Our mission as SGI-USA Byakuren will be to protect and support the SGI
members & friends and to safeguard the activity centers as we awaken &
nurture our eternal seeking spirit to become women of courage, compassion,
Take care of members
Protect Castle of Kosen Rufu
Polish yourself as a leader of world-wide Kosen Rufu
Byakuren Group Mottoes
Take quick action with a bright smile
Protect the organization from behind the scenes
Become the core of YWD
Three Guidelines for the Byakuren
Develop wisdom and strong character
Be noble leaders who exert yourselves for others.
Resolutely walk the path of justice and good fortune
The mission of Byakuren is to be pioneering Buddhist practitioners, to protect our precious fellow members
who embrace the Gohonzon, and to safe guard our community centers – the strong holds of Kosen-rufu.
While grappling with all manner of obstacles as we strive for the sake of people’s happiness and for the
betterment of our local communities, we endeavor to promote Kosen-rufu. We are fellow members and in the
light of Buddhism, we are all brothers and sisters.
I would like you, who have been selected as members of the Byakuren, to display clear proof of this through
your life as queens of good fortune who shoulder the future of the Kosen-rufu movement, and as pioneers who
lead the way toward the great future of the SGI.
As Byakuren, we wear a uniform so we can easily be identified if people need assistance. As
representatives of the SGI, and of the Bodhisattva life condition, we want to reflect this with a nice,
clean, and friendly appearance.
After discussion and input from many members, the Seattle Joint Territory Byakuren reached the
following consensus regarding our uniform:
Navy blue or black skirt or slacks
White blouse or nice white shirt
Navy blue or black vest or jacket (optional)
The beautiful handmade scarf
Byakuren name badge
The most important point to remember is to greet the members with a big smile and a high life
condition, helping to make the members feel warm and comfortable at the activity. We also need to
make sure that our interaction with both our fellow Byakuren members and the supporting groups
is straightforward and cooperative.
In a Byakuren movement, one thing you can count on is change, so we always need to be flexible
and confidently approach whatever new situation may arise. Last but not least, we always need to
empathize with the members and treat them with the utmost respect. Remember that the movement
is not over until all the participants have returned home safely.
In preparation for an activity:
The movement actually begins when you agree to assist in an activity. Chant as much as
possible before the day of the activity for the success of the movement.
Please ensure the each Byakuren member has received all communications. If an activity is
scheduled to occur and you have not heard from your communicator, please take the initiative
to call her yourself.
Byakuren are encouraged to have a watch, a readily available pen and pad of paper, and access
to a flashlight.
If possible, do Gongyo before an activity begins. In most cases, Gongyo will be included in the
schedule for all Byakuren members prior to the movement.
Arrive on time and possibly earlier to schedule for sufficient time to prepare for the movement.
If you are going to be late, please call the Byakuren-in-charge before the movement. When you
arrive, check in with that Byakuren to let her know you are there.
During the activity:
Be ready to do anything at any time. Your responsibilities may include setting up the meeting
area, cleaning and restocking supplies, preparing the altar area, making sure the sound system
is on, preparing and serving water when appropriate, greeting members, seating members,
passing out literature, and other functions as needed.
Be as inconspicuous as possible inside the meeting room and refrain from standing in the front
of the room.
Please don‘t become distracted by the performances or speakers in the meeting. Maintain your
attention and determination at every moment. Stay alert for any changes, problems, and
occurrences that may call for your attention. If assigned to an area, don‘t leave it unless a
situation occurs that requires your assistance, and please let the Byakuren-in-charge know.
Refrain from prolonged conversation with individuals while on duty. Prolonged or excessive
socializing interferes with your alertness and causes you to relax and forget your
responsibilities. In order to maintain attention and dignity in your appearance, please try not to
slouch, stand with hands in pockets, or lean on walls during the movement. Only eat or drink
during the specified break period. Please use common sense and be flexible.
Children should be with parents at all times. If children are left unattended, please ask them to
take you to their parents. Explain the policy clearly to the parent about their responsibility to
watch over the safety and behavior of their children.
After the meeting, members often congregate in the hallway or lobby. If this happens and they
are blocking passages, ask them to please move their conversations so that others are not
impeded from moving through the lobby.
Try to know the schedule and details of the entire movement. It will help you tremendously!
After the activity:
Send the members off warmly.
Report to the Byakuren-in-charge for instructions on clean up. Be certain all supplies and
borrowed items are returned to the proper place. Take lost items to the lost and found area.
Gather at the end of the movement to share impressions, concerns, encouragement and for
sancho (three daimoku).
Take care of any area that needs attention such as untidy cafeteria, lobby, and entrance areas.
We should remember that we are always Byakuren.
Decide on appropriate uniform and shoes if the movement at an out side place such as a park.
If you are in charge Byakuren, please specify arrival time and if Byakuren will do Gongyo at the
movement or at home.
Ensure children are with their parents.
Refrain from baby sitting for children.
"Song of the Byakuren" by Daisaku Ikeda
Castle upon castle
With the fragrance of happiness;
Doing your utmost to ensure
That every friends who arrive in tears
Leave filled with joy
Before the Meeting
Communicate with the movement‘s Byakuren-in-charge and confirm the following:
Placement of the reception tables and signs if needed.
Prepare table for Kofu fund (table clothes in mtg. room #2 in box under the table beneath
window, straight pins are in drawer at Gajokai desk.) Women‘s Division usually takes care of
getting the kofu trays, but if not – they are located in the main office closet (next to door).
Obtain schedule of the meeting from Byakuren-in-charge or M.C.
Obtain hand out materials to give to the members.
Confirm if the meeting requires a child care area.
Clean and check restrooms. Maintain stock with toilet papers, paper towels, and sanitary
pads – supplies in kitchen closet. Keep clean!!
Check coffee rooms.
When the members and guests arrive at the activity:
Welcome members with a bright smile and be cheerful.
Hand out material to members (if applicable).
Direct members to meeting rooms / correct doorways for seating
―Kofu‖ are the monthly contributions that are collected at each Kosen Rufu Gongyo. Kofu is turned
in before the meeting begins.
Offer Kofu tray(s) before gongyo begins. Start walking towards altar when bell is rung to begin
Gongyo after chanting – but be flexible! WD doing kofu may request more time.
When carrying trays to the Gohonzon, hold the tray up, not near your waist.
Enter from each side of the stage if there are two trays.
We need to remember that we are carrying the sincere contributions from members. When
offering kofu trays to Gohonzon, be sure to have the envelopes facing you -- so when you place
them on the altar, they are facing the members.
Retrieve Kofu tray(s) just before gongyo ends. Start walking towards altar when bell is run g for
final sancho after fifth prayer. Return the trays to the Women‘s Division.
During the movement:
Maintain smoking, eating, and drinking policy.
Ensure that the noise level is down during the meeting (may want to close some of the doors to
large Gohonzon room.
Keep pathways in lobby clear when it becomes too crowded.
Watch for children running up stairs, sliding down handrails, etc.
Foyer should report to the Byakuren-in-charge if they are called away from their position.
Duties are the same as foyer (except handling Kofu tray) and includes:
Prepare reserve seats for VIP guests and performers.
Direct members to seating. Consult with Byakuren-in-charge to decide if back rows should be
temporarily blocked off or if a child-care area should be set up.
Make sure every member is comfortable.
Count attendance & report to senior leaders by memo.
No food or drink inside the auditorium!!
Monitor members during the meeting, and be prepared to take quick action if a member requires
assistance or there is an emergency.
Know where your emergency exits are!
On-Site Inspection prior to meeting:
Familiarize yourself with the stage entrances, exits, and dimensions, backstage areas.
Obtain schedule of meeting from Byakuren-in-charge or M.C.
You should be able to answer questions and assist the members.
Set up MC table and flower arrangements.
Prepare labels for senior leader‘s seat assignments. Again, BE FLEXIBLE. The amount of chairs
needs to be confirmed by the leader-in-charge (MC or Byakuren), but more often than not
leaders will sit where they want!
Use dusters located on side of stage
Stage Crew: provides lighting and sound, sets up backdrop and heavy props such as the
podium, butsudan, etc. Can assist in setting up as and setting and removing chairs from the
People Movers: Assist with the movement and placement of performers before and after their
Soka Group: Verify with the Soka Group in charge of the stage who will set up, rearrange, and
remove table and chairs.
Mamorukai: will provides flower arrangements, butsudan, evergreens, fruit, etc.
Confirm with Byakuren in charge for stage seating. The Soka Group (or the Byakuren if there is no
Soka) is responsible for setting up and rearranging chairs during the transitional period between
gongyo and the actual meeting. This movement is very rapid and should not disrupt the agenda
(approximately 30 seconds).
The day before the movement, a list of all needed supplies should be made. Supplies should be
gathered and labeled so the stage crew can transport the items to the designated place.
Cleaning Supplies: brooms, dust pans, mops, paper towels, spray cleaner, etc.
Seating Supplies: Sticky labels and felt pens.
Stage Supplies: Podium.
MC Table: Table cloths, pins, and floral arrangement.
Butsudan: Tables, tablecloths, butsugu*, incense*, evergreen*, fruit* and extra candles*
(*Mamoruka will collect these items and all items should be returned directly to them).
Special Presentation: Table and tablecloth should be on hand if there is a special presentation
During the Meeting
Keep your ichinen on all the leaders or guest speakers on stage in case something is needed. Be
aware of everything around you. Protect all the members while providing a warm and joyful
environment. Confirm the water movement is being taken care of. Also be aware if the water
needs to be replenished.
Techniques and Technicals of Offering Water
Byakuren assigned to stage are responsible for offering water to senior leaders and speakers.
The glass, coaster, and tray are located in the Byakuren supply drawer in Meeting Room #2. Ice
cubes, pure water, and napkin can be obtained from the staff kitchen.
Store glass of water in kitchen or coffee room refrigerator (not freezer!).
Always serve the water for a Gosho Lecture and for guest speakers. At other meetings, ask the
senior leader or speaker ahead of time if s/he would like water.
Know the agenda so you know when to leave your stage position and retrieve water without
Water should be served at the time the MC announces the speaker, and s/he sits down at the
table and starts talking. Use both hands to hold tray. Walk with quiet dignity (not too
aggressive, not too sneaky).
Arrange so that when you serve the water, you can remove it with ease (i.e.: glass on one side of
the tray, coaster and napkin on the other).
Water should be removed when the speaker is finished.
Wash glass, and return with tray and coaster to the drawer.
The Spirit of Offering
-The Person and the Law
MW Vol.1 P. 263
"As you well know, one of the sutras tells us the story of Tokusho and Doji,
who offered a mud pie to the Buddha and was later reborn as King Ashoka who
ruled over most of India. Since the Buddha is worthy of respect, the boy was
able to receive this great rewards even though the pie was only mud. However,
Shakyamuni Buddha teaches that one who makes offerings to the votary of
the Lotus Sutra in the Latter Day Of the Law for even a single day will
gain incomparably greater fortune than he would by offering countless
treasures to the Buddha for one hundred thousand aeons. How wonderful
then is your heartfelt sincerity in supporting the votary of the Lotus
Sutra over the years!"
VIP Guests Movement
A Byakuren assigned to VIP movement should always maintain a strict attitude. It is because of this
type of environment that the Byakuren has to be maintaining awareness for the VIP guest's needs at
any time. Abundant daimoku is the key to success of any VIP movement. Byakuren should have
confidence in her daimoku and in her ability to take courageous action.
Before the Activity:
Review overall schedule of meeting or activity.
Byakuren in charge need to communication with the senior division leader before the
Confirm VIP's name(s) and correct spelling of names and titles.
Confirm VIP's arrival times and arrival and departure information.
Confirm VIP guests seating area.
During the Activity:
Stay alert all times to ensure VIP is escorted (if needed) to the appropriate seat.
Ensure food and beverages are ready at the appropriate time the VIP will be served.
Assist in anyway to make the movement is enjoyable and comfortable for the VIP.
After the Activity:
Make sure VIP guests departure is smooth and Byakuren should always warmly smile and
thank the guests for coming.
Clean up all area used by VIP
Chant Daimoku to advance for the future and reflect on things that went right and things need
Before the Activity:
Pre ceremony duties are the same (i.e. check bathroom, kitchen, greet members as they enter the
small Gohonzon room).
Cover table in small Gohonzon room with white tablecloth (under desk upstairs in Meeting
Room #2) and make sure it is on the side of the stage. Ask a Gajokai to help you move it to the
center of the stage after gongyo so the Gohonzon can be placed on it.
The small Gohonzon room is set up with the front area clear of tables and any signs that might
be standing there. There is one chair for the person leading gongyo and, if there is an MC, there
is a chair for that person. Please ask whoever is doing the conferral if there is an MC. If there is
no an MC, a Soka member or a Byakuren member will need to be the MC.
Communicate with Mr. Matsubara (or other leader in charge of ceremony) and Women‘s
Division assisting with conferral. Verify the number of new members/households/exchanges
and BE FLEXIBLE! Some members may arrive late. When all members receiving
Gohonzon/certificate have checked in with the Women‘s Division, she will give you the
envelopes for Gohonzon and New Member certificates (she will arrange them on tray by
Once gongyo has begun, take the tray with the envelopes facing you to the altar and place there.
(Mr. Matsubara will bring the Gohonzon, no need for Byakuren to handle these.)
Outline of Meeting:
Opening words by MC– ―Good evening and welcome to the Pacific Northwest Region
Gohonzon conferral ceremony for (date)‖
Opening words by leader – ―Now we will have some opening words from _______‖
Presentation of new member certificates – ―We will now present certificates for new members‖
(MC calls out names on envelopes and hands to leader, who presents to members.)
Conferral of Gohonzon to new members and households – ―We will now begin conferral for
new members and new households‖ (MC calls out names from envelopes and hands envelope
to leader, who places Gohonzon in envelope to give to member.
Guidance from leader for exchange of Gohonzon – ―And now a guidance about exchanging
Gohonzon from _______‖.
Conferral for exchange – ―We will now begin the conferral for exchange of Nikken Gohonzon
for Nichikan.‖ Again, call out names from envelope and give to leader.
After all names have been called out, ask if anyone has an experience – ―Is there anyone here
who came to receive or exchange Gohonzon who would like to share an experience or benefit?‖
Closing words – ―And now ______ (probably leader… he will tell you otherwise) will conclude
with some closing words.‖
Daimoku sancho (by leader).
Take the two trays back upstairs. If any Gohonzon left over, ask the leader to take care of it.
Wedding / Memorial Services
Because each ceremony will be different for each individual family, check with the person who is
coordinating those ceremonies.
Confirm all supplies needed at the appropriate locations:
tables and tablecloths
name tags, place cards, programs, signs, corsages, special gifts.
Beverages, refreshments, ice, napkins, paper towels, garbage bags, serving trays, platters tape,
pens, and stationary supplies
Become Princesses of Fortune To Lead Kosen-Rufu
SGI President Ikeda's Guidance
First Byakuren General Meeting, April 3, 1977
If I were to describe the mission of the Byakuren group briefly, I would say they are the ones who
protect our community centers for Kosen-rufu activities. Our fellow members are all Bodhisattvas of
the Earth, advancing toward Kosen-rufu to achieve the happiness and prosperity of all mankind.
The Gakkai Headquarters and community centers are fortresses of Nichiren Daishonin Buddhism.
Naturally, as members of the Byakuren group it is your responsibility to protect these places.
I would also like to encourage those members who are chosen for the Byakuren group to be
"Princesses of Fortune" to show actual proof of the practice in your daily lives and carry on the
future development of the organization and worldwide Kosen-Rufu.
You should never be uncomfortable in you daily practice of faith. You should feel from the bottom
of your heart, "I am so glad I practice this Buddhism". You should be filled with joy and make your
daily life vibrant.
Your daily practice of gongyo and daimoku should be refreshing and as natural as greeting a very
close friend. It is important to have refreshing gongyo and daimoku.
Faith means to have tremendous courage. However, you must also use your wisdom and common
sense to determine the best approach to different life situations. Always have faith like flowing
―My heartfelt congratulations on your SGI-USA Young Women's Division Byakuren Group general
With smiling faces, you greet sons and daughters of the Buddha who gather at our community
centers - the palaces of good fortune - while extending detailed, earnest care to ensure the success of
all activities without any accident or mishap. Your mission as members of the Byakuren Group is
immeasurable. I ask that each of you please warmly protect and encourage my dear and treasured
friends in the United States on my behalf.
Upholding the supreme Mystic Law, you are striving with all your heart in your activities day in
and day out for the sake of society, members and friends, and peace. You dedicate yourselves for
others. Nothing is more respectworthy. Please be convinced that your security and happiness are
all contained in your own action for kosen-rufu and will be realized without fail.
Let us cheerfully advance together toward May 3, 2005, cherishing great hopes in our hearts. I am
earnestly praying for each of you to enjoy excellent health, peace and a life free of any accidents so
that you can give full play to your potential and take an active role in your personal
field of endeavor.‖ -October 1995, SGI President Daisaku Ikeda
True happiness exists in your everyday surrounding. You must solve even small problems, one by
one, in your own life by fusing with the Gohonzon through strong prayer. This process of
overcoming every difficulty is the direct way to build your life. Even leaders, since they are human
beings, have problems. There is no reason that they should be ashamed of these problems. Despite
any problem you have, live your youth courageously facing your obstacles head on.
Please make a lot of memories when you are in the YWD and solidify the foundation of your
fortune. All of you will eventually get married and complete your life of fortune. Never be swayed
by anything. Live the life of ―Mainstream Faith‖ with consistency from beginning to end.
Naturally, flowers facing the sun blossom vibrantly but hose in the shade will die. Similarly, I hope
all of you will grow under the sun of true Buddhism and blossom with fortune.
As he went around the entire building, opening closets and generally checking whether every thing
was safe and in working order, he reminded the others of the importance of keeping things neat
and in order.
I‘m sorry if I seem to be checking even the smallest details, he said, ―Put the fact is that little things
are very important. Fires and other accidents start from the smallest slip-ups. By paying attention to
details, leaders are protecting their fellow members, their comrades in faith.‖
Shin‘ichi then addressed the staff members who would be working at the center:
―Please be careful with the furnishings and the equipment and supplies used for the day-to-day
running of the center. Everything we have here, down to the last pencil, has been purchased with
the member‘s precious donations. We must be careful not to waste anything, not even a single sheet
of paper. With this spirit, I even reuse envelopes I receive in the office mail. I erase or cross out my
name and write the name of the new recipient on it so we can use the envelope again. This spirit is
the tradition of Gakkai staff.‖
(New Human Revolution - World Tribune 11/1/96)
It is not outward appearance that is important, it is one‘s state of mind or attitude. To give a familiar
example, let us say that some behind-the-scenes deskwork has to be finished. A single thought
marks the difference between a self-pitying ―why do I have to stay late and do this stuff? No one
knows how hard I‘m working‖, and an upbeat ―Here‘s a chance to accumulate more good fortune
for myself.‖ The result, or outcome, is entirely different depending on the attitude you choose to
adopt. That is why you must practice with the conviction that all your efforts are being observed by
the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas throughout the universe. That is why you must develop a rich, solid
practice brimming with joy at being active in the world of the SGI. Prayers in Buddhism never end
with the mere act of prayer; they include actions one takes to realize them. It is just like an arrow,
drawn back, charged with energy and shot from a bow. Prayer without action is idealism, and
action without prayer is futile.
(―A Conversation with Youth  - 9/16/92)
―There is nothing more praiseworthy than a person who strives earnestly for others.... Human
brilliance derives from the light of altruistic action... people are truly human only when they
endeavor to dedicate their lives for their friends and fellow human beings.‖
(Seikyo Times, May 1995 - P.14)
While everyone has a sun in his or her heart, all too few are aware it exists. The Lotus Sutra is the
scripture that reveals the brilliant sun of Buddhahood inherent in our lives.
(SGI President Daisaku Ikeda, Lecture on the ―Expedient Means‖ and ―Life Span‖ chapter of the
Lotus Sutra, P.25)
If you want to understand the causes that existed in the past, look at the results as they are
manifested in the present. And if you want to understand what results will be manifested in the
future, look at the causes that exist in the present.
(MW Vol.2 P.172)
All disciples and believers of Nichiren should chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo with one mind (itai
doshin), transcending all differences among themselves to become as inseparable as fish and the
water in which they swim. This spiritual bond is the basis for the universal transmiss ion of the
ultimate law of life and death. Herein lies the true goal of Nichiren‘s propagation. When you are so
united, even the great hope for kosen-rufu can be fulfilled without fail. But if any of Nichiren‘s
disciples should disrupt the unity of itai doshin, he will destroy his own castle from within.
(Selected Lectures on the Gosho Vol.1 P97)
To accept is easy; to continue is difficult. But Buddhahood lies in continuing faith. Those who
embrace this sutra should be prepared to meet difficulties.
(MW Vol.1 P.127)
Suffer what there is to suffer, enjoy what there is to enjoy. Regard both suffering and joy as facts of
life and continue chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, no matter what happens.
MW Vol.1 P.161
Live out this life
For the heavenly deities and Buddhas
Will always be with you
Your noble achievement
The pure tradition of the Byakuren
Will adorn you with benefit
Throughout the three existences
Though today may be difficult,
Live it with Joy
Convinced that the happiness
Of final victory
Will arrive without fail
The Byakuren Group is a Young Women‘s Division group established to develop
capable persons who can learn the SGI spirit through supporting activities from
behind the scenes. SGI President Daisaku Ikeda states in his poem to the members
of the Byakuren Group:
―Byakuren Group - who are very bright and vigorous in your purple uniforms - since you are here
and protecting the members and the community centers, I am sure Kosen-rufu will be
The following is an historical account of the development of the Byakuren Group:
1958 - 1966
The root of the Byakuren was a group in Japan called Maintenance Group, whose function was to
clean the Head Temple. President Ikeda‘s guidance to the group was that to clean the Head
Temples was to purify their lives.
July 8, 1966
The dream of the group was realized on this day when Pres. Ikeda named their
group ―Byakuren Group‖ which meant ―White Lotus‖
July 3, 1978
President Ikeda wrote and composed a song for the Byakuren Group:
―Stars are Sparkling‖
Byakuren Group Song
Composed by Pres. Daisaku Ikeda
Wisteria in their hands, with pure eyes
And beautiful hearts, the friends of Jiyu wait
Gently yet strong, they are butterflies dancing
Bravely from person to person
White lilies on their breasts, with dignity
They comfort weary friends in clear sweet voices
Their glowing faces are like stars sparkling
and Moons speaking
White Lotus blossoms, fragrant of happiness
As people quietly flow from meeting place to meeting place,
Even those who weep go on their way cheerfully
Princesses, wave them farewell
In the USA:
Pres. Ikeda visited Los Angles and established the Byakuren Group within NSA.
The group began with 25 young women‘s division members. Although they were inexperienced,
they has the willingness and strong Ichinen to protect the members and support each activity from
behind the scenes.
Oct. 24, 1997
First Byakuren General Meeting was held, attended 50 Byakuren members.
March 11, 1984
The Japan/U.S. Joint Youth Division General Meeting was held at the San Diego Sports Arena
where 20,000 youth division members gathered with tremendous joy with President Ikeda. This
was the first nationwide Byakuren movement with Pres. Ikeda.
SGI Pres. Ikeda started his tour of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. During his
tour, Pres. Ikeda officially opened the Soka University Los Angeles Campus and the Miami
Training Center. Due to the vast development of the Byakuren Group they were able to take
responsibility for many aspects of the Pres. Ikeda‘s movement.
The West Coast General Meeting took place at Seattle‘s Husky Stadium! Seattle Byakuren
undertook many major responsibilities for the movement, including flight arrival and departure,
hotel arrangements, agendas, and event staffing for the multifaceted performances.
Byakuren nation-wide are ―in the middle of a progressive reevaluation of its mission and
structure‖(Leng-Ho Byakuren chief). In our effort to possibly rename or group and confirm a new
vision into the 21 st Century, we continue to develop ourselves as women who work side by side
with our mentor, fighting for justice and creating an unshakable foundation of fortune and
happiness in our lives and in the world.
The Byakuren Group in the US has grown from 25 members in Los Angles in 1981 to nearly 700 in
areas throughout the United States as of November 1998.
Prior to a major meeting or movement, it is important to identify the following:
A doctor, nurse, or first aid specialist who is attending the meeting, and where they will be in
case they‘re needed.
A first aid station, or at least a place to take someone who needs to lay down, rest, or be quiet. In
the case of a fire alarm, evacuate members using appropriate emergency exits. Prevent a false
alarm by covering fire alarms.
Identity person in charge to call 911. Check all floors, rooms, and restrooms. If a member or
guest becomes ill, it is important to remain calm and determine the appropriate level of
assistance. That may mean calling 911 when things look serious, Administrating too much first
aid by an inexperienced person can be just as dangerous as too little aid. It is crucial to not rush
treatment prior to knowing what the cause of the problem is. At the same time, it‘s important to
act quickly in calling for the required help. In most extreme cases, there are many people eager
to help, and rather than crowding around, we can think of other ways to help... drink of water,
tissue. First aid involves attending to the person‘s physical and emotional needs. Tender
Loving Care (TLC) is extremely important, being one of the most effective remedies a first aider
can provide, it includes keeping the patient comfortable, happy, and interested.
As we live in an earthquake-prone area, a brief overview of some basic first-aid procedures has been
included… as we all know it is not a matter of if but when. This is by NO MEANS meant to
substitute a course in Basic First Aid and Safety. We will try to hold a class as a group within the
year, but it is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED you educate yourself if possible… remember, we are
ALWAYS Byakuren, and in times of crises we must expect that people will look to us for help. We
must always be prepared!!!
Information courtesy of Parasol EMT… find them online at http://www.parasolemt.com.au/
Earthquake: Duck, Cover, and Hold Tips
Whether you are in your home, a school classroom, a high-rise, or other type of building, it is
important to know how to protect yourself during an earthquake. Practice what to do during an
earthquake and teach yourself and your family members to react automatically when the
shaking starts. If you are outdoors when the shaking starts, get into an open area away
from trees, buildings, walls, and power lines. If you are indoors, follow the steps below:
DUCK or drop down to the floor.
Take COVER under a sturdy desk, table, or other furniture, if that is not possible, seek COVER
against an interior wall, and protect your head and neck with your arms. Avoid danger spots near
windows, hanging objects, mirrors, or tall furniture.
If you take cover under a sturdy piece of furniture, HOLD on to it and be prepared to move with it.
HOLD the position until the ground stops shaking and it is safe to move.
When you feel an earthquake. DUCK under a desk or sturdy table. Stay away from windows,
bookcases, file cabinets, heavy mirrors, hanging plants, and other heavy objects that could fall.
Watch out for falling plaster or ceiling tiles. Stay under COVER until the shaking stops. HOLD onto
the desk or table, if it moves, move with it. Here are some additional tips for specific locations.
If you're in a HIGH-RISE BUILDING, and you are not near a desk or table, move agains t an
interior wall, and protect your head with your arms. Do not use the elevators. Do not be
surprised if the fire alarm or sprinkler systems come on.
If you're OUTDOORS, move to a clear area, away from trees, signs, buildings, or downed
electrical wires and poles.
If you're on a SIDEWALK NEAR BUILDINGS, duck into a doorway to protect yourself from
falling bricks, glass, plaster, and other debris.
If you're DRIVING, pull over to the side of the road and stop. Avoid overpasses, power lines,
and other hazards. Stay inside the vehicle until the shaking is over.
If you're in a CROWDED STORE OR OTHER PUBLIC PLACE, do not rush for exits. Move away
from display shelves containing objects that could fall.
If you're in a WHEELCHAIR, stay in it. Move to cover, if possible, lock your wheels, and protect
your head with your arms.
If you're in the KITCHEN, move away from the refrigerator, stove, and overhead cupboards.
(Take time NOW to anchor appliances and install security latches on cupboard doors to reduce
If you're in a STADIUM OR THEATER, stay in your seat and protect your head with your arms.
Do not try to leave until the shaking is over. Then leave in a calm, orderly manner.
AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE, BE PREPARED FOR AFTERSHOCKS, AND PLAN WHERE YOU
WILL TAKE COVER WHEN THEY OCCUR.
CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) is the singularly most effective form of active
resuscitation available, and is used universally by trained first aid providers and medical
personnel. The technique is used to resuscitate casualties in cardiac arrest.
A particularly important aspect of CPR is that the rescuer‘s hands are positioned correctly in
relation to the casualty‘s heart. For the rescuer to locate the correct position for the hands, two
fingers should be placed over the casualty‘s xiphoid process, the small ‗bump‘ at the base of the
sternum. A hand is then placed centrally on the chest, above the two fingers. This position should
then approximate the location of the heart. The second hand is placed over the first, and the fingers
entwined for stability, or alternatively, the second hand grips the wrist of the first hand. The chest is
Hand position for a child is on a point centrally located on the lower ½ of the sternum.
Compressions are performed at a depth of 2—3cm using the heel of one hand only; the pressure is
modified so as not to cause damage to the ribcage. An infant‘s heart is located by placing two
fingers centrally on the lower ½ of the sternum. Compressions are then performed by pressing with
the fingers 1—2cm deep, the pressure is modified to reflect the fragility of the child‘s chest. The
pulse is detected by placing a finger directly over the left nipple.
CPR can be performed by a single rescuer, or by two rescuers. As two-person CPR requires a degree
of synchronized technique, it is usually more effective for first aid providers to perform individual
CPR, and change operators after ten minutes or so.
INDICATIONS FOR CPR
PROCEDURE FOR ONE-PERSON CPR
check for DANGER
check for response, shake and shout
roll casualty away from you, check and clear airway
place casualty on back on a firm flat surface, open airway
look, listen and feel for breathing
give five breaths
assess the rise and fall of the diaphragm
check for carotid (neck) pulse (5 seconds)
kneel beside casualty‘s chest
locate heart on lower half of chest
place hands centrally over heart, fingers entwined
lean over casualty, arms straight, elbows locked
commence 15 compressions, with even pressure until resistance is felt
compressions — rate of 60-80 per minute, children and infants 80-100 per minute
give two breaths
15 compressions; continue cycles and recheck pulse every 2 minutes
SHOCK is a life-threatening condition, and should not be confused with the flood of adrenaline
that accompanies dangerous or fearful situations. This reaction to danger or fear is called the ‗fight-
or-flight‘ reaction, and is often confused with, and referred to as, ‗shock‘.
Causes of shock:
Loss of blood and body fluids — may be due to hemorrhage, burns, dehydration and severe
vomiting and diarrhea, severe pain or overwhelming fear (especially in the elderly), or spinal
injuries — due to the injury and the reaction of the nervous system.
Shock is a deteriorating condition, and one that does not allow a casualty to recover without active
medical intervention. As a first aid provider attending a casualty, you should ask yourself the
Does the injury appear serious?
If I don‘t do anything to help, is the casualty likely to become worse?
If the casualty‘s condition worsens, is death a possibility?
If the answer to these questions is ‗YES!‘ then you should treat for shock.
Signs and symptoms:
pale, cool, clammy skin
rapid, weak pulse
rapid, shallow breathing
nausea and/or vomiting
evidence of loss of body fluids or high temperature
collapse and unconsciousness
progressive ‗shut-down‘ of body‘s vital functions
Care and Treatment:
control any bleeding
if conscious, position laying down, with legs elevated
call an ambulance
maintain body temperature
treat any other injuries
Treatment of Wounds
External bleeding is usually associated with wounds, those injuries that are caused by cutting,
perforating or tearing the skin. Serious wounds involve damage to blood vessels.
As arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart, damage to a vessel is characterized by bright red
blood which ‗spurts‘ with each heartbeat. Damage to veins appears as a darker red flow. Capillary
damage is associated with wounds close to the skin and is of a bright red ‗ooze‘ from below the
Quickly check the wound for foreign matter – if a puncture wound, do NOT remove penetrating
Immediately apply pressure to stop any bleeding
Apply non-adherent pad or dressing
Apply a firm roller bandage
Rest and elevate injured limb if injuries permit
When a bone is broken, or fractured, it affects not only blood production and function, but there are
also complications associated with the muscles, tendons, nerves and blood vessels which are
attached, or are close, to the bone.
Fractures are generally classified as:
OPEN — where the bone has fractured and penetrated the skin leaving a wound
CLOSED — where the bone has fractured but has no obvious external wound
COMPLICATED — which may involve damage to vital organs and major blood vessels as a
result of the fracture
Treatment for fractures is based on SPLINTING, which endeavors to replicate the supporting
function of the bone. While little practical splinting can be offered for a fractured skull, a first aid
provider can certainly offer effective and functional support for fractured limbs.
Care should always be exercised when assessing an elderly casualty as the condition known as
OSTEOPOROSIS or ‗Chalky Bones‘ causes bones to fracture easily, often in several places. Always
suspect a fracture if an elderly person complains of pain or loss of power to a limb. Be especially
aware of fractures at the neck of the femur (near the hip), a very common fracture in the elderly.
There should be NO weight bearing activity if a femur fracture is suspected… a major blood vessel
runs along the femur, and this should be considered a complicated injury.
Signs and symptoms of fractures:
pale, cool, clammy skin
rapid, weak pulse
pain at the site
loss of power to limb
associated wound and blood loss
associated organ damage
Care and treatment of fractures relies on immobilization and adequate splinting of the injury.
However, if the fracture is particularly complex, the wound associated with an open fracture is
difficult to control, or if the pulse to the injured part of the limb cannot be restored by gentle traction,
then the injured limb should be stabilized in its current position. Urgent ambulance transport
should be obtained.
Care and treatment:
check for wrist pulse, if none — gentle traction (elevate above the heart) until pulse returns
treat any wounds, pad bony prominences
Apply adequate splint, using whatever long, straight material is available. Secure above and
below fracture, secure wrist
Reassess pulse or capillary return
Elevate injury with arm sling
Fractured upper arm
check for distal pulse, if none — gentle traction
treat any wounds
pad between arm and chest
apply ‗collar and cuff‘ sling secure above and below fracture firmly against chest with
reassess pulse or capillary return
check for distal pulse, if none — traction, treat any wounds
insert splint between legs
pad bony prominences
secure feet with ‗figure-of-8‘ bandage, secure above and below fracture, secure knees with a
Care must be exercised with a suspected fractured pelvis. This injury may have serious
complications, especially with regard to female casualties. The casualty should always be
transported by ambulance and not by alternative means unless absolutely essential.
check for distal pulse in both legs
with females, observe for bleeding from vagina
secure both legs at ankles and knees
bend legs at knees, elevate lower legs slightly and support on pillows or similar
support both hips with folded blankets
discourage attempts to urinate
urgent ambulance transport.
LOCAL EMERGENCY NUMBERS
Direction to Tacoma Community Center
From Seattle: I-5 South
Exit #127 South Tacoma Way, merge into traffic on the off ramp stay in right lane
2 nd light (South Tacoma Way) make a right, go straight on South Tacoma Way approx imately1
mile from freeway
Look for 2 story bricks building on the right, across from Kinko‘s & Jack in the box.
Address: 8815 South Tacoma Way - Suite 112
Direction to Portland Community Center
From Seattle: I-5 South
Exit #30? Belmont / Morrison Bridge
Follow the ramp and stay on Belmont St., make a left on 12 th (one way)
Take left on Ankeny go straight until 18 th, the Community Center is on left hand side
Direction to Bellingham Headquarters
Kosen Rufu Gongyo
Western Washington University
North on I-5
Take Lakeway Exit #253
At stop sign, turn right onto Lincoln Street
At light, merge right onto Lakeway Drive (across from Fred Meyers)
Go straight, do not turn, get into left lane. Lakeway Drive will become Holly Street (look for
Turn left on Garden Street (Kinko‘s on right hand side of Holly)
You will go through one light and up a hill. Before you reach the stop sign (and another hill)
turn into the parking lot (Parking lot beyond Mathes Hall - large brick dormitory on left hand
side) You can park on the right hand side, angle or below (parallel)... do not feed meters on
Sundays and ignore signs about parking restrictions
After you park your car, proceed to the 4 th floor of the Viking Union Addition Building