Chapter 5, Section 4 The Spread of Greek Culture Today we will learn how Hellenistic cities became centers of learning and culture Greek Culture Spreads • Alexander’s conquest helped to spread Greek culture. • Kings who came after hoped to recreate the glory of Greece’s Golden Age in their own kingdoms Alexandria • Philosophers, scientist, poets, & writers flocked to new Greek cities. • Alexandria was know for it’s library. – More than 500,000 scrolls – Useful to students studying literature and language. • Also had a museum – Researchers went to work Architecture and Sculpture • Opportunities for Architects: – New cities were founded/Old ones rebuilt – Kings wanted cultural centers of Greece – $$$ to line the streets with baths, theaters, and temples • Sculptors made their living: – Making thousands of statues Literature and Theater • Writers supported by the wealthy • Argonautica – Epic poem written by Appolonius of Rhodes. – Tells the legend of Jason and his band of heroes. Sail the seas with searching for a ram with golden fleece • Theocritus – wrote short poems about the beauty of nature. • No more SNL • Menander – best known playwright. – Told stories of love and relationships Philosophy Epicurus & Zeno showed the world different ways to look at happiness Epicurus Zeno • Founded Epicureanism • Developed Stoicism • Taught happiness was the goal • Zeno was so poor – no $ for in life lecture hall • Pleasure meant spending time • Taught from the “painted with friends at not to worry porch” about things. • Happiness came from • Avoided worry by staying out following reason not emotion, of politics/public service and doing your duty. • Present day meaning – love of • Present day meaning – not physical pleasure (good food) affected by joy or grief Review • Kings wanted to recreate _______________? • ____________ had the best known library of its time. • Argonautica is about… • People no longer made fun of __________ in plays • _____________ believe you would be happy by serving in public office. • _____________ believed you would be happy by hanging out with your friends. Greek Science and Math Today you will learn that Hellenistic scientist made major discoveries in math and astronomy Astronomers – study stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies Aristarchus Eratosthenes • In charge of the library at • From Samos Alexandria • Claimed the sun was the • Way before Columbus: center of the universe – Concluded: the Earth is round • The Earth circled the sun • Used geometry/astronomy to measure the Earth’s • Idea rejected by other circumference. astronomers. • How close was he? – Thought the Earth was the – His :39, 702 km, center. – Actual:40,008 km – How self-centered!!! Greek Medicine • 400s BCE – separation of medicine from religion • Hippocrates – pioneer of medical science – Stressed the importance of examination, a healthy diet, and understanding symptoms. • Hippocratic oath – promise never to harm and always car for patients • The link between the caduceus of Hermes and medicine seems to have arisen by the seventh century A.D., when Hermes had come to be linked with alchemy. Alchemists were referred to as the sons of Hermes, as Hermetists or Hermeticists and as "practitioners of the hermetic arts". – Alchemy - a form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and concerned principally with discovering methods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with finding a universal solvent and an elixir of life. Mathematicians Euclid Archimedes • Elements • From Syracuse • Plane geometry-shows how • Solid geometry – study of points, lines, angles, and spheres and cylinders surfaces relate to one • Pi- π - 3.14159265358979… another. • Also an inventor: • King Ptolemy I – “what’s the – Created CATAPULTS as a easy way?” request of his king to defend • Euclid: “there is no royal the city from Roman invasion way to learn geometry.” • Killed by Romans. Review • Hellenistic scientist made discoveries in math and _________________. • Who used geometry to measure the Earth’s circumference? (and was right!) • Euclid was insulted by what question asked by King Ptolemy? • How did Euclid respond? • Aristarchus believed _________ was the center of the universe. • ________ geometry is the study of spheres. • Archimedes invented_____________ that were used to defend the city from Roman invasion. End of Lesson! CATAPULTS • Archimedes designed catapults – machines that hurled arrows, spears, and rocks. • So let’s bring science into the history class! • You will design a catapult on a much smaller scale. Catapulting Marshmallows!!! • You will work with your study groups to create a catapult and launch a marshmallow. • Get out your group member role contract • Turn 5 desk to make a table top. • Get into your study groups • Decide group member roles. • I will bring supplies/worksheet to each group • Work cooperatively within YOUR group • Worth 2 daily grades! What does working cooperatively look like? Being helpful, kind, considerate, agreeable, polite, respectful of all classmates.