As ASON (Automatic Switched Optical Network) is constructed on top of various transmission technology, which is in the transport plane SDH, Optical Transport Network (OTN) increase over the control plane independently, so it supports the current transport network can provide the rates and different types of signal characteristics (such as format, bit rate, etc.) business. ASON network element can be provided between two customer network with fixed bandwidth transmission channel, the channel defined in the optical network access point and output access points.
SYMPOSIA AUTHORS ASON/GMPLS IN CHINA Weisheng Hu (1) (2) and Yaohui Jin (1) 1: State Key Lab of Advanced Optical Communication System and Network, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 863”Program, Beijing, China, firstname.lastname@example.org 2: Coordination Task Force of 3TNET project, “ Abstract This paper describes R&D activities of ASON/GMPLS in China. Several projects supported by Chinese “863”PROGRAM are discussed, including CAINONET IP/WDM field trial during 1999-2001, ASON testbeds by universities’efforts during 2001-2003, ASON scalability experiment during 2003-2004, and an 3TNET ASTN field trial scheduled for 2002-2005. Introduction ASON/GMPLS in China, especially those funded by Automatic Switched Optical Networks (ASON) or government. The primary government programs Automatic Switched Transport Networks (ASTN), as include the National High Technology Research and well as their control plane protocol: Generalized Multi- Development Program (called “863”PROGRAM since protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) are currently it was launched in March 1986), the Natural Science investigated and discussed within several Foundation of China (NSFC), as well as some local international standard bodies, including ITU-T, OIF government programs such as Shanghai Optical and IETF. Meanwhile, several international projects Science and Technology project (SOST), etc. [4-6]. are also involved in demonstration and field trial of ASON test-beds to evaluate the GMPLS Generally, “863”program focuses on practical issues implementation and interoperation issues in that are more related to the information industry and accordance with the standard framework [1-3]. economy in china, while NSFC encourages basic research and investigation on breakthrough After nearly 20 years’continuous efforts, China has technologies. In the following sections, we will pay built one of the largest telecommunication more attention on the “ 863” program and give an infrastructures in the world, with the second longest overview on the ASON/GMPLS development in optical cables in total length deployed. As of June CHINA. ” 863”program is one of the most important 2003, China has 472 million telephone subscribers, high-tech R&D program with long-term national while the number is still growing on the basis of the strategic importance. population of 1.3 billion. The telecommunication revenue reaches $26.5 billion in the first half year The Information Technology (IT), which is one of the 2003. China is now developing, testing and deploying six major AREAs in “863”program, is composed of 4 various advanced communication technologies to SUBJECTs - Computer Software & Hardware, satisfy the increasing customer demands. Communication, Information Acquisition and Processing, and Information Security. There are Among the rapidly developed communication several KEY PROJECTs with different goals in technologies, China has recognized the importance parallel with SUBJECTS, e.g. China Advanced Info- and benefits of the emerging ASON/GMPLS Optical Network (CAINONET) during the period of techniques. In China, carriers have shown strong 1999-2001, and the subsequent 3TNET during the interests on ASON/GMPLS. Among them, two period of 2002-2005. Usually, KEY PROJECTS are biggest carriers - China Telecom and China Netcom, integrated with the research results from several are making schedules to perform ASON/GMPLS SUBJECTS. interoperability tests. ASON/GMPLS has gained supports from both The funding sources for ASON/GMPLS research and SUBJECTS and KEY PROJECTS. All the guidelines development (R&D) in China come from industries, can be obtained from “ s 863”program’ web site. There government, and the combination of government and are two kinds of different requirements for the enterprises’ support. Chinese optical communication proposals. One has to be strictly consistent with the companies have become a group of important players development specifications, while the other is in the telecommunication field in the world. For encouraged to make innovations. To reduce the risks examples, Huawei, ZTE and Fiberhome have got in the process of R&D, “ 863”program divides ultimate significant market shares in Asia-Pacific areas. All goals into several phases for the key technologies. these companies are the members of OIF. They are Firstly, the call for proposals are issued to universities actively involved with standard bodies to develop and research institutes with initial small-funds, whose ASON/GMPLS specifications. goal is to build testbed in the laboratory, and then “863” program encourages joint application from In this paper, we will discuss R&D projects of companies and universities, with the goal to perform field trials. In the following, we will introduce ASON/GMPLS R&D developed to support internetworking equipments activities in China starting from the late 1990’ s. from the above-mentioned multiple vendors in the Several major projects are reviewed. 1) CAINONET: CAINONET. an early-stage IP/WDM field trial (1999-2001); 2) ASON testbed from universities (2001-2002); 3) ASON test-beds from Universities (2001-2002) ASON scalability experiment (2003-2004); 4) 3TNET: In 2001, “ 863” program started the ASON/GMPLS an ASTN field trial (2002-2005). project. Two research groups carried out the project. One was in Beijing and the other in Shanghai. Both of CAINONET: an early-stage IP/WDM field trial them are developed GMPLS protocols by themselves. (1999-2001) CAINONET (China Advanced INformation Optical A. ASON test-bed in Beijing (2001-2002) NETworks) combined the research expertise in three In Beijing, Tsinghua University (THU), together with areas - Communication, Intelligent Computer, and Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Optoelectronics. A field trial demonstration of (BUPT) and Peking University (PKU) finished an CAINONET was carried out to connect some top ASON test-bed with five nodes (four OXCs and one universities and institutes in Beijing, including OADM), based on a sub-network of CAINONET and Tsinghua University (THU), Peking University (PKU), another OXC independently developed in THU. This Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications work will be reported in the same session of (BUPT), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), and ECOC’ 2003. THU will also report their simulation Research Institute of Telecommunication Science results on two types of optical network signalling in (RITS), whose topology is shown in Fig.1. terms of the average connection set-up time and the blocking probability, and the demonstration on the test-bed for their performance comparison . CAS PKU THU B. Heterogeneous ASON Test-bed in Shanghai (2001-2003) WDM OPM WDM Switch THU THU THU OADM RITT RITT OTU-Tx (a) OTU-Rx OXC WDM OPM WDM Switch(1) BUPT Fig. 1: The Optical Network Topology of CAINONET CAINONET is an IP/WDM network. The WDM network layer was built on six optical cross-connect 32 equipments (OXCs) with 32¡Á switching capability Switch(2) and seven optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs). There is an IP layer that is composed of six core routers (CRs) and other edge equipments over WDM WC network layer. The CAINONET was one of the world’ s typical test-beds based on optical Internet technology, OTU-Tx (b) OTU-Rx and provided a platform on which research, Fig. 2: Architectures of two type OXCs development, and testing activities can be performed to study next generation network architecture in China. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, together with Alcatel These OXCs and OADMs were developed on the Shanghai Bell, and Shanghai Optical Networking basis of the joint efforts from Wuhan Research Technology Co. Ltd, built up a heterogeneous ASON Institute of Posts and Telecommunication, Datang, testbed in Shanghai with a mixture of both ZTE, Tsinghua University (THU), Shanghai Jiao Tong transparent and opaque cross connect nodes, and University (SJTU), Beijing University of Posts and even partially transparent and opaque nodes. Some Telecommunications (BUPT), Research Institute of of OXC nodes have limited share wavelength Telecommunications Transmission (RITT). An convertibility. The routing algorithm and protocol integrated network management system was extension for such kind of ASON are presented in another paper in ECOC’ 2003 . Here, we focus on nodes, which is shown in Fig.3 (a). Each node the OXC node architectures, and network topology. connected by a CISCO router as its client. A router can use proxy UNI signalling to request a lightpath to Two types of OXC nodes are built based on 2D 8X8 other router. Fig.3 (b) shows the connection among MEMS devices. Type I: is fully transparent, whose nodes. The OXC 1 and 3 are Type I architecture, architecture is shown in Fig.2 (a). It is composed of while the OXC 2 and 4 are Type II. They are input and output WDM modules, a single MEMS connected by fibre pairs to form a full-mesh topology. switch, an optical power monitors (OPMs) array and The wavelengths of OTUs in each OXC are allocated some optical transponder units (OTU) for add and as follows: OXC 1 with OTUs at Wavelength 1, OXC drop. Type II: is partially transparent or opaque, 3 with OTUs at Wavelength 2, OXC 3 and 4 with whose architecture is shown in Fig.2 (b). Different OTUs at Wavelength 1 and 2. In the test-bed, an end- from type I, there are two MEMS devices for switching to-end virtual wavelength path (VWP) can be set up different wavelengths. Note that two switch fabrics are or rerouted for restoration through the wavelength connected by a pair of OEO wavelength converters conversion in OXC 2 or 4, as shown in Fig.4. that are shared by all the possible cross-connections within the OXC. ASON scalability experiment (2003-2004) After finishing the first-phase exploratory ASON testbeds, the major GMPLS protocols of ASON Router1 OXC1: Type I control plane are developed by several Chinese universities individually. However, reliability and Router4 Router2 scalability of the protocols must be evaluated and verified before field trial. Below, we list the goals for ASON scalability experiment: Router3 − Transport plane is based on emulation of opto/ electrical switching nodes OXC4: Type II OXC2: Type II − Control plane and management plane is developed with the intention for use in the future OXC3: Type I (a) products − Management plane shall provide friendly user interface OXC_1 − Conformance with the specification of ASON − Number of nodes is no less than 200 − Number of layers is no less than 4 OXC_4 OXC_2 − Number of domains in a single layer is no less than 10 − Number of nodes in a single domain is no less than 50 The project will investigate partition of layers and OXC_3 domains, topology abstraction, information exchange between layers, fast convergence of network (b) topology, end-to-end restoration in the large-scale ASON/GMPLS environment. Fig. 3: Heterogeneous ASON test-bed topology. 3TNET: a field trial ASTN (2002-2005) (a) Photograph (b) Logical architecture. 3TNET stands for three terabits per second networking technologies and an integrated network Tx/Rx with them. The project is expected to achieve following goals: NOde 1 Node 4 Lambda1 Node 2 WC WC Enabling technologies: To make breakthrough NOde 3 technologies in developing high speed (Tbps) optical transmission systems, large capacity (Tbps) ASON node equipments, large capacity (Tbps) Ipv4/v6 Lambda 2 routers, application environment and supporting Fig. 4: An example of a virtual wavelength path platforms. The heterogeneous ASON consists of four OXC Network: To build an applicable, operable and manageable high-performance broadband information network, by using the above enabling technologies In transport Plane: integrated in the Tbps core node equipments and the − over Tbps switching capacity, grooming at VC-4 network platforms. − Strictly non-blocking − Supporting multicasting Practical Application: To develop new type of services − Diverse physical interfaces of SDH (STM-N) and and value-added services, support Internet digital Ethernet (100M, G, 10G) media and high definition TV (DTV, HDTV). The initial phase will start from the wideband stream media and In control Plane: interactive multimedia services. − Using 10/100M out-band signalling network (DCN) Fig.5 shows a possible topology of 3TNET. It − GMPLS extension based on LMP, OPSF-TE integrates Tbps (160x10Gb/s and 80x40Gb/s) WDM and RSVP-TE (CR-LDP is optional). transmission line, Tbps ASON/ASTN (SON), Tbps − UNI, I-NNI and E-NNI IPv4/v6 Router (TR), and application environment. − End-to-end restoration and protection TR ¸ßÐÔÄÜ¿í´øÐÅÏ¢Íø ¸ßÐÔÄÜ¿í´øÐÅÏ¢Íø In management Plane: TNet) (3TNet)Ê¾ÒâÍ¼ GR − Supporting the top-level integrated network Sup-server OADM Ring management system of overall 3TNET Sup-server GR TR Residence Network Service: GR − Switched connection (SC), soft permanent and M permanent connection (SPC and PC) WD Sup-server SON Switch − BOD and OVPN TR GR − Uni- and bi-directional connection M − Unicasting and multicasting WD GR Switch Switch Residence Network − Accounting TR Residence Network An independent task force that is appointed by “863” Fig. 5: 3TNET reference topology program is responsible for equipments specification WDM: Tbps optical transmission line; SON: and networking agreements within the project, ASON/ASTN; TR: Tbps router; GR: Gbps router. technical coordination among all the participants, schedule control of overall project, organization of 3TNET is divided into three phases: internetworking all the equipments in the laboratory Phase I (2002-2003): Preliminary research on key and field, and etc. technologies, overall requirement and high-level design. Future In 2001, “ 863” program revised its regulations and Phase II (2003-2004): Research and develop three allowed international companies to apply for the types of Tbps core equipments, including WDM programs jointly with national organizations and transmission line, ASTN, Ipv4/v6 Router, as well as companies. For examples, there have been application environments (stream media servers and international companies to participate in 4G wireless HDTV database) and supporting platform (OSS). projects in “ 863” program. Chinese government is looking forward to collaborating with national and Phase III (2005): Internetworking three types of Tbps international companies to transfer the ASON/GMPLS core equipment products with an integrated technologies to products and deploy them in China management system, field trial in Yangtze River Delta soon. that is one of the richest areas in China. References Totally twelve optical switches are being developed 1 A. Richter et al. OFC 2002 Tuesday (2002) 43 by three groups: ZTE and Beijing University of Posts 2 A. Buchwieser et al. ECOC V3 (2002) p4.11. and Telecommunications (BUPT), Wuhan Research 3 C. Cavazzoni et al. ECOC, V4 (2002) 10.2.2 Institute of Posts and Telecommunication and 4 863 PROGRAM on http://www.863.org.cn/ Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), as well as 5 NSFC on http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/ Huawei. 6 SOST on http://www.stcsm.gov.cn/ 7 Xiaoping Zheng et al. ECOC (2003) According to the guidelines, it is expected that the 8 Yaohui Jin et al. ECOC(2003) switches has the following goals and features:
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