More Info
									                                    SYMPOSIA                     AUTHORS

                                      ASON/GMPLS IN CHINA
                                   Weisheng Hu (1) (2) and Yaohui Jin (1)
  1: State Key Lab of Advanced Optical Communication System and Network, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
                                                     863”Program, Beijing, China,
        2: Coordination Task Force of 3TNET project, “

Abstract This paper describes R&D activities of ASON/GMPLS in China. Several projects supported by Chinese
“863”PROGRAM are discussed, including CAINONET IP/WDM field trial during 1999-2001, ASON testbeds by
universities’efforts during 2001-2003, ASON scalability experiment during 2003-2004, and an 3TNET ASTN field
trial scheduled for 2002-2005.

Introduction                                               ASON/GMPLS in China, especially those funded by
Automatic Switched Optical Networks (ASON) or              government. The primary government programs
Automatic Switched Transport Networks (ASTN), as           include the National High Technology Research and
well as their control plane protocol: Generalized Multi-   Development Program (called “863”PROGRAM since
protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) are currently             it was launched in March 1986), the Natural Science
investigated     and     discussed     within   several    Foundation of China (NSFC), as well as some local
international standard bodies, including ITU-T, OIF        government programs such as Shanghai Optical
and IETF. Meanwhile, several international projects        Science and Technology project (SOST), etc. [4-6].
are also involved in demonstration and field trial of
ASON test-beds to evaluate the GMPLS                       Generally, “863”program focuses on practical issues
implementation and interoperation issues in                that are more related to the information industry and
accordance with the standard framework [1-3].              economy in china, while NSFC encourages basic
                                                           research and investigation on breakthrough
After nearly 20 years’continuous efforts, China has        technologies. In the following sections, we will pay
built one of the largest telecommunication                 more attention on the “   863” program and give an
infrastructures in the world, with the second longest      overview on the ASON/GMPLS development in
optical cables in total length deployed. As of June        CHINA. ”  863”program is one of the most important
2003, China has 472 million telephone subscribers,         high-tech R&D program with long-term national
while the number is still growing on the basis of the      strategic importance.
population of 1.3 billion. The telecommunication
revenue reaches $26.5 billion in the first half year       The Information Technology (IT), which is one of the
2003. China is now developing, testing and deploying       six major AREAs in “863”program, is composed of 4
various advanced communication technologies to             SUBJECTs - Computer Software & Hardware,
satisfy the increasing customer demands.                   Communication,     Information    Acquisition   and
                                                           Processing, and Information Security. There are
Among the rapidly developed communication                  several KEY PROJECTs with different goals in
technologies, China has recognized the importance          parallel with SUBJECTS, e.g. China Advanced Info-
and benefits of the emerging ASON/GMPLS                    Optical Network (CAINONET) during the period of
techniques. In China, carriers have shown strong           1999-2001, and the subsequent 3TNET during the
interests on ASON/GMPLS.        Among them, two            period of 2002-2005. Usually, KEY PROJECTS are
biggest carriers - China Telecom and China Netcom,         integrated with the research results from several
are making schedules to perform ASON/GMPLS                 SUBJECTS.
interoperability tests.
                                                           ASON/GMPLS has gained supports from both
The funding sources for ASON/GMPLS research and            SUBJECTS and KEY PROJECTS. All the guidelines
development (R&D) in China come from industries,           can be obtained from “                  s
                                                                                     863”program’ web site. There
government, and the combination of government and          are two kinds of different requirements for the
enterprises’ support. Chinese optical communication        proposals. One has to be strictly consistent with the
companies have become a group of important players         development specifications, while the other is
in the telecommunication field in the world. For           encouraged to make innovations. To reduce the risks
examples, Huawei, ZTE and Fiberhome have got               in the process of R&D, “   863”program divides ultimate
significant market shares in Asia-Pacific areas. All       goals into several phases for the key technologies.
these companies are the members of OIF. They are           Firstly, the call for proposals are issued to universities
actively involved with standard bodies to develop          and research institutes with initial small-funds, whose
ASON/GMPLS specifications.                                 goal is to build testbed in the laboratory, and then
                                                           “863” program encourages joint application from
In this paper, we will discuss R&D projects of             companies and universities, with the goal to perform
                                                           field trials.
In the following, we will introduce ASON/GMPLS R&D        developed to support internetworking equipments
activities in China starting from the late 1990’ s.       from the above-mentioned multiple vendors in the
Several major projects are reviewed. 1) CAINONET:         CAINONET.
an early-stage IP/WDM field trial (1999-2001); 2)
ASON testbed from universities (2001-2002); 3)            ASON test-beds from Universities (2001-2002)
ASON scalability experiment (2003-2004); 4) 3TNET:        In 2001, “ 863” program started the ASON/GMPLS
an ASTN field trial (2002-2005).                          project. Two research groups carried out the project.
                                                          One was in Beijing and the other in Shanghai. Both of
CAINONET: an early-stage IP/WDM field trial               them are developed GMPLS protocols by themselves.
CAINONET (China Advanced INformation Optical              A. ASON test-bed in Beijing (2001-2002)
NETworks) combined the research expertise in three        In Beijing, Tsinghua University (THU), together with
areas - Communication, Intelligent Computer, and          Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Optoelectronics. A field trial demonstration of           (BUPT) and Peking University (PKU) finished an
CAINONET was carried out to connect some top              ASON test-bed with five nodes (four OXCs and one
universities and institutes in Beijing, including         OADM), based on a sub-network of CAINONET and
Tsinghua University (THU), Peking University (PKU),       another OXC independently developed in THU. This
Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications        work will be reported in the same session of
(BUPT), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), and             ECOC’   2003. THU will also report their simulation
Research Institute of Telecommunication Science           results on two types of optical network signalling in
(RITS), whose topology is shown in Fig.1.                 terms of the average connection set-up time and the
                                                          blocking probability, and the demonstration on the
                                                          test-bed for their performance comparison [7].

 CAS         PKU               THU
                                                          B. Heterogeneous ASON Test-bed in Shanghai
                                                                        WDM OPM                  WDM

       THU                                 THU

        OADM                              RITT
                   RITT                                                   OTU-Tx      (a)       OTU-Rx

        OXC                                                         WDM       OPM                        WDM
Fig. 1: The Optical Network Topology of CAINONET

CAINONET is an IP/WDM network. The WDM
network layer was built on six optical cross-connect
equipments (OXCs) with 32¡Á switching capability                                    Switch(2)

and seven optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs).
There is an IP layer that is composed of six core
routers (CRs) and other edge equipments over WDM                                                  WC
network layer. The CAINONET was one of the world’     s
typical test-beds based on optical Internet technology,
                                                                          OTU-Tx      (b)        OTU-Rx
and provided a platform on which research,
                                                                 Fig. 2: Architectures of two type OXCs
development, and testing activities can be performed
to study next generation network architecture in China.
                                                          Shanghai Jiao Tong University, together with Alcatel
These OXCs and OADMs were developed on the                Shanghai Bell, and Shanghai Optical Networking
basis of the joint efforts from Wuhan Research            Technology Co. Ltd, built up a heterogeneous ASON
Institute of Posts and Telecommunication, Datang,         testbed in Shanghai with a mixture of both
ZTE, Tsinghua University (THU), Shanghai Jiao Tong        transparent and opaque cross connect nodes, and
University (SJTU), Beijing University of Posts and        even partially transparent and opaque nodes. Some
Telecommunications (BUPT), Research Institute of          of OXC nodes have limited share wavelength
Telecommunications Transmission (RITT). An                convertibility. The routing algorithm and protocol
integrated network management system was                  extension for such kind of ASON are presented in
another paper in ECOC’ 2003 [8]. Here, we focus on                             nodes, which is shown in Fig.3 (a). Each node
the OXC node architectures, and network topology.                              connected by a CISCO router as its client. A router
                                                                               can use proxy UNI signalling to request a lightpath to
Two types of OXC nodes are built based on 2D 8X8                               other router. Fig.3 (b) shows the connection among
MEMS devices. Type I: is fully transparent, whose                              nodes. The OXC 1 and 3 are Type I architecture,
architecture is shown in Fig.2 (a). It is composed of                          while the OXC 2 and 4 are Type II. They are
input and output WDM modules, a single MEMS                                    connected by fibre pairs to form a full-mesh topology.
switch, an optical power monitors (OPMs) array and                             The wavelengths of OTUs in each OXC are allocated
some optical transponder units (OTU) for add and                               as follows: OXC 1 with OTUs at Wavelength 1, OXC
drop. Type II: is partially transparent or opaque,                             3 with OTUs at Wavelength 2, OXC 3 and 4 with
whose architecture is shown in Fig.2 (b). Different                            OTUs at Wavelength 1 and 2. In the test-bed, an end-
from type I, there are two MEMS devices for switching                          to-end virtual wavelength path (VWP) can be set up
different wavelengths. Note that two switch fabrics are                        or rerouted for restoration through the wavelength
connected by a pair of OEO wavelength converters                               conversion in OXC 2 or 4, as shown in Fig.4.
that are shared by all the possible cross-connections
within the OXC.                                                                ASON scalability experiment (2003-2004)
                                                                               After finishing the first-phase exploratory ASON
                                                                               testbeds, the major GMPLS protocols of ASON
        Router1                                        OXC1: Type I            control plane are developed by several Chinese
                                                                               universities individually. However, reliability and
    Router4                                                   Router2          scalability of the protocols must be evaluated and
                                                                               verified before field trial. Below, we list the goals for
                                                                               ASON scalability experiment:
                                                                                − Transport plane is based on emulation of opto/
                                                                                  electrical switching nodes
   OXC4: Type II
                                                          OXC2: Type II         − Control plane and management plane is
                                                                                  developed with the intention for use in the future
         OXC3: Type I
                                                                         (a)      products
                                                                                − Management plane shall provide friendly user
                                                                                − Conformance with the specification of ASON
                                                                                − Number of nodes is no less than 200
                                                                                − Number of layers is no less than 4
             OXC_4                                            OXC_2             − Number of domains in a single layer is no less
                                                                                  than 10
                                                                                − Number of nodes in a single domain is no less
                                                                                  than 50

                                                                               The project will investigate partition of layers and
                                     OXC_3                                     domains, topology abstraction, information exchange
                                                                               between layers, fast convergence of network
                                                                         (b)   topology, end-to-end restoration in the large-scale
                                                                               ASON/GMPLS environment.

  Fig. 3: Heterogeneous ASON test-bed topology.                                3TNET: a field trial ASTN (2002-2005)
       (a) Photograph (b) Logical architecture.                                3TNET stands for three terabits per second
                                                                               networking technologies and an integrated network
                                                                               with them. The project is expected to achieve
                                                                               following goals:
                                             NOde 1
              Node 4

                                                                Node 2

                       WC                              WC                      Enabling technologies: To make breakthrough
                            NOde 3

                                                                               technologies in developing high speed (Tbps) optical
                                                                               transmission systems, large capacity (Tbps) ASON
                                                                               node equipments, large capacity (Tbps) Ipv4/v6
  Lambda 2
                                                                               routers, application environment and supporting
  Fig. 4: An example of a virtual wavelength path                              platforms.
The heterogeneous ASON consists of four OXC                                    Network: To build an applicable, operable and
manageable high-performance broadband information
network, by using the above enabling technologies                         In transport Plane:
integrated in the Tbps core node equipments and the                            − over Tbps switching capacity, grooming at VC-4
network platforms.                                                             − Strictly non-blocking
                                                                               − Supporting multicasting
Practical Application: To develop new type of services                         − Diverse physical interfaces of SDH (STM-N) and
and value-added services, support Internet digital                               Ethernet (100M, G, 10G)
media and high definition TV (DTV, HDTV). The initial
phase will start from the wideband stream media and                       In control Plane:
interactive multimedia services.                                              − Using 10/100M out-band signalling network
Fig.5 shows a possible topology of 3TNET. It                                  − GMPLS extension based on LMP, OPSF-TE
integrates Tbps (160x10Gb/s and 80x40Gb/s) WDM                                  and RSVP-TE (CR-LDP is optional).
transmission line, Tbps ASON/ASTN (SON), Tbps                                 − UNI, I-NNI and E-NNI
IPv4/v6 Router (TR), and application environment.                             − End-to-end restoration and protection

¸ßÐÔÄÜ¿í´øÐÅÏ¢Íø                                                          In management Plane:
 (3TNet)ʾÒâͼ GR
                                                                              − Supporting the top-level integrated network

                                OADM Ring                                       management system of overall 3TNET
                                             TR               Residence
                                                              Network     Service:
                                                      GR                     − Switched connection (SC), soft permanent and
                                   M                                           permanent connection (SPC and PC)
      Sup-server                             SON              Switch         − BOD and OVPN
                    TR                 GR                                    − Uni- and bi-directional connection
                M                                                            − Unicasting and multicasting
              WD                            GR
                                                              Network        − Accounting
 TR                 Residence

                                                                          An independent task force that is appointed by “863”
       Fig. 5: 3TNET reference topology                                   program is responsible for equipments specification
   WDM: Tbps optical transmission line; SON:                              and networking agreements within the project,
  ASON/ASTN; TR: Tbps router; GR: Gbps router.                            technical coordination among all the participants,
                                                                          schedule control of overall project, organization of
3TNET is divided into three phases:                                       internetworking all the equipments in the laboratory
Phase I (2002-2003): Preliminary research on key                          and field, and etc.
technologies, overall requirement and high-level
design.                                                                   Future
                                                                          In 2001, “ 863” program revised its regulations and
Phase II (2003-2004): Research and develop three                          allowed international companies to apply for the
types of Tbps core equipments, including WDM                              programs jointly with national organizations and
transmission line, ASTN, Ipv4/v6 Router, as well as                       companies. For examples, there have been
application environments (stream media servers and                        international companies to participate in 4G wireless
HDTV database) and supporting platform (OSS).                             projects in “ 863” program. Chinese government is
                                                                          looking forward to collaborating with national and
Phase III (2005): Internetworking three types of Tbps                     international companies to transfer the ASON/GMPLS
core equipment products with an integrated                                technologies to products and deploy them in China
management system, field trial in Yangtze River Delta                     soon.
that is one of the richest areas in China.
Totally twelve optical switches are being developed                       1 A. Richter et al. OFC 2002 Tuesday (2002) 43
by three groups: ZTE and Beijing University of Posts                      2 A. Buchwieser et al. ECOC V3 (2002) p4.11.
and Telecommunications (BUPT), Wuhan Research                             3 C. Cavazzoni et al. ECOC, V4 (2002) 10.2.2
Institute of Posts and Telecommunication and                              4 863 PROGRAM on
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), as well as                          5 NSFC on
Huawei.                                                                   6 SOST on
                                                                          7 Xiaoping Zheng et al. ECOC (2003)
According to the guidelines, it is expected that the                      8 Yaohui Jin et al. ECOC(2003)
switches has the following goals and features:

To top