     Mandatory             UK LOM Core
                                                                                                          Or            Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                                                        Opti onal
                 classification, such as                                                                                For general descriptions of the
                 discipline, idea, skill                                                                                 contents or purpose of the
                 level, educational                                                                                      resource, CanCore strongly
                 objective, etc.                                                                                         recommends the use of
                                                                                                                         1.4:Description.
                                                                                                                    Only one description can be
                                                                                                                    provided for each iterat ion of the
                                                                                                                    Classification group of elements as
                                                                                                                    a whole. This means that only one
                                                                                                                    description would typically be
                                                                                                                    provided for each descriptive
                                                                                                                    function or purpose.
                                                                                                                    http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                                                    html

9.4    Keyword   These are the keywords smallest permitted    ordered                 Langstring     Optional       Refer to CanCore Guidelines 1.9:
                 and phrases descriptive maximu m: 40 items                           (smallest                     Provide the most specific terms
                 of the learning object                                               permitted                     appropriate to the purpose stated in
                 relative to the stated                                               maximu m: 1000                9.1:Purpose.
                 9.1:Classification.Pu rpo                                            char)
                 se of this specific                                                                                    Use a separate 9.4:Key word
                 classification, such as                                                                                 element for each term or
                 accessibility, security                                                                                 phrase used.
                 level, etc., most                                                                                   If the value of 9.1 is
                 relevant first.                                                                                         "discipline," and the keywords
                                                                                                                         are not fro m a specific
                                                                                                                         taxono my, use
                                                                                                                         1.5:General.Keyword.
                                                                                                                    Keywords are assigned by the
                                                                                                                    indexer based on his/her
                                                                                                                    interpretation of the learn ing
                                                                                                                    resource‟s properties. As such,
                                                                                                                    keywords are derived either fro m
                                                                                                                    the object itself or fro m an
                                                                                                                    indexer's interpretation of the
                                                                                                                    object. They are not derived fro m


                                                                          44
                                 DRAFT May 2004
Nr   Name   Explanation   Size   Order   Value space   Data type   Mandatory            UK LOM Core
                                                                      Or           Implementati on Gui delines
                                                                    Opti onal
                                                                                an external vocabulary. Terms
                                                                                derived fro m an external
                                                                                vocabulary are best dealt with in
                                                                                9.2:Taxon Path.
                                                                                http://www.cancore.ca/documents.
                                                                                html




                                           45
                                                                              DRAFT May 2004
 Appendix 1 UK Educational Levels
 This table represents a draft mapping between UK Educational Levels http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/education/ukel/, Scottish Credit and
 Qualifications Framework http://www.ngflscotland.gov.uk/nq/cqframework.asp and other UK qualification frameworks. UKEL terms may be used to
 describe element 9.1 Classification. Purpose. Educational Level.

        UKEL             SCQF     Scottish NQ    NVQ      SVQ     NICATS         GNVQ           General Qualifications       Scottish Post 14   Scottish Highe r Education



UK Educational Level 1 Level 1   Access 1




UK Educational Level 2 Level 2   Access 2




UK Educational Level 3 Level 3   Access 3                       NICAT Entry                                              SG Foundation




UK Educational Level 4 Level 4   Intermediate 1 NVQ 1   SVQ 1   NICAT 1       Foundation     GSCE D-G                    SG General




UK Educational Level 5 Level 5   Intermediate 2 NVQ 2   SVQ 2   NICAT 2       Intermediate   GSCE A-C                    SG Credit




UK Educational Level 6 Level 6   Higher         NVQ 3   SVQ 3   NICAT 3       Advanced       AS Level                    SCE Higher



                                                                                               46
                                                                        DRAFT May 2004


UK Educational Level 7             Advanced
                         Level 7   Higher     NVQ 4   SVQ 4   NICAT 4        A Level     SHE Level 1
                                   Higher




UK Educational Level 8 Level 8                                NICAT 5                    SHE Level 2




UK Educational Level 9 Level 9                NVQ 5   SVQ 5   NICAT 6                    SHE Level 3




UK Educational Level 10 Level 10                                                         SHE Level H




UK Educational Level 11 Level 11                              NICAT 7                    SHE Level M




UK Educational Level 12 Level 12                              NICAT 8                    SHE Level D




                                                                               47
                                  DRAFT May 2004
Appendix 2 UK and European Type and Learning Resource Type
Vocabularies


RDN/LTSN LOM Application Profile
http://www.rdn.ac.uk/publications/rdn- ltsn/types/

CourseModuleUnitProgramme
ResourcePack
CaseStudy
ActivityExerciseFieldwork
ActivityExerciseFieldworkNotes
ProjectOutline
SimulationModel
StudyGuide
ExaminationTest
QuestionBank
AssessmentItem
LecturePresentation
Glossary
CourseLecturePresentationNotes
WorkedExample
Textbook
Demonstration
Computer-based Tutorial
ReadingList
TeachingTip
CurriculumSyllabus
EducatorGuide
EvaluationForm
EducationalPolicy
EducationalReport
LessonPlan

FERL Metadata Scheme
http://ferl.becta.org.uk/display.cfm?page=13&resID=3204

Activity
Artifact
Best practice
Catalog record
Collection
Community
Course
Curriculum
Curriculum support
Data set
Educator's guide
Environment
Event

                                                48
                                DRAFT May 2004
Form
Image set
Lesson plan
Literature
Primary source
Project
Realia
Reference
Research study
Secondary source
Serial
Service
Story
Study guide
Tool
Unit of instruction

National Learning Network
http://www.nln.ac.uk/materials/developers/technical_metadata_requirement.asp

Exercise
Simulation
Questionnaire
Diagram
Figure
Graph
Index
Slide
Table
Narrative
Text
Exam
Experiment
Problemstatement
SelfAssessment

Curriculum Online
http://www.curriculumonline.gov.uk/SupplierCentre/Metadataguides.htm

CURRICULUM BASED RESOURCES
     Drill and practice
     Exploration
     Open activity
     Guide

REFERENCE MATERIALS
     Information resource
     Glossary

APPLICATIONS/TOOLS
     Tool

                                              49
                                  DRAFT May 2004

ASSESSMENTS
     Assessment


e-Government Metadata Standard Type Encoding Scheme
http://www.govtalk.gov.uk/schemasstandards/metadata_document.asp?docnum=679

Publications/correspondence
       Annual report
       Article
       Briefing note
       Complaints document
       Consultation paper
       Correspondence
       Instructional
       Questionnaire
       Reference
       Report
       Rules
       Standard
       Specification
       Statistics

Financial/purchasing
       Accounts
       Budget
       Call for expressions of interest
       Contract
       Invitation to tender
       Invoice
       Purchase order
       Service level agreement
       Specification

Graphical / non-text
       Datasheet
       Image
       Map
       Organisation chart
       Physical object
       Plan drawing
       Software
       Sound
       Video

Legislation/parliamentary/ local government
       Act of Parliament
       Bill
       By-law
       Circular Guidance

                                              50
                                  DRAFT May 2004
      Command paper
      Committee report
      Treaty
      Directive
      Green paper
      Consultation Paper
      House of Commons paper
      House of Lords paper
      Parliamentary Question
      Scottish Executive paper
      Scottish Parliament paper
      Statutory guidance
      Statutory instrument
      White paper

News/Meetings/conferences
      Agenda
      Call for papers
      Minutes
      Newsletter
      Press release
      Presentation
      Proceedings
      Programme
      Promotional
      Public notice
      Speech

Personnel/Organisational
       Business plan
       Case notes
       Contract
       Diary or calendar
       Environmental impact assessment
       Form
       Job advertisement
       Job description
       Mission statement
       Organisation chart
       Policy
       Project document
       Service level agreement
       Staff appraisal
       Staff directory
       Terms of reference
       Web guidance
       Discussion forum
       Home page
       Website
XML schema


                                         51
                                  DRAFT May 2004
The Higher Level Skills for Industry Project
http://metadata.cetis.ac.uk/usage_survey/cs_hlsi.pdf

Exercise
Simulation
Questionnaire
Diagram
Figure
Graph
Video
Animation
Slide
Table
Narrative Text
Exam
Experiment
Problem Statement
Self Assessment


Facilitating Access and Information to Learning and Teaching resources in
Engineering
http://www.failte.ac.uk/documents/guidelines/r08esource_typex2.html

Tutorial/explanation
Assessment/test
Assignment/task
Activity
Images/movie
Resource Pack

Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library Metadata Format
http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/desire/overview/rev_08.htm

Information server- Higher Education
Information server- Society/Institution
Information server- Commercial
Information server- Governmental
Library Catalog
E-journal/Newsletter
Database/Databank
Resource Guide/Directory
Training Materials
Reference
Conference/Meeting Announcements
Recruitment/Employment
Patents/Standards
Mailing/Discussion List
Research Project/Centre
Software


                                                52
                                DRAFT May 2004
CELEBRATE
http://braveheart.eun.org/~david/celebrate/documents/D3_2.pdf

Assessment
Drill and practice
Information resource
Glossary
Guide
Exploration
Open activity
Tool


Cola Assessment Item Level Metadata

multiple choice
multiple response
matching
fill in the blank




                                              53
                                                                                DRAFT May 2004

          Appendix 3 UK LOM Core Application Profiles Comparison
Element         Element Name      UK LOM SCORM Content     SCORM      SCORM      LT S     NGfL     CanCore   BECT A   UfI FAILTE   COL       Dublin   Resl   HLSI FERL   COSE
Number                            Core Use  Aggregation   Shareable     Asset           Scotland               NLN                            Core
                                                            Content                      Content
                                                             Object
1                      general         M             M           M         M      M                     O             M             M    M
1.1                  identifier        M             R           R         R                  M         O        R     R            M    M              Y     Y?    Y      Y
1.1.1                  catalog         M                                                                                            M    M              Y     Y?    Y      Y
1.1.2                    entry         M                                                                                            M    M              Y     Y?    Y      Y
                          title        M             M           M         M      M           M         O        M    M       M     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
1.3                  language          M             O           O         O      M           M         O        M            M     M    M              Y           Y      Y
1.4                 description        M             M           M         M      M           M         O        M            m     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
1.5                   keyword          O             M           M         O      M                    NS        M                  O    M              Y      Y
1.6                  coverage          O             O           O         O      M           O         O        O                  O    O                          Y
1.7                   structure        O             O           O         O      M                    NS        O                  O    O
1.8           aggregation level        O             O           O         O      M                    NS        M                  O    O
                      lifecycle        M             M           M         O      M                     O                           M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
                       version         O             M           M         O      M           O         O        M            O     O    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
                         status        O             M           M         O      M                    NS        M                  O    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
                     contribute        M             O           O         O      M           M         O        M            O     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
2.3.1                     role         M             O           O         O      M                     O        M            O     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
2.3.2                    entity        M             O           O         O      M                     O        M                  M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
2.3.3                     date         O             O           O         O      M                     O        M            O     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
                meta-metadata          M             M           M         M                            O                           M    M
                     identifier        M             R           R         R                            O                     O     M    M
3.1.1                  catalog         M             O           O         O                            O                     O     M    M
3.1.2                    entry         M             O           O         O                            O                     O     M    M
3.2                  contribute        M             O           O         O                            O                     M     M    M              Y           Y
3.2.1                     role         M             O           O         O                            O                     M     M    M              Y           Y
3.2.2                    entity        M             O           O         O                            O                     M     M    M              Y           Y
3.2.3                     date         M             O           O         O                            O                     M     M    M              Y           Y
3.3           metadata scheme          M             M           M         M                            O        M                  O    M              Y                  Y


                                                                                             54
                                                                                  DRAFT May 2004
Element          Element Name       UK LOM SCORM Content     SCORM      SCORM      LT S     NGfL     CanCore   BECT A   UfI FAILTE   COL       Dublin   Resl   HLSI FERL   COSE
Number                              Core Use  Aggregation   Shareable     Asset           Scotland               NLN                            Core
                                                              Content                      Content
                                                               Object
3.4                    language          M             O           O         O                            O        M            M     O    M              M                  Y
                       technical         M             M           M         M      M                     O                           M    M
                         format          M             M           M         M      M           M         O        M                  O    M              Y      Y    Y      Y?
                            size         O             O           O         O      M                     O        O                  O    O              Y      Y    Y
                        location         M             M           M         M                            O        M            M     M    O              Y      Y           Y
                    requirement          O             O           O         O      M                    NS        O                  O    O                     Y
4.4.1              or composite          O                                                                                            O    O
4.4.1.1                     type         O             O           O         O      M                    NS                           O    O              Y      Y
4.4.1.2                    name          O             O           O         O                           NS                           O    O              Y      Y
4.4.1.3       minimum version            O             O           O         O                           NS                           O    O                     Y
4.4.1.4       maximum version            O             O           O         O                           NS                           O    O                     Y
            installation remarks         O             O           O         O                           NS        M                  O    M
                 other platform          O             O           O         O                            O        M                  O    O              Y
                  requirements
                        duration         O             O           O         O                            O                           O    O                     Y
                    educational          O             O           O         O      M                     O                           M    M
               interactivity type        O             O           O         O      M                    NS                     M     O    O              Y           Y
          learning resource type         O             O           O         O      M           M         O        O            M     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y?
              interactivity level        O             O           O         O      M                    NS        O            M     O    O                          Y
               semantic density          O             O           O         O                           NS                           O    O
          intended end user role         O             O           O         O      M           M         O                     O     M    M                          Y
                         context         O             O           O         O      M                     O        M    M       M     O    M              Y      Y    Y
               typical age range         O             O           O         O      M           M         O                           O    O
                       difficulty        O             O           O         O                           NS        M    M             O    O                     Y    Y
           typical learning time         O             O           O         O      M                    NS        M    M       O     O    O              Y
5.10                 description         O             O           O         O      M                    NS        M    M       O     O    O              Y
5.11                   language          O             O           O         O      M                     O                           O    O
6                         rights         M             M           M         M      M           M         O                           M    M              Y      Y           Y
6.1                         cost         O             M           M         M      M           M         O        M            O     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
6.2         copyright and other          M             M           M         M      M           M         O        M                  M    M              Y      Y           Y



                                                                                               55
                                                                          DRAFT May 2004
Element   Element Name      UK LOM SCORM Content     SCORM      SCORM      LT S     NGfL     CanCore   BECT A   UfI FAILTE   COL       Dublin   Resl   HLSI FERL   COSE
Number                      Core Use  Aggregation   Shareable     Asset           Scotland               NLN                            Core
                                                      Content                      Content
                                                       Object
             restrictions
6.3          description         M             O           O         O      M           M         O        M            O     M    M              Y      Y    Y      Y
7               relation         O             O           O         O      M                     O                           O    O                                  ?
7.1                 kind         O             O           O         O      M                     O                     O     O    O                          Y
7.2            resource          O             O           O         O      M                     O                     O     O    O              Y           Y
7.2.1          identifier        O             R           R         R                            O                                O                          Y
7.2.1.1          catalog         O             O           O         O                            O                     O     O    O
7.2.1.2            entry         O             O           O         O                            O                           O    O
7.2.2        description         O             O           O         O                            O                           O    O              Y
8            annotation          O             O           O         O      M                    NS                           O    O              Y
8.1              person          O             O           O         O      M                    NS                     O     O    O              Y
8.2                 date         O             O           O         O      M                    NS                     O     O    O              Y
8.3          description         O             O           O         O      M                    NS                     O     O    O              Y
9          classification        O             M           M         O      M                     O                           M    M
9.1             purpose          O             M           M         O      M           M         O        M    M       M     M    M              Y      Y           Y
9.2          taxon path          O             O           O         O      M                     O        M            M     M    M                                  ?
9.2.1            source          O             O           O         O      M                     O        M            M     M    M                                  ?
9.2.2             taxon          O             O           O         O      M                     O        M            M     M    M                                  ?
9.2.2.1               id         O             O           O         O                           NS        M            M     C    C                                  ?
9.2.2.2            entry         O             O           O         O      M                     O        M            M     C    C                                  ?
9.3          description         O             M           M         O                           NS        M    M             O    O                     Y
9.4            keyword           O             M           M         O                            O        M                  O    O              Y      Y           Y




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