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					       WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS




      PENNESHAW COMMUNITY WASTEWATER
             MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
COMPARISON BETWEEN GRAVITY SEWER AND BIOWATER




                      Prepared for
              Local Government Association




                          By




                      JULY 2009


                         REV 0


                   Job No: C070466
  CONTENTS




  1.         INTRODUCTION


  2.         PURPOSE


  3.         DATA COLLECTION


  4.         GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SCHEMES


  5.         GENERAL DISCUSSION - BIOWATER


  6.         COST COMPARISON


  7.         RECOMMENDATION


  8.         REFERENCES




  APPENDIX A – LGA COST EVALUATION SPREADSHEETS
  APPENDIX B – BIOWATER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL
  APPENDIX C – BIOLYTIX WATER RESPONSE – PENNESHAW BIOWATER
               SCHEME 9 APRIL 2009
  APPENDIX D – BIOLYTIX WATER COST ESTIMATE




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev B/June 2009
1.       INTRODUCTION

         Wallbridge & Gilbert (W&G) were engaged by the Kangaroo Island Council in
         June 2007, to undertake an independent assessment to determine the most
         appropriate wastewater collection system for the Township of Penneshaw.

         In accordance with the LGA’s Brief for Consultants for the development of
         CWMS the following systems were assessed:
         •        Gravity
                  −         Septic Tank Effluent Disposal System (STEDS)
                  −         Full Sewer
         •        Pressure Sewer
         •        Vacuum Sewer
         The report was not intended to provide a total cost for the establishment of a
         CWMS. Its purpose was to determine the most appropriate scheme to
         undertake further design and cost estimation. The site for the WWTP had not
         been confirmed at that time, however, this was not considered consequential to
         the comparison as all schemes required a WWTP and reuse system and as
         such this was common to all the schemes prepared, hence not altering the
         relative cost comparison between the schemes.


         The investigation revealed that out of the schemes assessed, a gravity sewer
         scheme would be the most appropriate CWMS option to be further developed
         for the Township of Penneshaw.

         W&G were then engaged to prepare a preliminary design for a gravity sewer
         system to enable public consultation to be undertaken.

         A public meeting was held in January 2009 to gauge public reaction to the
         proposal to install a CWMS in Penneshaw and provide the community the
         opportunity to comment on the scheme proposed.

         At the public consultation meeting members of the community requested that
         consideration be given to the installation of Biolytix instead of a community
         scheme.

         Subsequent to the public meeting, W&G were engaged by the Local
         Government Association to undertake an independent assessment of the
         Biolytix option and compare it to a conventional gravity system.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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         W&G have since had considerable contact with Dave Luxmore and Melissa
         Chaddock of Biolytix Water to obtain system information and assistance with
         preparing cost estimates for the installation of a community based Biowater
         scheme for Penneshaw.



2.       PURPOSE

         The purpose of this report is to:
         •        Investigate the feasibility of the installation of a Biowater scheme in
                  Penneshaw
         •        Compare the relative costs of a Biowater system to a conventional
                  gravity sewer for the township of Penneshaw
         It should be noted that the original community request was to use a Biolytix
         system. Biolytix is a purely onsite system (Refer to Section 4.2 for a description
         of the Biolytix Filter). This was not considered appropriate as individual on site
         systems are not suitable for all properties in Penneshaw due to:
         •        Size of some blocks (not enough space to enable on site disposal)
         •        Slope across some blocks is greater than specified (1:5) in the
                  Department of Health – Waste Control Systems Standard for the
                  Construction, Installation and Operation of Septic Tank Systems in South
                  Australia, inclusive of Supplement B – Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
                  Systems
         •        Sites founded on bedrock do not enable proper moisture attenuation and
                  may promote runoff
         •        Sites with intensive development or high water use such as hotels and
                  commercial premises do not have the required disposal area.
         Since this assessment is to consider what is most appropriate for the
         community as a whole, an individual on site Biolytix Filter for every site in
         Penneshaw is not considered practical or appropriate.


         A Biowater scheme was instead considered. A Biowater scheme consists of
         individual Biolytix filters installed on each site but with excess water pumped
         via a small bore pressure system to a common disposal point. (Refer to
         Section 4.3 for details).




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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3.       DATA COLLECTION

         A full list of reference documents are contained in Section 8 of this report.

         The preparation of this report has been based on information supplied by
         Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd. Additional information has also been obtained
         from independent assessments that have previously been completed and are
         publically available and from interviews with staff at the Department of Health
         and operators who are familiar with operating Biolytix systems.

         Biolytix Water Australia were provided the opportunity to review the draft report
         and provide comments for consideration in the development of the final report.



4.       GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SCHEMES

4.1      Gravity

         Gravity sewer systems are the oldest and most commonly used form of
         communal collection system utilised in South Australia.

         A gravity system collects wastewater from all properties via gravity and as such
         the connection point has to be deep enough to drain the site. In steep terrain
         where land slopes away from the main drains, this can result in deep
         excavations for individual property owners.

         Gravity systems grade downhill from the top of the catchment to the lowest
         point. A pump station is generally located at this point to pump the wastewater
         to a treatment facility, either directly or indirectly via other catchments.

         The system consists of a network of main drains and individual property
         connections. An Inspection Point (IP) is located at all property boundaries, with
         the property owner being responsible for plumbing within the property and the
         authority for all drains downstream of the connection IP. The main drains may
         be in public land such as road reserves or within easements through private
         property.

         At all significant changes of direction and regular spacings along straight runs,
         inspection openings, maintenance shafts or manholes are installed.

         Pump stations are used at low points in the catchment to lift the sewage to the
         treatment plant or to ensure the depth of the gravity drains are minimised.
         Placement of pumping stations is at the discretion of the designer and is
         dependent on the local conditions, which may limit the viability of installing
         deep gravity drains.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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         The gravity sewer scheme takes all domestic waste inclusive of solids away
         from the individual property and delivers it to a centralised WWTP for treatment
         and disposal/reuse.

         With a gravity sewer scheme the only infrastructure installed on the individual
         allotment are the gravity drains (100mm diam) that transfer the sewage from
         the dwelling to the reticulation network.



4.2      Biolytix Filter


         The information in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 has been sourced directly from Biolytix
         Water Australia Pty Ltd.




  Figure 1 – Biolitix Filter




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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4.2.1 Top Layer

         The top layer is made up of coarse mesh bags with plastic media in them. This
         houses the wet soil ecosystem. It accommodates worms, beetles and billions
         of microscopic organisms. These soil creatures are vital "macerator"
         organisms, breaking up the organic material, converting the waste into humus
         and structuring it so that its drainage and air porosity are continually renewed
         and maintained indefinitely. The organic matter particles then wash through
         and accumulate on the surface of a finely structured humus and coco-peat
         layer.

4.2.2 Middle Layer

         The effluent is reprocessed again and again and structured into a sponge-like
         filter matrix by the soil organisms that live in it. They constantly renew its
         drainage and aeration pores. The fine structured compost has remarkable
         properties. It is 90% water by weight, yet has a high cation and anion
         exchange capacity. This means it adsorbs and holds back pollutants such as
         many chemical compounds and toxins for the trillions of living organisms to
         digest over time.

4.2.3 Last layer

         After the last layer, the effluent has been well treated and a geofabric filter, the
         size of the diameter of the tank, filters out all particles larger than 90 micron.
         This three dimensional filter is biologically cleaned.

4.2.4 The Sump

         The water component of the wastewater finally accumulates in the sump where
         some more of the very fine sediment is settled out in a quiecent zone before
         the clear, reclaimed water can be pumped or drained for irrigation purposes.

4.2.5 The Tank

         Normally the filter is constructed within a standard 3000 litre polymer tank
         (1.88m diameter by 1.63m high). The only mechanical components in the
         standard treatment unit are a single-phase industrial strength pump and a tiny
         but robust (5 watt) air pump, similar to those used in a fish tank.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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4.3      Biowater


         The Biowater system is a patented scheme that utilises a Biolytix Filter in each
         individual dwelling or property. The Filter treats the wastewater generated on
         that property to a standard that is suitable for onsite disposal.

         Should off site disposal be required then each individual filter may be fitted with
         a UV disinfection unit to enable the effluent quality to be fit for purpose for
         irrigation of public open space with restricted access. Alternatively a
         disinfection system such as chlorine or UV may be fitted at the storage site to
         disinfect all the treated effluent at one common location. In most instances it is
         expected that a common disinfection system will be the cheaper alternative.

         The required treated effluent standard required for restricted municipal
         irrigation can nominally be defined by:

         BOD < 20ppm
         Suspended Solids <30ppm
         Ecoli < 100

         There is a small pump in each of the biofilters that pumps the water to a
         subsurface irrigation system installed on the individual property. (200m2 of
         irrigation area is required as a minimum on any residential property with larger
         areas required if spas are installed in the dwelling or for commercial properties
         that have a higher water use.)

         During winter or when there is excess water, the treated wastewater is pumped
         from the property and into a small bore, pressure system which transfers the
         treated wastewater to a storage facility for community use.

         As this network is a pressure network it can follow the lay of the land and does
         not require the installation of deep drainage. This is the same concept as for a
         pressure sewerage scheme, only the wastewater is treated prior to being
         transferred to the network and treated wastewater is available for restricted
         reuse on the individual property where the wastewater was generated.

         The option of on-block reuse of the treated effluent in a Biowater scheme, is up
         to the individual property owner, community and/or Council. If on-block
         irrigation is implemented then the cost to install the irrigation system would
         generally be at the property owner’s cost.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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5        GENERAL DISCUSSION − BIOWATER
5.1      Treatment Performance

         The Biolytix Filter has been tested against AS/NZS 1546 and complies with
         that standard. It has also been approved for use as an onsite wastewater
         treatment system by the SA Department of Health. Given this the aim of this
         report is not to question the ability of Biolytix Filters to satisfactorily treat
         domestic wastewater. The product’s ability to do so has been assumed as a
         fundamental assumption of this report. In fact review of the independent test
         data undertaken by the Environment Bay of Plenty Regional Council in New
         Zealand provides some very encouraging test data on the performance of the
         Biolytix BF6 Filter unit. The BOD5 and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) results
         from the 96 day test period at BOD5<10 and TSS < 5 was better than this
         consultancy would have anticipated.

         The high Ecoli count was presumably because post treatment disinfection was
         not undertaken as part of the trial. This is not considered a significant issue as
         post disinfection would ensure that acceptable Ecoli levels would be achieved.
         (Such as would be provided by an appropriate UV or chlorine disinfection unit)

         It was also noted that Total Nitrogen was reduced by 45%. Given the
         proposed end use for the treated effluent in Penneshaw, the nutrient reduction
         capabilities were not considered a significant factor, but the reduction in Total
         Nitrogen as a result of the treatment process was an interesting observation
         and one that may be relevant to other schemes where reduction of Total
         Nitrogen is a requirement of the discharge / disposal path.

5.2      System Suitability

         As discussed previously the installation of Biolytix filters as a stand alone
         system for every property in Penneshaw is not considered appropriate as not
         all properties are able to install a Biolytix system that complies with the Waste
         Control regulations. As this is a community based assessment it was not
         considered appropriate to further investigate this option.

         The initial proposal from Biolytix Water was to install the Biolytix system in
         each property and then transfer the excess water to a holding tank at the
         football oval for disposal via irrigation. While this option is considered feasible
         and has been costed as part of this assessment it needs to be noted that this is
         not considered beneficial reuse rather just a form of disposal.

         In this option individual properties would irrigate their own properties over
         summer and then over winter when there is excess water they would pump the
         treated effluent to the oval where it would be applied. In summer it would be
         expected that very little water would be transferred to the oval and hence when
         the oval requires irrigation it is unlikely that sufficient water would be available.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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         Then in winter when irrigation is not required water would be applied to the
         oval. As such a supplementary irrigation system would be required to irrigate
         the oval over summer and the oval would need to be monitored over winter to
         ensure that over application does not occur. If this option was adopted a soil
         nutrient and water balance would be required to ensure that there is sufficient
         area to dispose of the treated effluent without causing environmental harm or a
         risk to public health. In this instance assuming that there is enough land
         available for disposal the scheme would be satisfactorily disposing of the
         treated effluent but it would not be considered a full reuse project, although
         there would still be a component of reuse on each individual property.

         An alternative proposal was developed by W&G. This involved the same
         scenario except that the excess water in winter is pumped to a holding dam so
         that it can be used to irrigate the oval in summer, hence negating the need for
         finding another source of water to irrigate the oval. In this option all effluent
         generated by the township will be utilised for beneficial reuse.

5.3      Operational Issues

5.3.1 Tracing of System Failures

         One operational concern is the fact that in the Biowater option there are 381
         individual treatment plants. With this number of units it creates logistical issues
         for Council in the maintenance of the scheme as there are 381 individual
         systems that Council must maintain in lieu of the single WWTP and a small
         number of pump stations as is the case with a conventional scheme.

         This number of treatment units increases the risk of a system failure. It is
         accepted that a well maintained Biolytix Filter will satisfactorily treat the
         generated wastewater. However, with any biological or even mechanical plant
         the system only operates if it is well maintained and if it is operated in
         accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Penneshaw has a
         considerable number of holiday homes and tourist accommodation and as
         such the potential for misuse of the wastewater system is considerably
         increased. An owner occupier is more likely to be conscious of operating the
         system in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations than
         someone who is just visiting.

         W&G has investigated a number of Biolytix systems and it is evident that many
         operate effectively but there are some that are not operating effectively. This is
         not a surprising outcome as it’s the same for most wastewater schemes even
         some communal centralised systems, which are not maintained, do not operate
         effectively. Statistically the greater the number of treatment units the more
         likely that there will be at least one that fails.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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         It is noted that if a single or small number of units fail to achieve the 20/30
         BOD/SS requirement that considerable dilution will occur and that may not
         cause not compliant effluent to be produced. However, a significant failure at a
         single tank may impact on the system compliance.

         With this number of treatment systems it would be very difficult for the operator
         to track down an individual system that has failed. W&G discussed this issue
         with Biolytix Water. They indicated that they had recognised this issue and
         were developing a system to monitor water quality at the output of each unit
         and report that via telemetry to a central SCADA. Once this system is
         successfully developed this will significantly reduce the risks associated with
         operating this many individual treatment systems and as such will improve the
         Biowater system significantly (from a risk management perspective).

5.3.2 Retrofitting Existing Septic Tanks

         The option of retrofitting existing septic tanks was considered as a cost saving
         measure and discussed with Biolytix Water staff. However, retrofitting is only
         possible where vertical septic tanks have been installed and the existing tank is
         in good condition. The majority of tanks installed in South Australia are
         horizontal tanks and as such retrofitting existing tanks was not given further
         consideration.

5.3.3 Rock Excavation on Private Property

         One of the other significant issues for Penneshaw with a Biowater system is
         the fact that the units are 2m deep and 1.88 meters wide requiring an
         excavation approximately 2m deep by 2.5m wide being required for installation.
         Where there is significant rock present on an individual allotment this would
         mean that rock breaking machinery would be required to operate potentially
         close to dwellings. This will not be the case for all dwellings but it will occur on
         a number of sites in Penneshaw. This process does pose considerable risk of
         damage to the dwelling, which at this stage can not be quantified in terms of a
         dollar value. However, it needs to be considered. The risk is magnified on
         smaller blocks where excavation will be required near the dwelling. On larger
         blocks it is possible that the unit will be installed further away from the dwelling
         reducing the risk.

         If there are existing septic tanks on the site that can be decommissioned then
         the void left by the removal of the tank may be able to be used to install the
         Biolytix filter, hence reducing the amount of excavation in rock that may be
         required.

         The conventional gravity system is also likely to require rock breaking on some
         of the allotments to install the pipes between the dwelling and the connection
         point.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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5.3.4 On Block works

         With a conventional gravity system, assuming the house plumbing complies
         with current standards the on block works will consist of connecting a pipe from
         the inlet to the septic tank to the connection point on the property boundary.
         This connection pipe will be a minimum diameter of 100mm and will have a
         minimum fall of 1.7%. The depth of the connection drain will vary from block to
         block depending on the slope of the block and the location of the plumbing and
         connection point.

         For the Biowater system all properties will be required to install the 3000 L
         biofilter and install a 32mm connection pipe from the unit to the connection
         point. The depth of the connection drain will nominally be 600mm. The length
         of the connection pipe will depend on the location of the unit and the
         connection point.



6        COST COMPARISON

         W&G has costed 2 options for the Biowater system. One that uses the oval for
         disposal of excess water and the other that provides beneficial reuse at the
         oval.

         W&G has generally used the costs provided by Biolytix Water with the following
         exceptions:

         •        The rate for excavation in rock supplied by Biolytix Water was $120/m3.
                  This was not considered sufficient for this site. W&G altered this cost to
                  $180/m3, which is comparable to the rates for rock currently being
                  experienced for the American River scheme.

         •        Biolytix Water suggested that the installation costs for their units would
                  be in the order of $1700/unit. Based on the fact that most recent
                  installations of domestic sewage pumping units, both on the Island and
                  indeed generally around the state, is in the order of $6000 to $7000 (for
                  installation only) and these units have a 1000 litre or 1m3 capacity. In
                  fact the electrical connections to these pumping units, which is similar to
                  the electrical installation required for the Biolytix filter, generally cost in
                  the order of $1200 per unit. The Biolytix units have an excavated volume
                  in excess of 5.5m3 (actual tank capacity is 3000 litres). W&G recognised
                  that the biofilter units come in kit form and hence may be easier to install
                  than the pump units. As such we have allowed a cost of $2500 to install
                  the units. This is considered low but has been used for the purposes of
                  comparison with the gravity system.

         •        Biolytix Water indicated that the current annual service charge per unit is
                  $320. With in the order of 380 units this would result in an ongoing cost
                  to service the scheme of over $120,000 per year. W&G considered this
                  excessive and as such investigated the potential to set up a full time
                  service unit within Council and as such reduced the quoted service
                  charge to $75,000 per year. The $320/a cost is reported to include
                  replacement of the aerator and pump as required. Since replacement
                  costs associated with these items is included in the capital depreciation



Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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                  component of the financial model, the $320/a fee has been reduced to
                  accommodate this.

         All other costs used in this assessment are as supplied by Biolytix Water.

         The cost to supply the units to site has been quoted as $6,250 ex GST. As
         such the on allotment costs to install the units is $8,750. This does not include
         the cost to install a 32mm main from the unit to the connection point. This will
         differ from site to site but if an average length to connect of 20m is assumed
         this is likely to cost in the order of $700. In addition to this the connection pits
         have been quoted as costing $500 per unit. This would make the total on block
         costs in the order of $9950 per unit. This does not make allowance for
         excavation in rock which will be encountered in a number of properties and if
         rock is encountered this would result in additional cost. This cost also excludes
         any upgrade of property switchboards that may be required with many older
         dwellings and also cutting of concrete to provide power to the filter.

         If the same connection length is assumed for a gravity system the cost of
         connection is likely to be in the order of $1600. (This cost excludes excavation
         in rock and other costs such as cutting of concrete etc)

         An allowance for rock has been allocated for construction of the small bore
         pressure network for the Biowater system but none has been allocated for the
         on-block rock that is likely to be encountered. An allowance of 650 m3
         ($117,000) of rock has been allocated to the Biowater options.

         An allowance in the order of 5,000m3 ($900,000) was made for excavation of
         rock as part of the installation of gravity drains in the conventional sewerage
         option.

         The costs that have been applied to the Biowater system by W&G have not
         been loaded and if anything may underestimate the cost of the scheme. We
         have been conscious of this fact when comparing the systems. As W&G has
         not installed a Biowater system before we did not want to bias the outcome by
         conservatively loading the costs to cover the unknowns. However as with any
         retrofitted scheme it needs to be recognised that individual on block costs can
         vary significantly.

         The electrical costs associated with each unit have been estimated at 0.2KWh
         per day at a service charge of $0.21/KWh. This is consistent with the testing
         undertaken by the Environmental Bay of Plenty Study. An allowance has also
         been made for the operation of the community irrigation pumps.

         In the Biowater option that provided full beneficial reuse an allowance was also
         made for the pumps to transfer the treated effluent from the township to the
         proposed lagoon site.

         An allowance has been included for land value in the options where storage
         lagoons are required.

         The Whole of Life cost assessment has assumed a 4% discount rate.




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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6.1      Cost Summary

         W&G have used the LGA whole of life cost model to compare the schemes.

         The outcomes of our cost assessment are summarised in Table 1. The LGA
         cost schedules are attached as Appendix A.

         Table 1 – Capital and Whole of Life Cost Comparison

                                            Biowater                            Biowater
                       Biowater              with No              Biowater        with         Gravity
                     No storage              storage                    With    storage         Sewer
                      facility*
                                           facility and            storage     facility and      with
                                             revised               facility     revised          reuse
                                             service                             service
                                            charge**                            charge**




   Capital               $5.9m                $5.9m                     $6.9     $6.9m          $6.2m
      Cost




 All of Life
      Cost              $10.8m                $10.0m                $12.1        $11.4m         $8.7m
(30 year life
 on Biolytix
  Filters)

 All of Life
      Cost                $9.9                  $9.2                $11.3         $10.5       N/A
(50 year life
 on Biolytix
  Filters)


         * With no storage facility there will be no beneficial reuse at the football oval and another source of
         water will be required to irrigate the oval. The cost of supply of this additional water has not been
         accounted for in this assessment but is likely to be in excess of $10,000 per annum

         **  The reduced service charge has been based on Council servicing the units from their own internal
         resources.



         The higher whole of life cost of the Biowater system results from:

             •       The relatively high service charge required to maintain the units each
                     year.

             •       The 30 year life of the individual Biolytix filter units means that the
                     scheme effectively needs replacement every 30 years. This results in
                     high capital expenditure each time the system is replaced. This is
                     compared to the 70 year life that is expected from the gravity drainage




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
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                     network. (The small bore network component of the Biowater system
                     also has a 70 year life applied.) Increasing the expected life of the
                     Biolytix filter to 50 years was also considered after Biolytix Water
                     Australia indicated after the draft report was released that the expected
                     life of the units was greater than initially stated (i.e. 20 years). The life
                     expectancy has a significant impact on the whole of life cost. 50 years
                     is considered high for an average life of a structure of this type. The
                     accepted life of on site pump units from past LGA studies has been 30
                     years and this was considered appropriate for the Biolytix filter.
                     However, since the units have not been in operation for this period of
                     time the life can only be estimated. W&G therefore believed that it was
                     important to show the whole of life cost range so the impacts of
                     expected system life can be considered by the asset owner.



7.       RECOMMENDATION
         Based on the above assessment the conventional gravity system will have a
         slightly higher initial capital cost than the cheapest Biowater solution that does
         not provide beneficial reuse to the oval, but will have a lower all of life cost.

         If beneficial reuse of all of the treated wastewater is important to the community
         then comparison should be made with the Biowater option that includes a
         storage lagoon. In this instance the conventional gravity system will have a
         lower capital cost and a lower whole of life cost.

         The benefits to individual property owners of being able to reuse wastewater
         on site is an issue the community as a whole needs to consider. We do not
         consider it our role to advise the community on this issue.

         While in most conventional schemes the opportunity of on block reuse is lost to
         the property owner (which is one of the advantages of a Biowater system),
         Council’s policy to allow onsite systems to be used, so long as there is an
         overflow connection to the community system, somewhat negates this
         consideration.

         As such it is recommended that Council continue to develop a conventional
         gravity sewer scheme for the township of Penneshaw.

         However, this investigation has revealed that there are considerable merits
         associated with the Biowater system and believe it should be included in future
         system assessments on other CWMS projects.

         In addition it is evident that for smaller schemes that do not have the critical
         mass for a centralised WWTP or do not have the water volumes for a
         community reuse application then the Biowater system is likely to be a more
         appropriate solution than a conventional scheme.

         There are a number of smaller schemes on the Island that Council should
         consider Biowater as a viable solution.




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8.         REFERENCES
           Biolytix/Biowater Related References

           www.biolytix.com

           Biolytix Technologies “Case Study: The Macleay Island Biowater Scheme”

           Biowater Advantages Brochure

           Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd – Biowater Operation & Maintenance Manual,
           April 2007

           On-site Wastewater Treatment System Environment Discharge Performance
           Appraisal – For the Biolytix BF6 2500 PAT, Sam Weiss, Project
           Implementation Officer and Paul Scholes, Environmental Scientist, May 2007.
           Environment Bay of Plenty Regional Council

           Biolytix Water – response Penneshaw Biowater Scheme 9 April 2009

           Biolytix Water – Australia’s most awarded Wastewater Treatment System
           (Web reference)

           Clunes Wastewater – Assessment of Onsite and Community-Scale
           Wastewater Management Options

           Biolytix – Biowater Costing, Penneshaw Cost Estimate 17 April 2009

           General references

           Shoalhaven Water – Alternative Sewerage Systems Compared, Sewerage
           collection systems compared -
           http://www.shoalwater.nsw.gov.au/6hotnews/SewerageSystems.html

           South East Water – Pressure v Gravity Comparison, no source reference

           Yara Valley Water – Pressure v Gravity Comparison – Community fact sheet

           Eurobodalla Shire Council – Conventional Gravity Sewerage System
           Comparison – Community Fact Sheet

           Eurobodalla Shire Council – Vacuum Sewerage System – Community Fact
           Sheet

           Eurobodalla Shire Council – Low Pressure Sewerage System – Community
           Fact Sheet
           www.eurocoast.nsw.gov.au

           Wagga Wagga Protocol Draft Pressure Sewerage Guidelines – March 202

           EPA# 625477011 Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems:
           Volume 1 - On-Site Disposal/Septage Treatment and Disposal

           EPA# 625477011 Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems:
           Volume 2 - Pressure Sewers/Vacuum Sewers




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev 0/July2009                                   Page 14
           EPA# 625477011 Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems:
           Volume 3 - Cost/Effectiveness Analysis

           EPA# 600275072 Economical Residential Pressure Sewer System with No
           Effluent

           EPA# 625191024 Manual: Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems

           EPA# 600979010 National Conference on Less Costly Wastewater
           Treatment Systems for Small Communities

           EPA# 600278166 Pressure and Vacuum Sewer Demonstration Project:
           Bend, Oregon

           EPA# 832F02006 Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Sewers, Pressure

           FloVac – product Catalogue

           Auqutec Fluid Systems – Product Catalogue

           Australian Standards and Codes

           SA Water Sewer construction manual and technical standards

           SA Water Technical Standard TS130 – Pressure Sewer Systems, 8/12/05

           SA Water Pressure Sewerage Design Manual – available on SA Water
           Website

           WSAA – Pressure Sewerage Code of Australia – Interim Edition 2005

           WSAA – Sewerage Code of Australia 2002 version 2.3

           WSA – Vacuum Sewerage Code of Australia 2004 Version 1.1

           Local Government Association – STEDS Design Guildelines, 1997

           Draft Standard – Connection to a Communal Waste Control System,
           Department of Health South Australia




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev 0/July2009                                 Page 15
                                                   APPENDIX A
                              LGA COST EVALUATION SPREADSHEETS




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev 0/July2009                          Page 16
                                                E:\Biolytix\Financial_Options-_Penneshaw_Sewer_Final(1)              Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                             Penneshaw
    Full Sewer
    No. Rateable Connections                                381 *                based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                           4%

COSTS                                         Totals                 Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                     yrs         Connection PMT          NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                                   uPVC            $2,907,850               70       $7,632     -$341     $7,325
                                     VC                    $0               40           $0        $0         $0
                             Pumped Main             $815,000               70       $2,139      -$96     $2,053
     Pumping Stations
                                     Civil             $132,000             30         $346      -$20       $437
                              Mech & Elec              $180,000             10         $472      -$58     $1,251
     Treatment Plant
                                      Civil            $210,000             50         $551      -$26       $551
                              Mech & Elec              $310,000             10         $814     -$100     $2,155
                             Storage Pond              $732,000             70       $1,921      -$86     $1,844
     Reuse / Disposal
                                       Site                  $0             25           $0        $0         $0
                                 irrigation            $100,000             25         $262      -$17       $361
                              Mech & Elec               $35,000             25          $92       -$6       $126

            Design and Superintendency                 $300,000             25         $787      -$50     $1,083

     Project / Contingency                          $434,074                50       $1,139      -$53     $1,139
     Sub-Total                                    $6,155,924                        $16,157

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
            Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0           70             $0        $0          $0
                                                             $0          100             $0        $0          $0
                             Pumped Main                     $0           50             $0        $0          $0
     Pumping Stations
                                     Civil                   $0             30           $0        $0           $0
                              Mech & Elec                    $0             10           $0        $0           $0
     Treatment Plant
                                     Civil                   $0             50           $0        $0           $0
                              Mech & Elec                    $0             10           $0        $0           $0
     Reuse / Disposal
                                     Site                    $0             25           $0        $0           $0
                                     Civil                   $0             25           $0        $0           $0
                              Mech & Elec                    $0             25           $0        $0           $0

                               Telemetary                    $0             25           $0        $0           $0
     Sub-Total                                               $0                          $0                     $0
                                                                                                                $0
     Subsidy                                                 $0             50           $0        $0           $0

                                                                   Cycle
Operating                                                          Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                 $20,000              1          $52      -$52     $1,128
    Planned Maintenance
                        Pump Rebuilds                        $0              5           $0        $0          $0
            Collection System Cleaning                       $0              2           $0        $0          $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                       $0              5           $0        $0          $0
    Consumables
                                  Power                 $30,971              1          $81      -$81     $1,746
                                 Telstra                 $1,800              1           $5       -$5       $101
                       Materials & Plant                     $0              1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                       $0              1           $0        $0         $0
    Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                    $6,600              1          $17      -$17       $372
                          Septic Tanks                       $0              1           $0        $0         $0
    Fees
                           EPA Licence                   $1,000              1           $3        -$3         $56
                   SA Water Discharge                        $0              1           $0         $0          $0
                           Lease / Rent                      $0              1           $0         $0          $0
    Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                         $0              1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000              1          $52      -$52     $1,128
                                                             $0
     Monitoring & Compliance                                 $0              1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE
    STEDS Levy                                         -$405,398             1       -$1,064             -$22,858

                                                                   Sum                         -$1,064          $0


Confidential                                                                     8/07/2009                           Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                      Penneshaw
    Biolytix (full reuse and service cost)
    No. Rateable Connections                     381 *                          based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                 4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main          $480,000                70       $1,260     -$56     $1,209
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil             $40,000            30        $105       -$6       $132
                             Mech & Elec                $80,000            10        $210      -$26       $556
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               30       $8,750    -$514    $11,037
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17      $361
                            Storage pond               $500,000            50       $1,312     -$61     $1,312
                             Mech & Elec                $35,000            25          $92      -$6      $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $628,804               50      $1,650      -$77     $1,650
     Sub-Total                                    $6,916,844                      $18,154

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                $110,871            1         $291     -$291     $6,251
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $22,538            1          $59      -$59     $1,271
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $155,009
   STEDS Levy                                      -$565,550               1       -$1,484             -$31,888

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,484         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                      Penneshaw
    Biolytix (full reuse and service cost)
    No. Rateable Connections                     381 *                          based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                 4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main          $480,000                70       $1,260     -$56     $1,209
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil             $40,000            30        $105       -$6       $132
                             Mech & Elec                $80,000            10        $210      -$26       $556
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               50       $8,750    -$407     $8,750
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17      $361
                            Storage pond               $500,000            50       $1,312     -$61     $1,312
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25          $92      -$6      $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $628,804               50      $1,650      -$77     $1,650
     Sub-Total                                    $6,916,844                      $18,154

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                $110,871            1         $291     -$291     $6,251
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $22,538            1          $59      -$59     $1,271
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $155,009
   STEDS Levy                                      -$524,982               1       -$1,378             -$29,600

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,378         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                            Penneshaw
    Biolytixs no additional reuse
    No. Rateable Connections                               381 *                based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                          4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main                                  70           $0       $0         $0
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil                                30          $0        $0          $0
                             Mech & Elec                                   10          $0        $0          $0
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               30       $8,750    -$514    $11,037
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17       $361
                            Storage Tank               $150,000            50        $394      -$18       $394
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25         $92       -$6       $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $533,804               50      $1,401      -$65     $1,401
     Sub-Total                                    $5,871,844                      $15,412

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                $110,871            1         $291     -$291     $6,251
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $15,038            1          $39      -$39       $848
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $147,509
   STEDS Levy                                      -$503,678               1       -$1,322             -$28,399

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,322         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                            Penneshaw
    Biolytixs no additional reuse
    No. Rateable Connections                               381 *                based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                          4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main                                  70           $0       $0         $0
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil                                30          $0        $0          $0
                             Mech & Elec                                   10          $0        $0          $0
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               50       $8,750    -$407     $8,750
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17       $361
                            Storage Tank               $150,000            50        $394      -$18       $394
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25         $92       -$6       $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $533,804               50      $1,401      -$65     $1,401
     Sub-Total                                    $5,871,844                      $15,412

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                $110,871            1         $291     -$291     $6,251
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $15,038            1          $39      -$39       $848
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $147,509
   STEDS Levy                                      -$463,110               1       -$1,216             -$26,112

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,216         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                     Penneshaw
    Biolytixs no reuse lower service cost
    No. Rateable Connections                    381 *                           based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main                                  70           $0       $0         $0
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil                                30          $0        $0          $0
                             Mech & Elec                                   10          $0        $0          $0
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               30       $8,750    -$514    $11,037
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17       $361
                            Storage Tank               $150,000            50        $394      -$18       $394
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25         $92       -$6       $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $533,804               50      $1,401      -$65     $1,401
     Sub-Total                                    $5,871,844                      $15,412

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                 $75,000            1         $197     -$197     $4,229
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $15,038            1          $39      -$39       $848
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $111,638
   STEDS Levy                                      -$467,807               1       -$1,228             -$26,377

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,228         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                     Penneshaw
    Biolytixs no reuse lower service cost
    No. Rateable Connections                    381 *                           based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main                                  70           $0       $0         $0
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil                                30          $0        $0          $0
                             Mech & Elec                                   10          $0        $0          $0
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               50       $8,750    -$407     $8,750
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17       $361
                            Storage Tank               $150,000            50        $394      -$18       $394
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25         $92       -$6       $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $533,804               50      $1,401      -$65     $1,401
     Sub-Total                                    $5,871,844                      $15,412

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                 $75,000            1         $197     -$197     $4,229
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $15,038            1          $39      -$39       $848
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $111,638
   STEDS Levy                                      -$427,239               1       -$1,121             -$24,089

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,121         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                      Penneshaw
    Biolytix Full reuse lower service cost
    No. Rateable Connections                     381 *                          based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                 4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main          $480,000                70       $1,260     -$56     $1,209
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil             $40,000            30        $105       -$6       $132
                             Mech & Elec                $80,000            10        $210      -$26       $556
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               30       $8,750    -$514    $11,037
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17      $361
                            Storage pond               $500,000            50       $1,312     -$61     $1,312
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25          $92      -$6      $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $628,804               50      $1,650      -$77     $1,650
     Sub-Total                                    $6,916,844                      $18,154

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                 $75,000            1         $197     -$197     $4,229
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $22,538            1          $59      -$59     $1,271
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $119,138
   STEDS Levy                                      -$529,679               1       -$1,390             -$29,865

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,390         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                              E:\Biolytix\Biolytix_Financial_ass                   Page 1

STEDS Rate Evaluation                      Penneshaw
    Biolytix Full reuse lower service cost
    No. Rateable Connections                     381 *                          based on income/$0
    Discount Rate                                 4%

COSTS                                         Totals                Life           Per    Analysis
                                                                    yrs         Connection PMT         NPV
Capital
     Network Costs
                    Reuse and rising main          $480,000                70       $1,260     -$56     $1,209
                            Pumped Main           $1,004,000               70       $2,635    -$118     $2,529
     Pumping Stations
                                      Civil             $40,000            30        $105       -$6       $132
                             Mech & Elec                $80,000            10        $210      -$26       $556
     Biolytix units
                    Unit supply and install       $3,333,750               50       $8,750    -$407     $8,750
                                   aerator         $224,790                 5        $590     -$133     $2,847
                           connection pits         $190,500                30        $500      -$29      $631
     Reuse / Disposal
                                 Irrigation            $100,000            25        $262      -$17      $361
                            Storage pond               $500,000            50       $1,312     -$61     $1,312
              Mech & Elec inc disinfection              $35,000            25          $92      -$6      $126

                       design supervision              $300,000            70        $787      -$35       $756

     Project / Contingency                          $628,804               50      $1,650      -$77     $1,650
     Sub-Total                                    $6,916,844                      $18,154

Adjustment for Remedial Works Identified
    Network Rehabilitation
           Replace Existing VC Drains                       $0             70          $0        $0          $0
         Replace Existing Septic Tanks                      $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                         Pumped Main                        $0             50          $0        $0          $0
    Pumping Stations
                                  Civil                     $0             30          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Treatment Plant
                                  Civil                     $0             50          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             10          $0        $0          $0
    Reuse / Disposal
                                   Site                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                                  Civil                     $0             25          $0        $0          $0
                           Mech & Elec                      $0             25          $0        $0          $0

                               Telemetary                   $0             25          $0        $0          $0
     Sub-Total                                              $0                         $0                    $0
                                                                                                             $0
     Subsidy                                                $0             50          $0        $0          $0

                                                                  Cycle
Operating                                                         Yrs
    Network Maintenance                                                    1           $0        $0          $0
    Planned Maintenance
                              Servicing                 $75,000            1         $197     -$197     $4,229
            Collection System Cleaning                                     2           $0        $0         $0
            Lagoon Bank Rehabilitation                                     5           $0        $0         $0
     Consumables
                                  Power                 $22,538            1          $59      -$59     $1,271
                                 Telstra                  $600             1           $2       -$2        $34
                       Materials & Plant                                   1           $0        $0         $0
                 Weed and pest control                                     1           $0        $0         $0
     Sludge Disposal
                                 WWTP                       $0             1           $0        $0          $0
                          Septic Tanks                      $0             1           $0        $0          $0
     Fees
                          EPA Licence                    $1,000            1           $3       -$3          $56
                   SA Water Discharge                                      1           $0        $0           $0
                           Lease / Rent                                    1           $0        $0           $0
     Management & Staffing
                       WWTP Operator                                       1           $0        $0         $0
          Management & Administration                   $20,000            1          $52      -$52     $1,128

     Monitoring & Compliance                                               1           $0        $0          $0

REVENUE                                             $119,138
   STEDS Levy                                      -$489,111               1       -$1,284             -$27,578

                                                                  Sum                        -$1,284         $0


Confidential                                                                    8/07/2009                          Page 1
                                                    APPENDIX B
                           Biowater Operations and Maintenance Manual




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev B/June2009
  Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd

      BIOWATER
Operation & Maintenance Manual


           April 2007
Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd
ACN 097 798 966


Head Office
PO Box 591
Maleny, QLD, Australia 4552

PH:         07 5435 2700
FAX:        07 5435 2701
Email:      info@biolytix.com


Document Status
Rev          Status    Author          Reviewer         Approved for Issue
                                  Name      Signature     Name        Signature    Date
A        First Issue   GRI      G Dugdale               G Ingram                  26/4/07
                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.   Introduction....................................................................................................................... 1
  1.1.    Background ............................................................................................................... 2
  1.2.    Abbreviations ............................................................................................................ 2
  1.3.    Operator & Management Responsibilities................................................................ 2
     1.3.1.    Operational Agreement ..................................................................................... 3
2. System Description ........................................................................................................... 3
  2.1.    General ...................................................................................................................... 3
  2.2.    Biolytix® Filters ........................................................................................................ 5
  2.3.    Pumping System ....................................................................................................... 5
  2.4.    Biowater Pipework.................................................................................................... 5
  2.5.    Effluent Quality ........................................................................................................ 6
     2.5.1.    BF6 Filter .......................................................................................................... 6
     2.5.2.    Biolytix® STP.................................................................................................... 7
     2.5.3.    BF2 Filter .......................................................................................................... 7
3. Approvals .......................................................................................................................... 7
  3.1.    General ...................................................................................................................... 7
  3.2.    Reporting Procedure ................................................................................................. 7
4. Operation & Control ......................................................................................................... 8
  4.1.    Control Philosophy ................................................................................................... 8
     4.1.1.    Conventional ..................................................................................................... 8
     4.1.2.    Control Options................................................................................................. 9
  4.2.    Operation................................................................................................................... 9
     4.2.1.    Commissioning ................................................................................................. 9
     4.2.2.    Start-up.............................................................................................................. 9
     4.2.3.    Shutdown – No load.......................................................................................... 9
  4.3.    Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................ 9
5. Personnel........................................................................................................................... 9
  5.1.    Staffing...................................................................................................................... 9
  5.2.    Operator Qualifications........................................................................................... 10
  5.3.    Regulatory Authority .............................................................................................. 10
6. Process Control & Laboratory Testing ........................................................................... 11
  6.1.    Sampling Requirements .......................................................................................... 11
  6.2.    Sampling Procedures .............................................................................................. 11
  6.3.    Test Recording Methods ......................................................................................... 11
  6.4.    Interpretation of Results.......................................................................................... 11
7. Records ........................................................................................................................... 11
  7.1.    General .................................................................................................................... 11
  7.2.    Reporting................................................................................................................. 11
8. Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 12
  8.1.    General .................................................................................................................... 12
  8.2.    Procedures............................................................................................................... 12
  8.3.    Inventory System & Equipment Records ............................................................... 12
  8.4.    Special Tools........................................................................................................... 12
  8.5.    Warranty Provisions................................................................................................ 13
  8.6.    Planning & Maintenance Schedule......................................................................... 13
9. Emergency Operating & Response Programme ............................................................. 14
  9.1.    System Vulnerability .............................................................................................. 14
     9.1.1.    Power Outage.................................................................................................. 14
     9.1.2.    Flooding .......................................................................................................... 15
PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                                                         2
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
  9.2.    Control of Spills...................................................................................................... 15
     9.2.1.     Minor Spills .................................................................................................... 15
     9.2.2.     Major Spills..................................................................................................... 15
  9.3.    Emergency Equipment & Contacts......................................................................... 16
  9.4.    Personnel Training .................................................................................................. 16
  9.5.    Emergency Operating Plan ..................................................................................... 16
10.     Safety .......................................................................................................................... 17
  10.1.       General Safety & Hazards .................................................................................. 17
  10.2.       Safety Equipment Required ................................................................................ 17
11.     Utilities........................................................................................................................ 17
  11.1.       General ................................................................................................................ 17
  11.2.       Procedures & List of Contacts ............................................................................ 17
12.     Electrical & Control Systems...................................................................................... 17
Appendix A.         Maintenance Procedures ............................................................................. 18




PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                                                           3
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
1.       INTRODUCTION
Biowater® is a form of improved decentralized sewage treatment and reuse. It has similar
transport principles to conventional pressure sewer systems, however a secondary effluent
produced on-site is exported in lieu of a macerated sewage. This provides the opportunity
for cost effective local reuse whilst providing high quality sanitation. The water and
nutrients that are normally a problem for centralised sewerage become a valuable resource,
creating the opportunity to irrigate green spaces for the whole community, with reduced
health and environmental risks.
The Biowater® technology is a neighbourhood network of Biolytix® Filters, connected by a
shallow network of small-diameter pressurized pipes. Figure 1 provides a typical cross
sectional view of a Biowater® network.




                           Figure 1: Section of a typical Biowater® Network
The filters provide a robust treatment solution, have very few mechanical components and
therefore only require annual maintenance. Biowater® is ideal for sites with existing failing
septic tanks and new subdivisions, where conventional sanitation is expensive or problematic
and where reuse via irrigation is a more desirable alternative than advanced treatment and
point source discharge.
The reliable Biolytix® Filters, sized for the load on each serviced lot, pump surplus irrigation
water into a Biowater® network. The network either transfers it to subsurface irrigation areas
or it may be tertiary treated (e.g. using micro or ultra-filtration) for more advanced reuse
applications inside buildings. As there is no centralised (primary and secondary) treatment
plant, Biowater® does not have the social issues normally associated with determining a
suitable treatment plant location.




PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                 1
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
This manual covers operation and maintenance issues for a Biowater® network and should be
read in conjunction with the PSO&M i (Project Specific Operations and Maintenance
Manual).

1.1.      Background
Traditionally designers have considered decentralisation an inferior sewerage solution
despite the fact that new reliable systems have been developed and the legal, institutional and
technological barriers against it have been addressed in the United States (USA).
Decentralised treatment technologies were reviewed in detail by the US EPA in its landmark
Report to Congress on the barriers to implementing decentralized sewerage in 1980 and
several subsequent in-depth reviews in the 80s and 90s culminating in the US EPA 2000
Guidelines for Management of Onsite/Decentralized Wastewater Systems. Decentralised
wastewater treatment systems make up almost half of new wastewater infrastructure in the
United States (USA) resulting in billions of dollars of savings (i.e. compared to
implementation of traditional centralised treatment solutions). But where the US EPA was
highlighting the barriers to the more logical and cost-effective decentralised options so that
they could be tackled and overcome, in Australia and New Zealand decentralised options are
often quickly dismissed. New technology, such as the Biolytix® Filter, now makes
decentralised sewerage in urban developments a far more plausible and attractive optionii.

1.2.      Abbreviations
Abbreviations utilised in this document:
BF2                        Biolytix® Filter model BF2 Filter unit
BF6                        Biolytix® Filter model BF6 Filter unit
BOD5                       5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand
EPA                        Environment Protection Agency – In this document EPA is generic to
                           the local environmental protection agency and the actual name of the
                           responsible authority may vary from region to region.
OH&S                       Occupational Health and Safety
O&M                        Operation and Maintenance
PID                        Process & Instrumentation Diagram
PSO&M                      Project Specific Operation & Maintenance Manual [ref i]
SBMP                       Site Based Management Plan
STP                        Sewage Treatment Plant
SS                         Suspended Solids
TSS                        Total Suspended Solids

1.3.      Operator & Management Responsibilities
Biowater® schemes are engineered to collect treated wastewater from various sources and
distribute this valuable irrigation water in a controlled and effective manner to suit project
specific requirements. Operators need to be familiar with the operational characteristics of

i
   Project Specific Operations & Maintenance Manual: A project specific operations and maintenance manual is
normally prepared to cover project specific operational issues, including, design, control philosophy and as
constructed record details.
ii
   “Decentralised vs Centralised Sewerage” D. Cameron – AWA Water, March 2005. This paper reviews and
argues against some of the reasons that are still being given by some authorities reluctant to consider
decentralized sewerage. A copy of the paper may be downloaded from
http://www.biolytix.com/ourProducts/biowater/decentralised%20vs%20centralised.pdf
PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                             2
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
the scheme and should refer to the PSO&M (or design report if prepared) to understand the
project specific operational characteristics.
The Biowater® system must be carefully operated and maintained to avoid creating a public
health hazard and costly repairs. This guide is to help assure that the system works properly
and does not cause harm to the environment.
Biowater® is reliant on the effective operation of onsite Biolytix® Filters that are a living
breathing “ecosystem” engineered to silently treat wastewater with a multi-stage centrifugal
pump to transfer the treated effluent into the pressure collection network. It is important that
a formal maintenance arrangement exists between each householder connected to the system
and the Biowater® Operator.
To implement the best operation and maintenance program it is important that the personnel
responsible for the network (e.g. manager/ system owner) should have a basic understanding
of the processes taking place in the Biolytix® Filter. Details on Biolytix® Filter Operation
may be obtained from the Biolytix® website http://www.biolytix.com.
Provided the Biowater® scheme is operated as described in this manual, the network will
produce a secondary standard effluent consistently, without any odour, even during peak
loading events.

     1.3.1.        Operational Agreement
     It is important that the on-site treatment systems be managed so that there is no break-
     down of the effluent treatment process, as a result of damage to infrastructure or the
     introduction of chemicals or other materials into the effluent treatment process train. To
     reduce operational risks a formal agreement should be entered into between the Biowater®
     Operator and the property owner on the provision of a maintenance service for the
     Biolytix® onsite treatment system. This agreement should define what is expected of each
     party, the nature of the maintenance arrangements that have been entered into and how
     access will be gained to any system assets that are not publicly/ community owned. An
     Operators Manual that tells the owner/ resident what to do in case of difficulty and who to
     contact will also support it. Normally this would be the Biolytix® Filter Operators manual
     or a modified version to suit project specific requirements. The Operational Agreement
     should also cover:
     •   Change of property ownership
     •   Signage. For premises with a high risk of illegal sewer discharges (e.g. commercial
         premises) information signage should be placed in appropriate locations (e.g. within
         bathroom and toilet blocks) alerting users that there is potential for harm to the
         environment through disposal of chemicals to the sewer, as this may be detrimental to
         the operation of the on-site sewage treatment plant.

2.       SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
2.1.      General
The PSO&M manual should be referenced for project specific Biowater® details.
A Biowater® project (refer Figure 2) may typically include:
•     A network of onsite Biolytix® Filters (normally BF6 model) that are sized to treat
     sewage, sanitary items and food waste with outstanding consistency. The Biolytix®
     Filter elements may also be installed into existing sound septic or pump-out tanks in a

PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                 3
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
    town. The Biolytix® Filter is a patented aerobic process. It is made up of a robust
    organic soil eco-system, which is not only fed by the organic wastes that are filtered out
    of the wastewater, but is actually structured from the fine humus produced. This cleverly
    turns the problem (the waste) into the solution (the humus to filter the wastewater).
•   Pressure pumping system. Each Biolytix® Filter has a pressure pump which transfers
    filtered effluent into the Biowater® network (and/or on-site irrigation system).
•   A state-of-the-are subsurface drip irrigation network designed to safely and automatically
    reuse all of the water and nutrients generated within the serviced area. If the source-lot
    sizes are too small to allow a sensible water balance, then supplementary irrigation areas
    can be integrated.
•   A lay-of-the-land small diameter reticulation network, which can be a one-way or two-
    way pressurized link, taking excess irrigation water during wet weather to a tertiary
    treatment/ storage system at the hub of the network. When soil moisture levels drop, the
    water can automatically go back to the dispersed irrigation areas where it is needed.




                                 Figure 2 Biowater® Network Schematic
Treated effluent may be reused using an integrated water management approach, considering
impacts of water, stormwater and wastewater treatment requirements to determine the
optimal irrigation or tertiary treatment solution.
Typical operational characteristics of a Biowater® scheme include:
•   Network is easily expandable.
•   Pressure network is not susceptible to infiltration and inflow and is flexible in handling
    difficult terrain areas. No raw sewage transfer pumping stations are required along with
    their associated risks
•   Biolytix® Treatment system comes with a guarantee of no odour.
•   Operating costs are relatively low due to low energy consumption and the standard
    Biolytix® Filter only needs to be serviced annually.
•   It can be used in conjunction with In-Sink-Erators – to recycle household food waste and
    potentially cut garbage collection costs in a development.
•   Low greenhouse gas emission and embodied energy costs.
PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd               4
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
•   Environmentally sensitive – the system does not require any expensive or hazardous
    chemicals.
•   Compact treatment systems that are resilient to normal household chemicals.
•   Provides an opportunity to reuse some of the effluent at source thus reducing water
    demand (e.g. water for landscape irrigation);
•   Lower risk to public and environmental health as overflows of raw sewage are virtually
    eliminated and because the treatment process and effluent are odourless and aerobic.
•   The Biolytix® Filters are very robust and capable of accepting variable loads, including
    periods of no flow. This is an advantage in communities that have a variable occupancy
    (e.g. holiday housing).

2.2.      Biolytix® Filters
Specification details on Biolytix® Filters normally used in a Biowater® network may be
obtained from the following weblinks:
Biolytix® Filter BF2: http://docs.biolytix.com/products/record/BF2_Specification.pdf
Biolytix® Filter BF6: http://docs.biolytix.com/products/record/PR_BF6Specifications.pdf
Biolytix® STP: http://docs.biolytix.com/products/record/PR-BSTPSpecification.pdf

2.3.      Pumping System
Biowater® schemes require a reliable pump system and a Pedrollo Sumo submersible
industrial borehole pump is normally selected for this purpose (i.e. installed in Biolytix®
Filter pump sump). The Pedrollo pump provides quiet and robust operation, typically for
around 10,000 hours service life, with multiple starts. This translates to an expected service
life of over 20 years for the pump. Specification details on the Pedrollo Sumo pump may be
obtained from Pedrollo website, http://pedrollo.com. A typical Biowater® installation would
normally consist of the Pedrollo Sumo 2/5 model, although higher head pumps are available
if required to suit particular scheme design requirements. The PSO&M should be referenced
for project specific pump information.

2.4.      Biowater Pipework
The Biowater® network design is not dissimilar to a conventional pressure sewerage scheme
design. Pipework is appropriately sized to ensure each pump operates within their normal
operational limits. The number of pumps that may operate simultaneously varies subject to
treatment plant loading, pump selection, topography and layout of each system. Design is
usually carried out using hydraulic modelling software and statistical analysis. For a 100
tenement Biowater network the typical number of pumps operating simultaneously would
normally be in the range of 1 to 15.
The worst operational situation for the Biowater® network would be immediately following
an extended power failure when all systems are likely to be in operation. During this
situation some pumps would effectively operate similar to a closed valve situation until
filters at the downstream end of the network had completed their pumping cycle. Although
significant power failure events are relatively rare the Pedrollo Sumo pump is capable of
operating in a closed valve situation for short periods. If deemed necessary the system could
be designed with simple pressure and timer switches to enable pump wells to drain
progressively following an extended power outage (refer also section 4.1.2).


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2.5.      Effluent Quality
The Biowater® network produces an effluent quality compatible with the type of Biolytix®
filter used. When the Biowater® network has been designed appropriately to transport
effluent from Biolytix® Filters and is operated in accordance with this Operations and
Maintenance Manual, Biolytix® guarantees that the effluent quality from the Biowater®
network will comply as a primary or secondary standard effluent, as defined in the relevant
sections below for the type of filter utilised, except following periods of extended power
failure and during initial commissioning as discussed in sections 4.1.1, 4.2.1and 9.1.1.
The PSO&M should be referenced for details on installed treatment systems.

   2.5.1.          BF6 Filter
   The Biolytix® Filter BF6 model, would be the normal selection for use in a Biowater®
   network as it produces a secondary standard effluent that provides the opportunity for
   local reuse and reduces the effluent transport risks. When the Biolytix® Filter is operated
   in accordance with the filter service and operators manuals, Biolytix® guarantees that the
   effluent quality from the BF6 Filter will comply as a secondary standard effluent as
   defined by Australian/ New Zealand Standard AS/NZS1547, On-site Domestic-
   Wastewater Management and clauses 2.4.1a and 2.4.1b of AS/NZS1546.3, Onsite
   Domestic Wastewater Treatment Units – Aerated Treatment Systems. To comply with
   these standards the effluent compliance characteristics are as follows:
   •   90 % of the samples taken over the three test periods shall have a BOD5 less than or
       equal to 20 g/m3 with no sample greater than 30 g/m3;
   • 90 % of the samples taken over the three test periods shall have total SS less than or
       equal to 30 g/m3 with no sample greater than 45 g/m3;
   Effluent quality produced by the Biowater® network is likely to have lower BOD5 and SS
   limits to those specified in AS/NZS1546.3 and AS/NZS1547. Typical independent test
   results for the BF6 Filter are summarised in Table 2-1 and includes results from Macleay
   Island Biowater® Scheme (Queensland, Australia).
                Table 2-1 Typical Biolytix® Filter BF6 Test Results (BOD5 & SS)
     Source                                                             BOD5                    SS
                                                              90%            Max   Av    90%    Max   Av
     AS1546.3 testing- SAI Global (2003)                       11.6          14    8.7   8.9    14    5.4
     AS1546.3 testing             by     SAI     Global        11.3          14    6.6   6.2     8    3.6
     (2003/2004)
     Macleay Island Biowater® (2004)                             7           11    4.7   13.4   451   8.3
     Bay of Plenty Trial NZ (2006)                               8           14    5      6      8    4.1
     1. Maximum SS figure was obtained in first sampling week following commissioning and likely due to
     inadequate flushing of Biowater® pipework.


   Essentially the independent testing demonstrates that a Biowater® network produces a
   high quality secondary effluent (at average flow rates the filter consistently produces a 5/5
   BOD5/ TSS effluent).



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     No detailed mass balance has been carried out on the nutrient removal efficiency of the
     Biolytix BF6 Filter. Table 2-2 provides a summary of some independent test results on
     nutrient levels in the final effluent.
                  Table 2-2 Typical Biolytix® Filter BF6 Test Results (TN& TP)
      Source                                         Total Nitrogen (TN)          Total Phosphorus (TP)
                                                    90%          Max         Av   90%      Max        Av
      Macleay        Island       Biowater®           63           67        49    15      16.5       9.4
      (2004)1
      Bay of Plenty Trial NZ (2006)                   44           47        39    11       13        8.5
      1. Approximately 60% of connected households to Macleay Island Biowater had Insinkerators installed
      which would affect nutrient loading.
     Nutrient levels may however vary significantly subject to hydraulic load and the nutrient
     level in the influent wastewater (e.g. strength of influent and whether an Insinkerator
     garbage grinder is installed). Greater nitrogen removal is normally achieved at higher
     hydraulic loading rates and removal efficiency is normally in the range 40-60%. Based
     on test results on the BF6 Filter module the average nutrient levels in the final effluent is
     typically TN: 39mg/L (NH3 approx 30%, NOx approx 70%) and TP 8-9mg/L. As shown
     by the Macleay Island Biowater® scheme, higher nutrient levels may be expected if
     Insinkerators are installed.
     The BF6 Filter normally achieves 3-4 log reduction in thermotolerant coliforms without
     separate disinfection equipment.

     2.5.2.        Biolytix® STP
     Biolytix® modular sewage treatment plants are normally installed when a BF6 Filter has
     insufficient capacity to treat the onsite wastewater (e.g. for commercial premises). The
     effluent quality from a Biolytix® STP is similar to that produced by the BF6 Filter.

     2.5.3.        BF2 Filter
     The BF2 Filter produces a primary standard effluent as defined by AS/NZS1547, Onsite
     Domestic Wastewater Management. Due to the lower quality effluent the BF2 Filter
     would not normally be used in a Biowater® network

3.       APPROVALS
3.1.      General
Legislative requirements for the installation of Biowater® scheme vary throughout Australia
and New Zealand. The PSO&M should be referenced for project specific approval details.

3.2.      Reporting Procedure
The PSO&M should be referenced for project specific reporting (and their frequency)
requirements which may include, but not limited to the following:
•    Treated effluent flow meter readings
•    Influent quality test results (may be necessary for some commercial premises)
•    Operating conditions – temperature and weather records
•    Final effluent quality test results

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•  Maintenance records
•  Operation problems: inadequately treated wastewater, toxic/hazardous wastes, power
   failures etc.
Reporting requirements will vary subject to the size of the Biowater® network and
environmental risk issues associated with the particular scheme.
Refer section 7 for details on records and standard record forms.

4.       OPERATION & CONTROL
4.1.      Control Philosophy
The PSO&M should be referenced for project specific control issues. The sections below
provide typical Biowater® scheme control philosophies.

     4.1.1.        Conventional
     Sewage from each site is processed within a Biolytix® Filter (BF2, BF6 or BSTP subject
     to scheme requirements). Treated effluent from the Biolytix® Filter is normally pumped
     directly into the Biowater® pressure pipe network. Subject to the size and model of the
     Biolytix® Filter treatment system duty/ standby pumps may be installed. The pumps
     operate on float switch control contained within the Biolytix® Filter pump well. The filter
     duty pump operates whilst the low float switch in pump well is activated. The float
     switch operates over an operating depth range of approximately 120 mm. This depth
     equates to a stored volume in each Biolytix® Filter module of approximately 200 litres.
     The pump duty (discharge flow rate) into the Biowater® network varies according the
     hydraulic characteristics of the Biowater® network which is influenced by the number of
     pumps operating at any particular time within the network. Non return valves are
     installed as standard on the pump discharge pipeline within the Biolytix® Filter and an
     additional non return valve would normally be installed at the property boundary to
     prevent the backflow of effluent from the Biowater® network into a lot (e.g. in event of
     pipe breakage within a property).
     The Biolytix® Filter is designed to allow partial flooding of the filter bed during
     emergency events. During a power or pump failure the level in the pump well sump rises
     and a high level alarm float is activated. The Biolytix® Filter is either connected to a
     conventional on-site audio/visual alarm or a phone line telemetry alarm system. During
     an extended power or pump failure event level continues to rise within the Biolytix® Filter
     until the filter emergency overflow level is reached. The emergency overflow normally
     discharges to a subsurface trench or additional emergency storage devices. Some
     installations may not have an emergency overflow subject to onsite soil conditions and
     local regulatory approval requirements. The normal emergency storage volume available
     within a Biolytix® Filter BF2 and BF6 filter is 1,540 and 1,340 litres respectively. The
     emergency storage volume in a Biolytix® STP varies subject to size.
     When power is restored or the pump problem is rectified the stored effluent is pumped
     into the pressure network until the low level float switch stops the pump automatically.
     Following a total Biowater® network power failure event it is possible that the effluent
     level in the majority of pump sumps would be above pump start float level and a high
     number of pumps would commence to operate. Subject to the hydraulic characteristics of
     the Biowater® network it is likely that a number of pumps will operate at a very low flow
     rate, or at zero flow against an equivalent closed valve head, until pump wells empty and
     the number of pumps operating progressively reduces.
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     4.1.2.        Control Options
     Some installations may contain special control systems to:
     •    Allow partial reuse of the treated effluent on site (e.g. to direct subsurface drip
         irrigation). Effluent that could not be sustainably reused on site would discharge into
         the Biowater® network.
     •   Enable progressive pump restarting following a total network failure event to prevent
         short term hydraulic overloading of the Biowater® network. Normally the system
         recovery time would be assessed as part of the network design and given that the
         standard Biolytix® Pump (Pedrollo Sumo) is capable of operating against a closed
         valve head special controls would not normally be required. Special pump restart
         controls would normally only be considered where schemes are located in regions
         where frequent power outages may be expected.

4.2.      Operation
     4.2.1.        Commissioning
     The Biowater collection pipework network is to be commissioned in accordance with
     regulatory requirements and the principles outlined in the Pressure Sewerage Code of
     Australia (WSA-07-2005).

     4.2.2.        Start-up
              ®
     Biolytix Treatment systems normally produce a compliant effluent quality immediately
     following commissioning, whilst other installations may require a 1-2 month start up
     period before the effluent quality stabilizes. The start-up period may vary with climate
     and specific characteristics of influent loading. Typically the start up period is shorter in
     warmer climates which promote worm activity and assists the worm population to reach
     the required stable operating level.

     4.2.3.        Shutdown – No load
     Some treatment systems within the Biowater® network may require total system shutdown,
     which may be for a short duration of a few months (e.g. for seasonally loaded treatment
     plants) or longer durations of several months (or years) where systems only have very
     occasional use. The Biolytix treatment system is able to cope with seasonal loading and
     would not normally require re-inoculation for shutdowns (or after periods of no load) of
     up to 6 months. It is likely that re-inoculation will be necessary, particularly in the BF2
     Filter after periods of more than 6 months.

4.3.      Troubleshooting
To be added in a future revision of this document.

5.       PERSONNEL
5.1.      Staffing
A permanent on-site operator is not required for a Biowater® network.              Operators are
required to undertake the following works:
•    Preventative and planned maintenance of onsite Biolytix® Filter treatment systems
     (normally annually for BF2 and BF6 filters) as outlined in this manual and the PSO&M.

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•   Respond to emergency call outs (e.g. Biolytix® Filter alarm events) and undertake system
    repairs.

5.2.         Operator Qualifications
It is important that O&M work on the Biolytix® Filters and Biowater® network is carried out
by appropriately qualified personnel to ensure the performance objectives for the Biolytix
treatment systems are achieved and work is carried out in accordance with safe work
practices. Biolytix® operate training courses to accredit Biolytix® maintenance technicians.
Contact Biolytix® to obtain details of accredited Biolytix® Maintenance Technicians.
Maintenance work on Biowater® networks should only be carried out by a qualified plumber
who has knowledge of the Biowater® system operation.

5.3.         Regulatory Authority
The regulatory authority and requirements vary in each Australian State in relation to
approval and qualifications of service technicians for the Biolytix®Filter. For example each
Australian State has different service personnel accreditation requirements for the servicing
of the BF6 Filter as summarised in Table 5-1. These requirements are likely to vary from
time to time and the appropriate regulatory authority should be contacted for the latest
accreditation requirements.
        Table 5-1: Summary of Maintenance Personnel Requirements for BF6 Filter
         State or     Regulatory Authority                    Maintenance Personnel Requirements
        Territory         for System
                         Accreditation
       ACT            ACT Health                   Normally adopt NSW Health requirements.
       NSW            NSW Health                   No specific requirements. Maintenance to be in
                                                   accordance with manufacturers O&M manual.
       NT             NT Health                    Application for approval not submitted to date.
       QLD            DNR&M                        Technician to obtain Local Government registration
                                                   approval. Service technicians include persons who have
                                                   completed an appropriate accredited training program and
                                                   are the holder of a licence as required under Section 35 of
                                                   the Plumbing and Drainage Act 2002 and the Plumbing
                                                   and Drainage Regulation 200.
       SA             Human Services               No specific requirements. Maintenance to be in
                                                   accordance with manufacturers service manual.
       Tas            Workplace Standards          Annual maintenance in accordance with manufacturers
                      (Dept of Justice)            service manual and quarterly performance review by
                                                   Council approved person.
       Vic            EPA Victoria                 Suitably qualified person or servicing agent in accordance
                                                   with manufacturer's specifications
       WA             WA Health                    Technician is to be authorized by the Executive Director,
                                                   Public Health.
No specific training and accreditation details are provided for the BSTP treatment filter as
these are normally project dependent.
No review has been undertaken at the time of writing this document in relation to New
Zealand regulatory approvals.




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6.       PROCESS CONTROL & LABORATORY TESTING
6.1.      Sampling Requirements
Refer to PSO&M for project specific sampling requirements which may vary subject to local
legislative requirements.

6.2.      Sampling Procedures
Sampling procedures are to be undertaken in accordance with the relevant Australian and
New Zealand Standards (and regulatory requirements).

6.3.      Test Recording Methods
The PSO&M should be referenced for any legislative test recording requirements.

6.4.      Interpretation of Results
High SS or BOD5 levels (i.e. above normal operational limits specified in section 2.5) would
normally indicate one or a combination of the following:
•  The Biowater® network has just recovered from a long term power outage which has
   resulted in deterioration in the effluent quality discharged from the Biolytix® Filters.
   Records should be checked to determine whether recent power outages had occurred.
• Biolytix® Filter operational problems. In a Biowater® network it is unlikely that the poor
   performance of a single Biolytix® Filter would be picked up by testing of effluent
   discharged from the Biowater® network due to the dilution and averaging affect of
   mixing treated effluents from a number of treatment plants. Individual filter performance
   issues would normally be detected by property owner (e.g. odours) if on site alarm
   system does not initiate a maintenance call out.
Refer section 4.3 for troubleshooting details.

7.       RECORDS
7.1.      General
It is important that treatment plant operational records are appropriately recorded and filed.
These records are often invaluable to troubleshoot operational problems and are often
required to comply with legislative system monitoring requirements. Records that may be
taken include but not limited to the following:
•    Commissioning
•    Start-up
•    Maintenance visits
•    Alarm events
•    Sample records – onsite and laboratory
•    Flow meter readings (when flow meter has been installed)

7.2.      Reporting
Refer PSO&M manual for legislative reporting requirements.



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8.       MAINTENANCE
8.1.      General
Although the Biowater® network is a robust, low maintenance treatment and effluent transfer
system, it requires inspection and proper care and maintenance in order to operate effectively.
Preventative maintenance visits are necessary to:
•    Ensure the long term optimal performance of onsite Biolytix® Filter treatment plants and
     Biowater® collection pipework;
•    Reduce the risk of contamination of the receiving environment (including, land,
     groundwater and surface waters) as a result of an untreated or treated effluent spill.
•    Reduce the risk of any impact to public health through discharges of untreated or
     partially treated effluent.
•    Comply with legislative requirements.

Maintenance intervals for Biolytix® Filters vary subject to model and type as follows:
•  BF6 Filters normally only require an annual maintenance inspection of the pump and top
   layer of the filter bed and check on pump and air blower.
• BF2 pre-filter units (in the Biolytix Filter STP) typically require monthly inspections
   over the first 12 months. Subject to the nature of the wastewater loading and results of
   the first annual review it is likely that inspections would be required every 3 to 6 months
   in following years.
Any accumulated non biodegradable material within the filter units would need to be
removed manually and disposed to land fill in accordance with local regulations.
Maintenance on Biowater® network buffer storages and irrigation systems need to comply
with project specific requirements.

8.2.      Procedures
Standard maintenance manuals and procedures available for the Biowater® network and
Biolytix® Filter Treatment systems are summarised in Appendix A. Maintenance procedures
are available to cover all modules/components of the treatment systems. The appropriate
procedures for each project are contained in the PSO&M.
Maintenance scheduling and planning is covered in section 8.6.

8.3.      Inventory System & Equipment Records
The PSO&M provides details of the Biowater® network design and a schedule where
appropriate of all instrumentation and mechanical equipment installed within.
The PSO&M manual is to be updated if equipment modifications are made to the treatment
plant installation (e.g. plant or instrumentation is replaced, additional treatment systems are
added to the Biowater® network).

8.4.      Special Tools
Special tools required for maintenance work is included on each individual maintenance
procedure (refer section 8.2 and Appendix A)



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8.5.      Warranty Provisions
          ®
Biolytix provides a performance warranty for all treatment systems that are covered by an
appropriate maintenance agreement (with Biolytix® or Biolytix® Service Agent). Biolytix®
offers various maintenance agreements to suit client and project specific requirements. For
some projects a fully comprehensive service contract may be offered that covers
maintenance, emergency callouts and replacement parts. The term of the service agreement
may typically vary in length from 1 to 20 years. Pricing varies with location due to the affect
of travel costs and treatment plant loading due to the affect on maintenance frequency
requirements.
The performance warranty offered by Biolytix® is typically as follows.
The Equipment is designed to produce the treatment outcomes specified in the product
specification, which forms part of the Operators Manual supplied with the Equipment
(“Treatment Outcomes”). Biolytix warrants that, provided that the Service Recipient has
complied with all of its obligations under this Agreement, and provided the
    a) Equipment is operated in accordance with:
    b) the Operators Manual (as updated or amended from time to time),
    c) the design loading rate specified on the product identification plate affixed to the
        Equipment; and
    d) the Service Manual supplied to qualified service personnel, and
    e) any other suggestions, updates or instructions from Biolytix from time to time,
then the Equipment will produce the Treatment Outcomes for the Term (“the Warranty”).
(The equipment does not include, and Biolytix does not warrant the effluent distribution
system, however Biolytix may pass on any third party warranty if applicable.)

8.6.      Planning & Maintenance Schedule
Table 8-1 summarises the typical maintenance frequency for each of the standard
maintenance procedures included in Section 8.2. This maintenance frequency schedule is
superseded by any project specific scheduling included in the PSO&M (e.g. may need to be
superseded by Legislative requirements).
Some maintenance procedures include a suggested frequency interval as well as the “as
required” (as req’d) interval. It is likely that the suggested frequency interval for these items
may vary on a project basis and may need to be refined (e.g. to more or less frequent) based
on feedback from each service maintenance visit. The majority of maintenance frequency
items are annual whilst some key items in an STP require more frequent attention e.g. the
BF2 Filter bed.
Notwithstanding the requirement for scheduled preventative maintenance visits by qualified
maintenance personnel (which are documented) the treatment system owner/manager has a
responsibility to report on any obvious, albeit unlikely, operational problems including, but
not limited to; effluent ponding/evidence of filter overflows, structural damage and
obnoxious odours. Detection of odours is a key indicator of poor treatment plant
performance and regular informal observational inspections of the treatment plant will assist
early detection of any potential treatment plant problems. More frequent inspections by
skilled maintenance personnel will not significantly reduce the risk of unlikely treatment
system failures and utilising informal feedback from personnel who need to access the
treatment plant site area on an occasional basis is the most efficient method to assist to
reduce                                    operational                                  risks.


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       Table 8-1: Typical Maintenance Procedure Frequency for Biowater® Network
        Operational Controls              Procedure/ Manual                  Maintenance Frequency
                                              Reference
                                                                    Mthly        3Mth   6Mth   Yr   As Req’d
   General
   Perform necessary operational         Refer PSO&M                                                   X
   and control tests to comply with
   approval conditions
   Biolytix® Filter Treatment
   Systems
   Biolytix® Filters (BF2/ BF6)          Biolytix® Filter Service                              X
                                         Manual
   Biolytix® STP                         Biolytix® STP Operations                 X                    X
                                         & Maintenance Manual
   Biowater® Network
   Buffer Storage Tank                   VP_bufferStorage                                      X
   Maintenance
   Pipework Network                      Refer PSO&M                                                   X
   Final Effluent
   Effluent Quality Check                VP_effluentQualityBF2BF6                              X       X
   Effluent Dispersal Check –            VP_effluentDispersal       X (year 1)                 X       X
   surface/ subsurface irrigation
   systems


9.       EMERGENCY OPERATING & RESPONSE
         PROGRAMME
9.1.      System Vulnerability
Although a Biowater® network is designed to have low operating risks, there is potential
under certain emergency operating situations that an uncontrolled or poor quality release of
effluent may occur. Contingency procedures are required to provide for effective
management of these situations.
The Biolytix® Filter has been designed with inbuilt emergency buffer storage to
accommodate short term system failures (refer also section 4). The actual emergency storage
volume available in the system is noted in the PSO&M or Biolytix® STP specifications (for
standard STP options).

     9.1.1.        Power Outage
     Any power outage will prevent operation of the Biolytix® Filter onsite treatment systems
     (air blower/pump and effluent pumping systems) within the Biowater® network. The
     control philosophy in section 4.1 provides details on system failure events. An alarm
     event would normally be activated during a power outage (onsite systems with telemetry
     alarms). In any power outage it is important that measures are immediately implemented
     to reduce wastewater flows to onsite treatment facilities and this requirement is contained
     in onsite treatment system owner/ operator manuals. Reducing wastewater flows to
     treatment systems significantly increases the time available before the emergency storage
     capacity of the treatment facility reaches the emergency overflow level. In any event
     wastewater flows would naturally reduce during power failure events, particularly if the
     onsite water supply is also reliant on a power supply (e.g. systems with rainwater tanks
     and pressure pumps).

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   Biolytix® treatment systems may continue to treat the effluent even in a power failure
   event, albeit quality will deteriorate with extended power outage.                Although
   supplementary aeration may not be available through the air pump, passive aeration
   through the multiple layers of the filter bed is still possible until the emergency buffer
   storage is full. Even during emergency overflow situations all effluent is required to pass
   through the mechanical layers of all filter beds (BF2 and BF6 Filters), and regardless of
   whether the filter bed is flooded, any effluent discharge would be highly filtered (i.e. SS
   levels would still be relatively low).
   The onsite treatment systems may be supplied with an emergency overflow to a
   subsurface trench system (refer PSO&M for details of any emergency overflow systems).
   This trench situation provides additional emergency storage and assists to provide
   treatment of any emergency overflows.
   It is possible that during an extended power outage event that spills of untreated effluent
   may be possible. Refer section 9.2 for details on dealing with these events.

   9.1.2.          Flooding
   Normally the treatment plant would not be located in flood prone zones and direct
   flooding problems would not normally impact on treatment plant performance. Localised
   flash flooding or extremely rare flooding events may impact on treatment plant
   performance, directly at the treatment plant site or indirectly through excessive inflow of
   stormwater into the sewerage collection network. Excessive flooding events will result in
   the emergency overflow level being reached quite rapidly, potentially resulting in a spill
   event. Refer section 9.2 for details on dealing with spill events.

9.2.      Control of Spills
   9.2.1.          Minor Spills
   Should a minor effluent spill occur during the operation of an onsite treatment plant or
   pipe network the following response procedure shall be implemented.
   •    An assessment of the size and origin of the spill is to be made by the Biowater®
        Operator/ responsible manager.
   •    Safely stop further release of effluent from the process train which may include the
        isolation of pumps within the process train, plugging pipe systems or undertaking
        measures to reduce flows to the treatment system. If the leak is from a section of the
        Biowater® pipe network, the relevant section should be isolated by shutting
        appropriate network isolation valves (refer PSO&M and project Biowater® drawings).
   •    Contain the spilled effluent and prevent the release of the effluent to the receiving
        environment (e.g. through the use of sandbags or earth bunding to aid in containing
        the effluent).
   •    Where possible return any captured effluent back into a Biolytix® treatment plant for
        treatment (e.g. with a portable pump).
   •    Assess size of the spill and of the requirement to notify the EPA.

   9.2.2.          Major Spills
   Should a major effluent spill occur during the operation of the scheme the following
   response procedure shall be implemented.



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    •   An assessment of the size and origin of the spill is to be made by the
        operator/treatment plant responsible manager.
    •   If it is possible, actions shall be taken to safely stop any further release of effluent
        from the process train.
    •   If the spill is from an onsite treatment system, notify the Owner (as necessary). Co-
        ordinate an emergency spill response. Depending on the scale of the spill, it may be
        necessary for the Owner/ Biowater® Operator to inform EPA and manage the situation
        in conjunction with EPA.
    •   Safely contain the effluent if this is possible (e.g. through the use of sandbags or earth
        bunding to aid in containing the effluent).
    •   Cleanup of the site shall be undertaken as quickly as practicable. Where EPA has been
        notified, appropriate actions may be directed by the EPA.

9.3.      Emergency Equipment & Contacts
Emergency equipment requirements will vary with each Biowater® network and is normally
subject to:
•  Site remoteness and available access to emergency equipment (e.g. sand bags, plant and
   equipment to providing temporary bunding, pipe fittings and repair kits, spare pumps).
• Size of treatment facility and risk of emergency failure events (e.g. some treatment sites
   may be in a region renowned for having long power outages).
An appropriate site based risk assessment should be carried out to determine whether any
emergency equipment should be kept on site (e.g. spill containment kits, emergency
generators). It is noted that this risk assessment would normally be carried out at the design
phase.
A list of appropriate emergency contacts should be prepared for each project.                The
emergency contact list may include, but not limited to:
•   Biowater® System Manager
•   Biolytix® Service Technician
•   Treatment Plant Owners
•   Local Council
•   EPA
•   Local plant hire company (e.g. for hire of pumps, spill containment kits, special plant)
•   Trade waste company
•   Utility companies

9.4.      Personnel Training
Personnel responsible for management of the treatment facility should have a basic
understanding of this manual and the PSO&M.

9.5.      Emergency Operating Plan
A site based emergency operating plan needs to be in place for every Biowater® network.
Site specific emergency plan details are included in the PSO&M. For the majority of small
treatment plant sites, this would normally be limited to notifying the treatment plant service
technician and undertaking the necessary actions as outlined in this section above.



PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                 16
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
10. SAFETY
10.1. General Safety & Hazards
Potential OH&S hazards that may be encountered when carrying out on-site maintenance
work are covered in Biolytix® Filter Maintenance Procedure OH&S issues (refer Appendix
A).

10.2. Safety Equipment Required
Safety equipment requirements are covered in the standard maintenance procedures (refer
section 8.2.

11. UTILITIES
11.1. General
Onsite treatment systems require an electrical power supply. Some systems may require
telephone connection (to telemetry phone line alarm system). Sites would also normally
have a pressure water supply in the vicinity of the treatment system to allow for general
treatment system washdown and to facilitate general treatment system maintenance activities.
The PSO&M provides appropriate details in this area.

11.2. Procedures & List of Contacts
A list of utility supply contacts should be kept in the PSO&M manual. This information may
facilitate efficient rectification of problems during system failures (e.g. it is important that
information is obtained from electrical service provider about system outage durations as this
may affect emergency procedure actions).

12. ELECTRICAL & CONTROL SYSTEMS
Refer section 4.1. Further information will be incorporated in a future revision of this
document.




PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd               17
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
Appendix A. Maintenance Procedures
A.1 Biolytix® Filter Operations and Maintenance Manuals
   A.1.1           Biolytix® Filter Service Manual
  Biolytix® Instruction/ Service Manual, General Instruction and Service Manual
  Link: http://docs.biolytix.com/service/procedure/VP_BiolytixServiceManual.pdf
  Document covers annual servicing procedures and Biolytix® Filter warranty issues.
   A.1.2           Biolytix® STP O&M Manual
  Biolytix® STP Operations and Maintenance Manual
   Link:http://docs.biolytix.com/products/procedure/PP-
   BSTPOperationsMaintenanceManual.pdf
   Document covers all operations and maintenance issues associated with a Biolytix®
   STP.

A.2 Biolytix® Maintenance Procedures
The following table summarises the list of Biolytix® Maintenance Procedure
Documents. Maintenance procedures are updated periodically and a controlled copy
of all procedures is available for download from the Biolytix® Document Control
website. The webpage link is http://docs.biolytix.com/service/procedure/filename.pdf,
where filename is the file name reference in the table below e.g. GAC Tank
Maintenance        procedure      may      be     downloaded      from       weblink:
http://docs.biolytix.com/service/procedure/vp_GAC.pdf.      Procedures without a
reference file name have not been produced to date.
                 Reference                                                   Procedure Title
          File Name                  Category
                                    General          Customer Feedback
                                    General          Integrated Treatment System Review
                                    General          Pipework Blockages, overflows and spills

vp_tankIntegrity                    Module           Maintenance of Tank Modules – External &
                                                     Internal Integrity Check
vp_BF2Bed                           Module           BF2 Filter Bed Maintenance
vp_BF6Bed                           Module           BF6 Filter Bed Maintenance
vp_GAC                              Module           GAC Tank Maintenance
vp_bufferStorage                    Module           Buffer Storage Tank Maintenance
vp_UV                               Module           UV Disinfection System Maintenance
vp_UF                               Module           UF System Maintenance

vp_pump                             Component        Pump Maintenance
vp_floatSwitch                      Component        Float Switch Operation
vp_alarm                            Component        Alarm Operation
vp_airPump                          Component        Air Pump Operation
vp_flowMeter                        Component        Flow Meter
vp_controlBox                       Component        Control Box Maintenance

vp_effluentQualityBF2BF6            Effluent         Effluent Quality Check – BF2 & BF6

PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                      18
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
               Reference                                                     Procedure Title
        File Name                    Category
vp_effluentDispersal                Effluent         Effluent Dispersal Check – Subsurface Irrigation
                                                     Systems
vp_effluentQualityUF                Effluent         Effluent Quality Check - Ultrafilter




PP-BiowaterOperationsMaintenanceManual Rev A Biolytix Technologies Pty Ltd                              19
                                                       Biowater
                                           Operation & Maintenance Manual
                                                    APPENDIX C
         Biolytix Water response – Penneshaw Biowater Scheme 9 April 2009




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev B/June2009
      RESPONSE – PENNESHAW BIOWATER SCHEME
                                                                            9 April 2009 
          
      1) What is the size of the tank can we get a drawing of the tank and its setup? 

             • The Biolytix BF6 tank is 2.06m high, 1.88m diameter and requires about a
               2.5m2 excavation to be installed, See attached BF6 specification (page 1) for
               drawing or see http://docs.biolytix.com/products/source/PR-
               BF6Specifications.doc/view?searchterm=bf6%20specification
          
      2) What size are the pumps and what is the duty.  (also comment on what you have 
         found the running times to be).  If you use different pumps depending on the 
         application that is fine a typical power rating and duty curve will do. 
          
            • Pedrollo Sumo 2/5 submersible; 0.45 kW 0.6 HP. Running times are typically 
                4‐5 minutes per cycle (about 40 litres/minute) for 2‐3 cycles per day. See 
                attached Pedrollo technical information for duty curves. 
 
      3) A brief technical description of the treatment process would be good. 
          
             • The Biolytix Filter is a patented wastewater and solid organic waste treatment
               system using biolytic filtration and natural and supplementary airflow to break
               down household wastewater produced from a single dwelling within a single
               tank.
               The process includes – in tank separation of solid and liquid waste flows. As
               the filter separates the organic matter from the wastewater it provides a mix of
               specialized organisms to treat the waste aerobically. This filtration process is
               completed with a 90 micron geofabric filter above the sump from where it is
               pumped to its next use.
       
      4) What servicing requirements are there?  You have stated once a year but what does 
         this involve?   
          
             • See attached BF6 specification page 6 adn see
                 http://docs.biolytix.com/service/procedure/VP_BiolytixServiceManual.pdf

      5)  Does it have to be serviced by Biowater or can local plumbers do it? 
           
             • A service contract is usually held between the home owner and Biolytix head 
                 office. There are already numerous Biolytix Filters in Penneshaw and we have 
                 a local plumber already trained to service these units. There is also a backup 
                 service in which we provide contact numbers for regional service agents to 
                 ring our specialist Biolytix technicians who can assist in any aspect of the 
                 servicing and troubleshooting if required. A local plumber may service the 


                                      ABN: 11 097 798 966
       Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
    Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
             Biolytix filter but only after receiving our comprehensive service technicians 
             training.
   
  6) What is the usual cost of this service? 
       
         • The current annual service fee is $320 plus GST but for large scale servicing in 
             the one vicinity, this cost may be reduced.  
       
  7) What is the supply price for the units (to Penneshaw) 
       
         • The estimated supply price for Biolytix Filters would be ‐TO BE ADVISED but 
             this is based on at least 300 units being installed in a consecutive manner.
         • Freight costs delivered to Penneshaw – TO BE ADVISED 
         • There may be some flexibility to reduce this estimate with more detailed 
             investigations 
   
  8) From your experience what are the install costs? 
       
         • The average install cost, given standard soil conditions and the economies of 
             scale from a continuum of install work would be   ‐TO BE ADVISED. This would 
             include excavation, plumbing and electrical connections (house to Filter to 
             Biowater network, concrete for stabilisation, soil compaction and final trim. 
             This would not include any on‐site irrigation.
   
  9) Penneshaw has a considerable amount of rock that will be in backyards etc, have you 
      had any experience installing the units in rocky areas. 
       
         • Rocky sites are well suited to the Biowater network due to the small diameter 
             pipework which is installed in shallow and narrow trenches. 
         • Installations into rocky sites are not a big problem with the correct equipment 
             for the job but it may lead to more expense on some sites. For some rocky 
             sites it may be possible and perhaps economic to collapse the existing septic 
             tank excavation and use that as the initial part of the excavation for a Biolytix 
             Filter which would require an additional 0.5m depth. 
         • A rock clause would need to be included to cover the challenging sites but a 
             larger excavator with more rock breaking capacity would be advisable.  
   
  10) How heavy is the unit?  Need this to look at tight installs 
       
         • The Biolytix tank weighs 396 Kg and so does need at least a 3 tonne excavator 
             or similar to move and place the tank.
         • For previous very tight installs, the tank components have been supplied as a 
             kit and carried to site. A machine for excavation would probably still require 
             access.
   
   
                                  ABN: 11 097 798 966
   Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
      11) What is the expected life of (pump, sump, filter) 
           
              • Expected pump life – Sumo 2/5 – 10,000 hours (in excess of 20 years); Schego 
                 air pump – 5 years; filter medium and tank – constructed to AS1547; tank is 
                 UV stabilised polypropylene ‐ estimated life – manufacturer’s warranty 20 
                 years.
       
      12) Are there any operational restrictions?  (i.e. for septic tanks bleaches, caustic 
          cleaning agents and some detergents should be avoided) 
 
              • Householders involved in the first Biowater installation on Macleay Island 
                Biowater, were deliberately not given any user instructions and told not to 
                give any consideration to the Biological Filter. The results during the test 
                period showed no adverse effects on the Filter performance. 
                 
              • See the attached excerpt from our Operator’s Manual for do’s and dont’s 
                 
              • Normal domestic cleaning agents, such as bleaches and acceptably toxic
                cleaning products, introduced in small amounts, can be processed by the biota
                within the Filter. Most toxins are diluted when introduced into the Filter and
                do not adversely impact on the performance of the Filter. Unlike a septic
                system, the Biolytix Filter has a great diversity of organisms within the filter
                bed layers. In an aqueous system toxins are spread quickly causing maximum
                damage, conversely in the Biolytix Filter, toxins are retained in a relatively
                small area and will be decomposed over time.
 
              • It is preferred that environmentally responsible products are used where they 
                may enter the wastewater stream and ultimately the soil in the irrigation 
                 field.
                  
              • Being a natural system, the Biolytix Filter does not respond well to toxic 
                 products. However, if introduced in small amounts, the biota in the tanks can 
                 over time process bleaches and toxic cleaning agents. These products do 
                 initially kill worms and bacteria directly under the inlet pipe but those not 
                 directly affected move away until the toxins are diluted and then they 
                 gradually return and assist in processing the toxins.  
           
              • Of all the on‐site treatment plants on the market, Biolytix is arguably the one 
                that can best handle the use toxic household cleaning products. This 
                robustness comes in part because the system processes wastewater in a fully 
                aerobic environment as the water containing toxic substances travels over 
                the myriad of tunnels and surface area within the medium of each tank. It is 
                not trying to process toxins in an aqueous environment. 
 
       


                                      ABN: 11 097 798 966
       Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
    Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
      13) What happens when/if the system fails how long to get it operational again. i.e. in 
          any aerobic system if the bacteria are killed then it takes some time to breed the 
          colony again.  Any such issues for your filters? 
           
              • If system failure was to occur, it would generally be the result of owner 
                 mismanagement (overloading or continued use of toxic products not 
                 normally associated with household operations or usage). In this case, any 
                 costs to rebuild the system back to full operational ability would be the 
                 owner’s responsibility. At the time of installation, education of the owner’s to 
                 this fact as well as giving them the correct operating and management 
                 instruction would see a very low risk of system failure. 
                  
              • Partial failure due to use of toxic chemicals can see a full recovery if the 
                 introduced toxicity is not continuous. Generally harsh cleaning products are 
                 not used on a continuous basis. Once the toxic product has been diluted and 
                 isolated, the existing biota within the tank will repopulate and return to 
                 normal provided this original impact is not too great. If there is food for the 
                 biota, generally the populations increase rapidly. A compromised system will 
                 recover but may be assisted with the addition of fresh worms which the local 
                 service technician could provide. 
 
             • If a system is completely dead (no worm or other activity) the tank can be 
               rebuilt with new medium and inoculated with starter worms in about 3 
                hours. Rebuild kits and worms can be issued from our factory and supplied 
               within 3 days to Penneshaw but if a Biowater scheme was introduced, the 
               local service technician (plumber) would carry at least one rebuild kit at all 
               times.
 
             • The decision to rebuild or not will vary to each situation but if annual 
               maintenance is combined with good user knowledge and the telemetry alarm 
               system, there should be very few situations requiring a full rebuild. The vast 
               majority of problems should be identified well before full system failure. 
       
      14) Can you provide a list of community schemes that have been installed and are 
          operational? 
           
             • Macleay Island Biowater scheme, just off the Queensland coast near Brisbane,
                 operates for 17 domestic Biolytix units and 1 commercial situation and
                 irrigates to an adjacent golf course. This system has been in operation for 5
                 years and is currently undergoing a new maintenance contract phase with the
                 local authority looking to hand all system maintenance over to Biolytix.

             • Pt Boston, 15 km north of Port Lincoln in South Australia, is an approved
               1,000 lot residential subdivision that incorporates a Biowater scheme. The
               treated secondary effluent is pumped to a centralised treatment plant for


                                      ABN: 11 097 798 966
       Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
    Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
              polishing to a tertiary standard before returning back to the houses for use in
              toilet flushing, laundry and external uses.

          • Rawnsley Park is a small Biowater scheme consisting of 4 luxury eco-villas set
            in the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. The wastewater from a Biolytix
            Filter at each villa is pumped through a linked Biowater pipe to the one sub-
            surface irrigation area.

          • Clevedon is a small town south east of Auckland, New Zealand, where a 10 lot
            Biowater scheme has been approved with the street pressure pipe network
            already installed together with the other usual services. Individual Biolytix
            tanks will be installed as the houses are built which is expected to roll out
            during the remainder of 2009. The treated effluent is pumped to a dedicated
            community irrigation area for disposal. This whole wastewater system;
            capture, treatment, reticulation and disposal is managed through a body
            corporate.

          • Palmers Island Biowater in NSW consists of 6 house lots where stage 1 of the
            reticulation network has been installed. Biolytix BF6 Filters will be installed
            as the houses are built during 2009/10.

  15) What buffer storage is available in the event of a power out situation? 
       
        • There is about 1,340 litres storage in each BF6 Filter which under normal 
            usage (say 600 litres/day) gives at least 2 days storage. This volume still 
            allows a refuge for worms and insects that do not survive in liquids for 
            extended periods. The BF6 Filter can handle short periods of flooding without 
            compromising its ongoing performance. Problems do arise if there are longer 
            term or continuous flooding events. 

  16) Is desludging or changing of the media required, what frequency 
        
           • No desludging is required but over time the bags of plastic medium become
               filled with humus and need to been replaced with “empty” bags. It may take at
               least 10 years before some bags may need to be replaced but this can be
               undertaken as part of the annual servicing.  
                
           • Disposal of biosolids varies in each state but “filled” bags may be buried but
               there optimal use is for seed bags for new BF6 units. 
        
  17) Is disinfection a normal part of the units or is this optional.  What form of disinfection 
      is used? Does the unit achieve sub 100 counts of ecoli without disinfection?  
        
           • Our standard BF6 model does not incorporate disinfection, as the majority of 
               units pump the treated effluent directly to sub‐surface irrigation. We do have 
               approval in South Australia for UV disinfection as an added process after the 
               BF6 secondary treatment. 

                                  ABN: 11 097 798 966
   Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
                 
              • For Biowater schemes, we have found that if disinfection of the secondary 
                effluent is required, the most efficient and economic solution is to apply the 
                disinfection just prior to its disposal. This would typically be undertaken at 
                holding tanks adjacent to the disposal or irrigation area. 
 
              • Independent testing showed the BF6 with UV disinfection produced a count 
                of < 10 cfu/100ml.   

      18) Do you have typical test data showing BOD, SS and ecoli? 
           
              • See attached BF6 specification page 3 or
                 http://docs.biolytix.com/products/source/PR-
                 BF6Specifications.doc/view?searchterm=bf6%20specification

                • See attached Bay of Islands BF6 report, from New Zealand.
       
      19) Is it just a solenoid valve that diverts from the irrigation to the community main? 
           What control is in place to trigger this action (is it manual or auto) 
            
                • A solenoid valve, in conjunction with a soil moisture sensor (trigger) would be
                    used to divert on-site irrigation to the Biowater network, in cases of rain or
                    sufficient irrigation.

              • If no on-site disposal is required, no solenoid valve would be required. This
                could be the property owners’ choice and cost implication.

              • There are non-return valves in the BF6 pump well and also at the boundary
                box to safeguard the one-way movement of the effluent.
           

      20) Do you have a pump curve?  We will need to look at this for the network design. 

              • Yes – see the Pedrollo pump attachment 

 

           

      21) ADDITIONAL COMMENTS 

              • The cost of connection from the main house sewer pipe to the Biolytix tank
                would be included in the cost of installation and would be a cost differential
                not reflected in the gravity sewer costs, albeit a saving for the house owner.

              • The Biolytix treatment process virtually eliminates dealing with biosolids
                (sludge disposal) which can be a very costly exercise for centralised treatment
                plants. This provides a significant cost advantage for a Biolytix system which
                needs to be transparent in any cost comparison.

                                      ABN: 11 097 798 966
       Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
    Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
         • A Biowater scheme would provide a reticulation network right to the footy
           oval and the golf course (disposal sites) but would require a small area for
           storage tanks to then pump the treated effluent to these end uses.

         • A Biowater scheme does not incur the cost of purchase of land for a centralised
           treatment facility or require a buffer area to mitigate impacts of noise and
           odour. These impacts and costs would be part of a gravity sewer scheme which
           would also incur costs for gaining the necessary environmental and operating
           approvals for a centralised STP.

         • As for a gravity scheme, a Biowater network would provide a reticulated pipe
           to all vacant and existing house lots for current and future connections. A great
           advantage of the Biowater scheme is that the BF6 and their installation costs
           are not incurred until there is take up of the vacant lots. This provides a capital
           cost offset in comparison to the required full construction cost of a centralised
           STP which remains underutilised until there is a full build-out.

         • A future expansion of a Biowater network is also possible with little additional
           capital cost and so is much more flexible that a gravity system.




                                  ABN: 11 097 798 966
   Mail: Biolytix Water Australia Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 591, Maleny, QLD 4552, Australia
Phone: 07 5499 8000 Toll Free: 1300 881 472 Fax: 07 5435 2701 www.biolytix.com.au
                                                    APPENDIX D
                                           Biolytix Water Cost Estimate




Penneshaw CWMS – Comparison between Biowater and Conventional Gravity
Wallbridge & Gilbert/070466rp003Rev B/June2009
               PENNESHAW - KANGAROO ISLAND WASTEWATER COLLECTION
                          PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATE
ITEM NO                 DESCRIPTION             UNIT   QUANTITY          RATE   AMOUNT

   1      Reticulation Network - Pumped
          80mm pumped main 0.6m deep - polypropylen        m    11600     60    $696,000
          Allotment Connections - Valve, Testpoint, Valv   No    353     500    $176,500
          Inspection/Flush Points                          No    50      300     $15,000
          Allowance for Rock                               m     650     120     $78,000

                                          SUB TOTAL                             $965,500

   2      Allotment Systems - Secondary Treatment
          Biolytix BF6 3000 PAV ( Supply & Delivery)       No    353     6250   $2,206,250
          Installation and Connection                      No    353     1700    $600,100
          Commissioning and inspection                     No    353     350     $123,550

                                          SUB TOTAL                             $2,929,900

   3      Pumping Station (Not Required)                   No        0    0        $0

                                    BIOLYTIX TOTAL                              $3,895,400

   4      Contingencies (To be used as required by Superintendent)       10%    $389,540


          CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATE (Ex GST)                                        $4,284,940