Vehicular Emergencies Page

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					        Chapter 15 Vehicular
             Page 310
15:1 Engine, Brake and Steering Failures

 I. Engine Failure - many reasons - broken
timing gear, broken timing belt or serpentine
   belt or a malfunctioning fuel or electrical
A. Engine Overheats
  1. Turn accessories off
  2. Signal and pull off the road to let the engine cool
  3. When you see no steam/smoke - raise the hood
  4. When the engine is cool - check fluid level in the
       radiator overflow tank
B. Engine Fire - usually fuel fed or electrical - see and
  smell smoke
  1. steer off road to open space - turn off ignition
  2. Exit vehicle - move away - call for help
  3. Decide if fire is serious or not. Serious = high heat
  and flames - do not attempt to extinguish
  4. If not serious use a fire extinguisher - do not use
  water since not effective on fuel, electrical or oil
C. Passenger Compartment Fire
   1. Steer off the road and stop clear from traffic
   2. Turn off ignition
   3. Exit vehicle
   4. Use a fire extinguisher or water to put out the fire
D. Engine Stalled/Failure
   1. Check traffic
   2. Signal and steer off the road
   3. Shift to neutral when off the road
   4. if starts - shift to drive and continue
   5. If won't start - turn on flashers and raise hood
**Power steering and brakes will work but much harder to steer
   and more pressure needed to stop/steer.
E. Engine Floods - if pump the (A) more than once when trying to
   start         the car which supplies too much gas to the engine.
   1. Smell gas
   2. Press (A) to the floor - hold - turn ignition and hold 3-5
   3. If does not crank wait 5-10 minutes and try again.
F. Wet Engine - gets wet when driven through water
    1. If stalls - steer off the road.
    2. Turn ignition off.
    3. Keep hood closed for a few minutes to let engine heat dry
    the moisture.
II. Brake Failure
A. What to do:
    1. Down shift
    2. rapidly pump brake pedal
    3. Apply/release the parking brake to not lock the rear wheels
    4. Steer against a curb
    5. Steer to open area or uphill or turn off ignition
    6. Sideswipe objects such as bushes, guardrails or parked
B. Brake Fade - temporary brake failure caused by applying the
    brakes hard for a long time.
III. Steering Failure
A. Power Steering Failure - occurs if engine stalls or power
    assist      mechanism fails
1. Grip steering wheel firmly
2. Check traffic - signal - steer off road
3. have mechanic check steering system
B. Total Steering Failure - RARE occurrence
1. Stop quickly and safely
2. Downshift
3. Apply parking/emergency brake
IV. Emergency Items
1. flashlight with extra batteries
2. jumper cables
3. cold weather items
4. jack with flat board for soft surfaces
5. fire extinguisher
6. blanket and gloves
15:2 Tire Failure and Other Problems
I. Blow Out - explosion in a tire while the vehicle is
   in motion - the vehicle may be difficult to control
A. Tire Loses Pressure
   1. Grip steering wheel firmly with both hands
   2. Release the (A) slowly - do not brake
   3. Check traffic - signal - steer off the road
   4. Brake gradually
   5. Shift to park
   6. Exit vehicle
B. Changing a tire: 300-400 fatalities a year while
  changing tires!
  1. Position car on flat, hard surface - use bricks, rocks
  or wood as wheel blocks
  2. Turn on hazards and/or set out flares
  3. Remove jack, lug wrench and spare from car
  4. Assemble jack and position to raise the car while
  keeping the      tire in contact with the ground.
  5. Remove hubcap/wheel cover
  6. jack up car until tire clears the ground
  7.Remove lug nuts and put in a safe place
  8. Remove and replace tire and hand tighten lug nuts
  9. Lower car and remove jack
  10. Put up flat tire, jack and other equipment - tighten
  lug nuts
  11. if spare is undersized tire/limited mileage - drive <
  50mph to a service station
II. Jump Starting a Dead Battery - restoring power
   using jumper cables
A. Steps to using jumper cables
   1. Position vehicles so cables reach but cars don't
   2. Turn off ignition / electrical equipment and put cars
   in park
   3. Check battery voltage to see if the same
   4. Remove cell or vent caps if on battery
   5. Attach +/P/red to good battery and then to dead
   6. Attach -/N/black to good battery and then to dead
   battery or engine frame
   7. Start good battery engine and hold (A) to idle high
   8. Start dead battery engine and run several minutes
   9. Remove cables in reverse order and replace battery
III. Lubrication System Failure
    A. If oil pressure light comes on or registers low/no oil pressure
    - turn engine off immediately.
IV Suspension Failure
    A. Common Causes
         1. Loose joints
         2. alignment is off
         3. shock absorbers are old and worn out.
V. Exhaust System Failure - result from old, rusting pipes,
    resonators and mufflers
VI. (A) Sticks - caused by sticking linkage/(A) spring, broken
    engine mount, crumpled floor mat or ice/snow around the pedal
    1. Apply brakes and shift to neutral
    2. Check traffic - signal - change lanes
    3. Steer off road and continue to brake
    4. Park - turn off ignition - apply parking/emergency brake
    5. Unstick pedal after stopped - check pedal - reenter traffic
VII. Hood Flies Up
  1.Look through the gap between the hood and
  dash or out the window around the hood
  2. check mirrors and traffic
  3. Signal and steer off road
VIII. Headlight Failure
  1. Slow down - check traffic
  2. Try high beams since both normally don't burn
  out at the same time. If no high beams try
  parking/turn/hazard lights.
  3. Signal and steer off the road
  4. Stop in well lit place if possible and call for help
15:3 Waiting for Help and Protecting the Scene
I. Breakdown or Emergency Scene - pull completely
   out of traffic
A. Make others aware of your problem
   1. Use cell phone/ public phone / roadside call box
   2. Raise hood
   3. Tie scarf to door handle or wedge out of window
   4. Turn on emergency flashers
B. Protect Yourself
   1. Wait in car if bad weather
   2. Keep windows almost closed - doors locked
   3. Do not open window/door to strangers
   4. Leave car and walk to safe place if car is not a safe
   distance from traffic.
   5. Do not stand behind or directly in front of the car.
C. Emergency Road Service
1. Can change tire or do minor repairs
2. Provide batteries or gas
3. Towing - know if insurance covers
4. Passengers are not allowed to ride in a towed car

15:4 If You are Involved in a Collision
*** Don't accuse anyone or admit fault and sign only
   forms given to you by the police, if any.
I. What to do:
1. Stop immediately         2. Warn other drivers
3. Give aid/medical help to the injured
4. Call the police           5. Get medical help
   6. Exchange information - driver and passenger
   names/addresses, driver license info, insurance
   and registration
   7. Get witness info
   8. Stay at the scene
   9. See a doctor
   10. Make a report
   11. Deal with legal consequences
II. If you pass a collision scene - use common
   sense - help only if needed
   1. Good Samaritan Law - protects you from being
   sued if you help someone hurt in an accident.
FYI - Death rates are higher for occupants of small
   pickup trucks and small utility vehicles.

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