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					Austrian Energy Agency
The Implementing Agreement on Advanced Fuel
Cells - Focus: Fuel Cells for Stationary
Applications

Dr. Günter R. Simader,
Constantin Gampe, DI Julia Gsellmann


Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 1
Contents

    Introduction to the AFC programme
    Activities of Task XIX/25: Stationary applications
    Analysis of the Austrian economic framework for the
    introduction of fuel cell/micro CHP systems
    Summary




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 2
Aims, scope & participation

    Aims to advance knowledge in the field of (advanced)
    fuel cells
    Task shared R&D + info exchange
    Covers technologies and applications for:
          Polymer Fuel Cells (PEFC)
          Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
          Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)
    19 participating countries
    Present period: 2009 – 2013
    Website: http://www.ieafuelcell.com/


Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 3
Participating countries




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 4
Annex structure


      Technology annexes                      Application annexes


                    MCFC                           Stationary


                     SOFC                          Transport


                     PEFC                           Portable



Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 5
IEA AFC programme
2009-2013


                                        R&D activities
          MCFC                          • Materials development (all)
                                        • Component development (all)
           SOFC                         • Stack/system modelling (PEFC, SOFC)
                                        • Biomass fuelling (MCFC)
                                        Demonstration activities
           PEFC
                                        • Exchange of experience (MCFC. SOFC)




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 6
IEA AFC programme
2009-2013

                                        Demonstration activities
                                        • Exchange of demonstration experience
       Stationary
                                        • System studies
                                        Commercialisation activities
       Transport                        • Market & cost studies
                                        • Well-to-wheel studies
         Portable                       Supporting activities
                                        • Support to codes & standards authorities

   In collaboration with other IEA Agreements including Hydrogen
   and Hybrid & Electric Vehicles

Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 7
Austria‘s particiation in the
IEA AFC
    since Autumn 2004
    ExCo representation:
         Austrian Energy Agency and
         Fuel Cell Laboratory/TU Graz
    Participation in the following Annexes:
         Annex XIX/25 - Stationary applications: Austrian Energy Agency
         Annex XVI/22 - PEFC: Fuel Cell Laboratory/TU Graz
         Annex XXI/27 - Portable applications: Fuel Cell Laboratory/TU
         Graz
    End of term report: 2004 - 2008
    Websites
         National: http://www.energyagency.at/projekte/iea_afc07-09.htm




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 8
Introduction to Task 25 (former
Task XIX): Stationary applications


    Main objective is to better understand how stationary fuel cell systems
    may be deployed in energy systems
    Subtask structure is as follows:
        Subtask 1: Small Stationary Fuel Cells
        Subtask leader; Ulf Birnbaum FZJ, Germany
        Subtask 2: Fuels for Fuel Cells
        Subtask leader: ENEA, Italy and Adwin Martens, WaterstofNet,
        Belgium (hydrogen)
        Subtask 3: Fuel cell plant components
        Subtask leader: Rolf Rosenberg, VTT, Finland
        Subtask 4: Analyzing design, operating and control strategies
        for stationary fuel cells systems
        Subtask leader: Whitney Collela, Sandia NL. USA
        Subtask 5: Follow up of demonstrations projects
        Subtask leader: Stephan Renz, Switzerland
        Subtask 6: Market status
        Subtask leader: Bengt Ridell, Grontmij, Sweden


Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 9
Focus and Motivation of AEA
activities within Task 25
    Focus
        Analysis of the techno-economic framework for the deployment of
        fuel cells/micro CHPs in Austria
        Identification of niche markets and of market segments for the
        deployment of fuel cells/micro CHPs in Austria (residential sector,
        applications in the industrial and commercial sectors)
        SWOT-Analysis for the market introduction of fuel cells/micro CHPs
        (incl. market transformation efforts)
    Motivation
        Heat market is characterised by an old boiler stock in Austria
        EBPD - Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
                 Article 6: MS shall ensure that – before construction starts – the
                 technical, environmental and economic feasibility of high-efficiency
                 alternative systems is considered and taken into account (incl. CHP
                 solutions)
                 Article 8: ... advice for operators of inefficient boilers for adequate
                 replacements and/or alternative solutions
          Market introduction of boilers and micro CHPs received major
          attention by Austrian Bund/Länder authorities
          First subsidy schemes for micro CHPs are already in place

Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 10
Boiler stock in Austria



                               250.000
           Number of boilers



                               200.000

                               150.000

                               100.000
                                                                                                                                                                     0-9 years
                                 50.000                                                                                                                              10-19 years

                                         0                                                                                                                           > 20 years
                                             LPG
                                                   Pellets




                                                                                                                                                                     unknown
                                                             wood chips
                                                                          solid fossil fuels




                                                                                                                                                           unknown
                                                                                               gas




                                                                                                                                                        > 20 years
                                                                                                     oil




                                                                                                                                          10-19 years
                                                                                                           wood

                                                                                                                  heat pump
                                                                                                                              0-9 years




  30 % (450.000) of 1,46 mill. boilers in the residential
  sector have an age > 20 years.
Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 11
   Fuel cells/micro CHPs: State
   of the art in Europe

                       Baxi Innotech:       Hexis AG:       CFCL: Blue Gen
                        Gamma 1.0           Galileo N

Fuel cell type            LT-PEM              SOFC                SOFC

Electrical output          1 kW                   1 kW            2 kW
                        (mod. 30 %)

Thermal output             1,7 kW             2,5 kW           0,3 – 1 kW

Aux. Burner               3,5 -15 or        4 – 20 kW         Not specified
                         3,5 -20 kW
Electrical                32 % (Hi)        25 - 30 % (Hi)   60 % @ 1,5 kWel
efficiency                                 (goal: > 30 %)        (Hi)

Total efficiency          96 % (Hi)          > 90 (Hi)        Ca. 85 % (Hi)

Fuel                        Gas                   Gas              Gas

Market                 34 systems in      30 systems in     Demo projects with
implementation         Callux project,    Callux project,    German utilities
                       commercial by      commercial by        announced,
                           2013 ?             2013 ?         commercial by ?

                                                                                 Courtesy: Baxi, Sulzer & CFCL

   Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 12
Micro CHP technology portfolio:
from R&D to competitive markets




Fuel cell systems are still in the early phase
of product commercialisation for competitive markets



Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 13
Commercialization of
residential fuel cells in Japan
    Residential fuel cell
    systems
          0.7–1.0 kW PEFC +
          heat recovery (CHP)
          Three manufactures
          Subsidization
          program initiated
    1/2 of users’ costs (system
    + installation) up to 1.4M
    JPY
    1,500 units installed (as of
    Sep. 2009)
    + 3,307 in 2004 to 2008
    SOFC demonstration
    project incl. 5 projects (0,7
    kWel) shows electr. eff. >
    40 % (Hi)
    1 € = 107,4 Yen
    1 Mio Yen = 9.345,8 €


Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 14
Analysis of the specific Austrian
framework
    Parallel to the EU and international
    developments the framework of the                                              Single Family house - typical one day load
    implementation of fuel cell/micro CHPs was                                               profile category ÜWB
                                                                                  100%
    analysed for Austria                                                                                                                                     Electrical
                                                                                  80%                                                                        demand,
    Five model cases (building categories)




                                                     Percentage of daily
                                                                                                                                                             standardized,
                                                                                                                                                             cumulated
    reflecting typical Austrian buildings were                                    60%                                                                        space heating,




                                                          demand
                                                                                                                                                             standardized,
    selected:                                                                     40%                                                                        cumulated
          single family houses: new & existing                                    20%                                                                        hot water,
                                                                                                                                                             standardized,
          multi family houses: new & existing                                      0%                                                                        cumulated

          small office building: refurbished




                                                                                       00
                                                                                       00
                                                                                       00
                                                                                       00
                                                                                       00

                                                                                   12 0
                                                                                   14 0
                                                                                   16 0
                                                                                   18 0
                                                                                   20 0
                                                                                   22 0
                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                   Time




                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                      :0
                                                                                    0:
                                                                                    2:
                                                                                    4:
                                                                                    6:
                                                                                    8:
    The specifications of Austrian model cases




                                                                                   10
    are based on Statistic Austria data sets                                       Com parison of long term average tem peratures of selected
    Specific Austrian reference climate conditions                                    clim ate zones according to DIN 4710 with Austria's
                                                                                                       reference clim ate
    were defined                                                             25
                                                                                                                                                             Reference climate
    Typical load profiles following VDI 4655 were                            20                                                                              Austria




                                                     Mean temperature [°C]
    used                                                                     15                                                                              M unich City,
                                                                                                                                                             German Climate

    Due to missing fuel cell demonstrators in                                10
                                                                                                                                                             zone 13


    Austria state-of-the-art micro CHP systems                                5
                                                                                                                                                             Eppingen, German
                                                                                                                                                             climate zone 12

    were used for the analysis                                                0

    Analysis in the last period (2004 – 2008)                                -5
                                                                                   Jan   Feb   M ar   Apr   M ay   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec


    focused to the commercial/tourism sectors;                                                                     M onth


    five fuel cell demonstrators were tested by
    Austrian utility companies
Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 15
      Five model cases (building
      categories)
                                                Residential buildings                               Office building
                      Existing single   New single family   Existing multi –     New multi –         Refurbished
                       family home           home            family home         family home        office building
 Building phase         1961-1981             2010             1961-1981              2010          1971, renovated
 Gross-external
                          150 m²              150m²              560m²               560m²             3.600m²
     area
   Number of
                            3                   3                  6                   6                   -
inhabitants / flats
  Specific heat
                      219,0 kWh/m²a       46,6 kWh/m²a       130,2 kWh/m²a       35,7 kWh/m²a        40,8 kWh/m²a
    demand

Specific domestic
                      12,5 kWh/m²a        12,5 kWh/m²a       12,5 kWh/m²a        12,5 kWh/m²a        4,7 kWh/m²a
hot water demand

    Total heat
                      34.760 kWh/a         8.900 kWh/a       80.060 kWh/a        27.140 kWh/a       164.700 kWh/a
     demand
   Demand of
                       3.069 kWh/a         3.069 kWh/a      1.974 kWh/a /flat   1.974 kWh/a /flat   129.450 kWh/a
electrical energy
 Standard heat
                         14,0 kW             4,3 kW             37,3 kW             14,6 kW            103,0 kW
     load



      Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 16
Planning and selection of micro CHP
system: Example multi-family house
(existing)
                            Existing multi-family house - sorted annual heat output

                                                                                  course of demand of heat (space
heat output [kW]




                                                                                  heating and hot water)
                   30
                                                                                  Heat provided by CHP unit
                   25
                                peak load burner                                  Full load operation
                   20
                                              chp unit
                                                          loading thermal storage system
                   15

                   10                                                                  unloading thermal
                                                                                       storage system
                    5

                    0
                        0     1000     2000        3000    4000     5000      6000         7000     8000
                                                                                                    hours




                                         Seite
     Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | page 17
Market-ready CHP plants




    Source: Senertec GmbH                          Source: PowerPlus GmbH                         Source: Energiezentrum NRW

                                                 Dachs G 5.5   Ecopow er e3.0   W hisperGen
                                                   internal        internal
                                                 combustion      combustion     stirling engine
                                                    engine          engine
                  Rated Pow er
                  Rated thermal power [kW ]         12,5             4-8             7,5
                  Rated electrical power [kW ]       5,5            1,3 - 3           1
                  Efficiency
                  electrical [%]                     27               25              12
                  thermal [%]                        61               65              83
                  total [%]                          88               90              95



Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 18
  Investment costs


                 Existing single New single       Existing multi New multi –       Renovated office
                 family home      family home     –family home    family home      building
Micro CHP System 1 kWel/ 7,5 kWth 1 kWel/ 7,5 kWth 3 kWel/ 8 kWth 1 kWel/ 7,5 kWth 5,5 kWel/ 12,5 kWth
                                    Costs micro CHP system [€]
CHP unit             5693,40          5693,40         11886,20        5693,40           17840,82
Peak heating
system, chimney,     4700,00          1700,00         7080,00         6480,00           22412,34
Installation         1548,90          1548,90         3457,24         2218,68           6986,99
                                Costs reference heating system [€]
Gas condensing
boiler               3600,00          3600,00         4200,00         3600,00           13295,45
Chimney               480,00           480,00          840,00          840,00           2659,09
Buffer                   -                -           2040,00         2040,00           6457,79
Installation          720,00           720,00         1080,00         1080,00           3418,83




  Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 19
Pay back period of additional investment - taking
account of annual discounted payments, feed-in tarif and
investment incentive


                                     10.000
 Accumulated, discounted cash flow




                                      5.000


                                          0
                                               0   2   4   6      8        10       12    14        16         18        20
                [€]




                                      -5.000

                                                                                          Existing single family house
                                     -10.000
                                                                                          New single family house
                                                                                          Existing multi-family house
                                     -15.000
                                                                                          New multi-family house
                                                                                          Renovated office building
                                     -20.000
                                                                  Pay-back period [a]



Investment incentive:                                      Feed-in tariff similiar to German tariffs („KWK – Gesetz“):
25% of the Investment for the CHP                                            Self used: 5,11 [ct/kWh]
system (incl. installation)                                                Feed into grid: 10,30 [ct/kWh]

 Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 20
 Pay back period of additional investment - effects of
 subsidies on pay-back period of assumed CHP unit in
 renovated office building


                                           10000
   Accumulated, discounted cash flow [€]




                                            5000

                                               0
                                                    0   5                     10                    15                         20
                                            -5000

                                           -10000

                                           -15000
                                                                                     investment incentive
                                           -20000

                                           -25000                                    investment incentive and feed-in tariff
                                                        Pay-back period [a]
                                                                                     no subsidies



Investment incentive:                                       Feed-in tariff similiar to German tariffs („KWK – Gesetz“):
25% of the Investment for the CHP                                               Self used: 5,11 [ct/kWh]
system (incl. installation)                                                   Feed into grid: 10,30 [ct/kWh]

 Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 21
                  Analysis of CO2eq. emissions
                  and CED
                         Renovated office building -                                                        Residential buildings - CO2 equ.,
                         CO 2 equ., cumulated energy                                                       cumulated energy demand (CED)
                                demand (CED)
               600.000                                                             140.000                                                            Existing Single family
                                                 Renovated                                                                                            house, CHP
                                     74.087      office building,
                                                 CHP                                                                                55.689
                                                                                   120.000                                                            Existing single family
               500.000                                                                                                                                house, conventional
                                                 Renovated                                                                                            heating
                                                 office building,                                                                                     New single family house,
                                                 conventional                      100.000                                                            CHP
               400.000
[kg] / [kWh]




                                                 heating
                                                                                                                                                      New single family house,
                                                 Savings
                                                                                                                                                      conventional heating
                                                                                    80.000
                                                                    [kg] / [kWh]
                                                 compared to
               300.000                           conventional
                                                 system                                                                                               Existing multi-family
                                                                                                                                             34.505   house, CHP
                                                                                    60.000
               200.000                                                                                                                                Existing multi-family
                                                                                                                        21.689                        house, conventional
                           25.841
                                                                                                                                                      heating
                                                                                    40.000
                                                                                                                                                      New multi-family house,
                                                                                                      21.465
               100.000                                                                                                                                CHP

                                                                                    20.000                 12.382                9.651
                                                                                                                                                      New multi family house,
                                                                                             8.931                                                    conventional heating
                    0                                                                             3.502
                            CO2-     CED - Sum                                          0                                                             Savings compared to
                          equivalent   [kwh]                                                                                                          conventional system
                                                                                                  CO2-equivalent [kg]             CED - Sum [kwh]
                             [kg]

                  Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 22
Conclusions
    Austrian IEA participation shows a positive picture concerning International co-
    operations and know-how transfer from and to Austria
    Results of International demonstration projects may be accessed and lessons
    were learned by the market introduction programmes of the leading industrialised
    countries (avoiding expensive national R&D demos)
    European stationary programmes show no clear picture concerning the
    advantages of fuel cells compared to alternative state-of-the-art CHP
    technologies (so far)
    Japanese stationary demonstrators in the residential sector outreach already
    existing micro-CHP systems based on ICE, stirling and micro turbine concerning
    electrical efficiency und justify public involvements in fuel cell technology.
    However, progress in cost reduction is still necessary to achieve commercial
    viability.
    The Austrian framework has to be significantly improved both by investment
    subsidies and(!) by feed-in tariffs (similar to the German „KWK Gesetz 2009“) in
    order to initiate investments in the micro CHP sector (missing level playing field)
    Acceptable economic conditions from an end-user perspective are to be found in
    multi-family houses (>> 6 flats), office buildings and in the commercial/tourism
    sectors (taking into account subsidy schemes both for the investment and feed-in
    tariffs) but not in single family houses.
    Emission reductions in all model cases have to be described as significant if fuel
    cells would be implemented in the residential sector (this also applies for primary
    energy savings!)

Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 23
Thank you for your
attention!

    Dr. Günter Simader
    Research unit: Energy systems
    Austrian Energy Agency

    Tel.: 01 5861524-124

    E-Mail: guenter.simader@energyagency.at

    Websites:
    IEA: http://www.ieafuelcell.com/
    AEA: http://www.energyagency.at/energietechnologien/aktuelle-
    projekte/afc.html
    BMVIT/IEA: http://www.nachhaltigwirtschaften.at/iea/index.html




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 24
Pay-back period of additional investment – taking into
account of annual discounted payments, without
subsidies
 Accumulated, discounted cash flow [€]




                                              0
                                                   0   2   4   6      8        10        12   14       16         18         20

                                          -5.000


                                         -10.000


                                         -15.000                                              Existing single family house
                                                                                              New single family house
                                                                                              Existing multi-family house
                                         -20.000
                                                                                              New multi-family house
                                                                                              Renovated office building
                                         -25.000
                                                                   Pay-back period [a]




Austrian Energy Agency | 03/09/10 | Seite 25

				
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