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					 NAILING                      THE BAR




               Simple
  CONSTITUTIONAL
       LAW
              Outline
         Tim Tyler, Ph.D., Attorney at Law




NINETY PERCENT of the LAW in NINETY PAGES®
                                                                                                                                                                 Table of Contents


                                                               Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ....................................................................................1
   1. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ........................................................................................................................................2
   2. TWO LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT. ...............................................................................................................................3
   3. THREE BRANCHES OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ........................................................................................................3
   4. THE HIERARCHY OF LAWS .......................................................................................................................................3
   5. THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ....................................................................................................................................3
CHAPTER 2: THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS OF CONGRESS....................................................................4
   1. THE ENUMERATED POWERS OF CONGRESS ..............................................................................................................4
      A. The Tax and Spend Clause .................................................................................................................................5
      B. The Power over Commerce – The Commerce Clause ........................................................................................6
           1) The Cooley Doctrine: States Have Concurrent Power to Regulate Commerce ................................................................ 6
           2) The Expansion of Congressional Power Through the Aggregation Doctrine................................................................... 7
           3) No Laws to Intentionally Discriminate Against or For Citizens of a State ...................................................................... 7
           4) State Preservation of Natural Resources – Least Discriminatory Means ......................................................................... 8
           5) Extension of State Rules to Cities and Counties .............................................................................................................. 8
           6) No State Burdens on Commerce Without a Legitimate Purpose...................................................................................... 8
           7) Balancing State Regulation of Commerce Against State Benefits ................................................................................... 9
           8) The State Market Participant Exception........................................................................................................................... 9
           9) The State 21st Amendment Exception ........................................................................................................................... 10
           10) State Subsidization of Commerce Versus Burdens on Commerce............................................................................... 11
           11) Recent Narrowing of Congress’ Commerce Clause Authority .................................................................................... 11
      C. Power Over Immigration and Naturalization ..................................................................................................12
      D. No Power Over Citizenship by Birth................................................................................................................12
      E. Power Over Federal Courts .............................................................................................................................12
      F. Power Over Maritime and Military Matters, Military Laws and Courts .........................................................13
      G. Power Over District of Columbia and Federal Lands and Buildings..............................................................14
      H. Power to Protect Civil Rights and Voting Rights.............................................................................................14
      I. Immunities and Privileges of Congress .............................................................................................................15
   2. POWERS SPECIFICALLY DENIED CONGRESS ...........................................................................................................15
CHAPTER 3: THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS OF THE STATES ...............................................................17
   1. THE ENUMERATED POWERS OF THE STATES ..........................................................................................................17
      A. Limited State Sovereignty .................................................................................................................................17
           1) Traditional Areas of State Sovereignty .......................................................................................................................... 18
           2) The Federal Government Can Not Commandeer State Resources................................................................................. 18
           3) Federal Regulation of State Activities............................................................................................................................ 19
       B. The 11th Amendment ........................................................................................................................................19
           1) No Suit by Any Person Against Any State in Any Federal Court .................................................................................. 20
           2) 11th Amendment Effectively Bars Monetary Damage Awards, Not Injunctive Relief.................................................. 20
           3) Subdivision of State Exception to 11th Amendment...................................................................................................... 21
           4) The Subsequent Amendment Exception to 11th Amendment........................................................................................ 21
   2. POWERS SPECIFICALLY DENIED THE STATES..........................................................................................................21
      A. States are Barred from Impairing Existing Contracts......................................................................................22
      B. Considerations of State Comity Limit State Actions.........................................................................................23
           1) Full Faith and Credit Clause .......................................................................................................................................... 23
           2) Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV............................................................................................................. 24
           3) Extradition and Runaway Slaves.................................................................................................................................... 25
CHAPTER 4: THE CONSTITUTIONAL JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL COURTS .......................................26
   1. THE CONSTITUTIONAL ROLE OF THE SUPREME COURT ..........................................................................................26
      A. Appellate Jurisdiction and Determination of Constitutionality........................................................................26
      B. Discretionary Review by Supreme Court .........................................................................................................27
           1) No Review of State Court Decisions by Federal District Courts ................................................................................... 27
           2) No Supreme Court Review of State Court Decisions Clearly Based on State Law........................................................ 27
           3) Supreme Court as Appeals Court of Last Resort............................................................................................................ 27
       C. The Appellate Path to the Supreme Court........................................................................................................28

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   2. THE JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL COURTS ............................................................................................................... 28
      A. Jurisdiction Restricted to Actual Cases and Controversies ............................................................................. 29
           1) No Jurisdiction Over Claims by a Party Lacking Standing............................................................................................ 29
           2) Limited Power to Consider Moot Claims ...................................................................................................................... 31
           3) No Consideration of Complaints that are Not Ripe ....................................................................................................... 31
           4) Abstention ..................................................................................................................................................................... 32
       B. 11th Amendment .............................................................................................................................................. 33
       C. Effect of Federal Court Dismissal of an Appeal.............................................................................................. 33
CHAPTER 5: THE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT ............................................................................................ 34
   1. DELEGATION OF LEGISLATIVE POWER ................................................................................................................... 34
   2. THE INDEPENDENT POWERS OF THE PRESIDENCY .................................................................................................. 35
      A. Presidential Authority as Commander in Chief ............................................................................................... 35
      B. Presidential Authority in Foreign Relations .................................................................................................... 36
      C. Presidential Authority to Veto Bills ................................................................................................................. 36
      D. Presidential Authority to Appoint Officers of the United States..................................................................... 37
      E. The Limits of Presidential Immunity................................................................................................................ 37
CHAPTER 6: THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE ............................................................... 39
   1. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF MINOR INTEREST.............................................................................................. 39
   2. THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS .................................................................................................................................. 40
   3. SELECTIVE INCORPORATION: EXTENSION OF GUARANTEES TO LIMIT STATES ....................................................... 41
   4. IF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS RESTRICTED GOVERNMENT HAS BURDEN ................................................................... 41
   5. IF NON-FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS RESTRICTED INDIVIDUAL HAS BURDEN .............................................................. 42
   6. INTERMEDIATE CASE: GOVERNMENT MUST PROVE SUBSTANTIAL NEED .............................................................. 42
CHAPTER 7: 1ST AMENDMENT RIGHTS ........................................................................................................... 43
   1. FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................................ 43
      A. Government Action to Discourage Association ............................................................................................... 43
      B. Government Action to Force Association ........................................................................................................ 43
      C. Associations for Illegal Goals ......................................................................................................................... 44
      D. Political Boycotts and Member Liability......................................................................................................... 45
      E. State Power Over Political Parties.................................................................................................................. 45
   2. FREEDOM OF RELIGION .......................................................................................................................................... 45
      A. The Establishment Clause and the Lemon Test................................................................................................ 46
           1) Government Aid to Religious Organizations: The Lemon Test ..................................................................................... 46
           2) Government Funds for Education.................................................................................................................................. 47
           3) Excessive entanglement................................................................................................................................................. 49
       B. The Free Exercise Clause ................................................................................................................................ 50
           1) Freedom of Religious Speech........................................................................................................................................ 50
           2) Freedom from Compelled Statements of Belief............................................................................................................. 51
           3) The Smith Test: Neutral Restriction of Religiously Motivated Acts.............................................................................. 51
           4) First Exception: Religiously Motivated Unemployment ............................................................................................... 52
           5) Second Exception: The Yoder Test................................................................................................................................ 52
           6) Time, Place and Manner Restrictions on Religious Speech........................................................................................... 53
   3. FREEDOM OF TRAVEL ............................................................................................................................................ 53
      A. Laws Penalizing Newcomers Generally Invalid .............................................................................................. 53
      B. Divorce Jurisdiction Exception........................................................................................................................ 54
      C. Criminal Flight Exception ............................................................................................................................... 54
      D. Non-Domicile Exception ................................................................................................................................. 54
      E. Freedom of Travel and Equal Protection ........................................................................................................ 55
   4. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION...................................................................................................................................... 55
      A. Protection in the Public and Private Forum.................................................................................................... 56
           1) Creation of a Public Forum............................................................................................................................................ 56
           2) Not All Government Property is a Public Forum........................................................................................................... 56
           3) Private Property as a Private Forum .............................................................................................................................. 56
           4) Broadcasters’ Exception ................................................................................................................................................ 57
       B. No Vague or Overbroad Restrictions on Speech ............................................................................................. 57
       C. The Categories of Expression that are Not Protected ..................................................................................... 58
           1) Fighting Words.............................................................................................................................................................. 58
           2) Incitement: The Brandenburg Test................................................................................................................................ 59

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                                                                                                                                                                  Table of Contents

            3) Defamation, Interference and New York Times v. Sullivan ............................................................................................ 59
            4) Obscenity: The Miller Test ............................................................................................................................................ 60
            5) False Advertising and the Central Hudson Test for Commercial Speech ...................................................................... 60
       D. No Prior Restraint of Speech ...........................................................................................................................61
       E. Prohibiting Protected Speech Requires a Compelling Need ............................................................................62
       F. Content-Neutral Time, Place and Manner Restrictions ...................................................................................62
       G. The Right of Free Speech in Public Schools ....................................................................................................63
       H. Government Funding of Social and Political Expression ................................................................................64
       I. Restrictions on Symbolic Acts for Important Reasons: The O’Brien Test .........................................................65
CHAPTER 8: RIGHTS TO PRIVACY AND PERSONAL AUTONOMY ............................................................66
   1. THE IMPLIED RIGHTS OF PRIVACY AND PERSONAL AUTONOMY RECOGNIZED AS FUNDAMENTAL .........................66
      A. The Right to Marry is a Fundamental Right.....................................................................................................67
      B. Conception, Contraception and Abortion are Fundamental Rights.................................................................67
      C. Family Rights are Fundamental.......................................................................................................................68
      D. The Right to Refuse Medical Treatment is Fundamental .................................................................................69
   2. OTHER NON-FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF PRIVACY AND PERSONAL AUTONOMY ....................................................69
      A. New Trends in Protecting Safety ......................................................................................................................70
      B. The Limits of Protection of Public Morals .......................................................................................................70
      C. Right to Engage in Homosexual Acts ...............................................................................................................71
CHAPTER 9: DUE PROCESS AND THE TAKING OF PROPERTY..................................................................72
   1. DUE PROCESS .........................................................................................................................................................72
      A. Every Deprivation of Rights Demands Due Process ........................................................................................72
            1) Rights Must Be Interests Based on Legal Entitlement ................................................................................................... 72
            2) Due Process is Violated Only by Intentional Government Acts .................................................................................... 73
            3) Civil Service Employment Creates a Recognized Property Interest .............................................................................. 73
            4) Lesser Recognition is Afforded Prisoner’s Liberty Rights............................................................................................. 73
       B. Substantive Due Process is a Fundamental Right............................................................................................74
            1) Due Process Demands Legitimate Government Purposes.............................................................................................. 74
            2) Due Process Limits Court Jurisdiction over Individual.................................................................................................. 74
            3) Due Process Violated by Arbitrary Government Actions .............................................................................................. 74
            4) Government Needs May Justify Deprivation ................................................................................................................. 75
            5) Government Must Justify Denial of Fundamental Rights .............................................................................................. 75
            6) Individual Has Burden if Non-Fundamental Right Denied ............................................................................................ 75
            7) 14th Amendment Restricts States by Selective Incorporation......................................................................................... 75
            8) Historical Development of Due Process ........................................................................................................................ 76
       C. Procedural Due Process: The Right to Notice and a Hearing.........................................................................76
            1) Exigent Circumstances May Justify Lack of Notice ...................................................................................................... 76
            2) Unnecessary Denial of Rights Without Notice Invalid .................................................................................................. 77
            3) No Right to Notice and Hearing Before Legislative Acts .............................................................................................. 77
            4) Nature of Hearing Determined by Importance of Interest.............................................................................................. 78
            5) Exercise of Eminent Domain Does Not Violate Due Process ........................................................................................ 78
   2. TAKINGS .................................................................................................................................................................80
      A. Exercise of Eminent Domain Does Not Violate Due Process...........................................................................80
      B. Most Land Use Restrictions Are Not a “Taking” of Land ...............................................................................80
      C. Restrictions on Type of Use Are Not Generally a “Taking” ............................................................................81
      D. Restrictions that Violate Reasonable Expectations are a “Taking” ................................................................81
      E. Significant Forced Public Access is a Taking ..................................................................................................81
      F. Rent Control with Eviction Restrictions Not a Forced Public Access..............................................................82
      G. Balancing Test Applies When Access Demanded for Use Permits ..................................................................82
            1) Must Be Nexus to Requested Use .................................................................................................................................. 82
            2) Government Demand Must be Reasonable .................................................................................................................... 82
       H. Fair Compensation for Government Takings of Property ...............................................................................83
CHAPTER 10: EQUAL PROTECTION RIGHTS...................................................................................................84
   1. JUDICIAL EXTENSIONS OF EQUAL PROTECTION GUARANTEES ...............................................................................84
       A. Extension of Equal Protection to All People ....................................................................................................84
       B. Extension of Equal Protection to Federal Government....................................................................................84
   2. ONLY DELIBERATE DISCRIMINATION PROHIBITED .................................................................................................85
   3. SIMILARLY SITUATED PEOPLE DISTINGUISHED FROM REASONABLE CLASSIFICATIONS .........................................86

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Nailing the Bar – Simple CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Outline

       A. Discrimination for Improper Purpose is Invalid Per Se .................................................................................. 86
       B. Over-Inclusive Classifications are Unreasonable ........................................................................................... 86
       C. Under-Inclusive Classifications are Unreasonable......................................................................................... 87
    4. EQUAL PROTECTION REQUIRES PEOPLE TO BE TREATED THE SAME ...................................................................... 87
    5. WHETHER DISPARATE TREATMENT IS JUSTIFIED DEPENDS ON SITUATION ............................................................ 87
       A. Fundamental Rights Raise Overriding Due Process Considerations .............................................................. 88
       B. Discrimination Using Suspect Group Requires Compelling Reason............................................................... 88
             1) The Government Must have a Compelling Purpose ...................................................................................................... 89
             2) Use of a Suspect Class Must be Necessary.................................................................................................................... 89
             3) State Sovereignty Exception.......................................................................................................................................... 89
             4) National Security Considerations Frequently Compelling............................................................................................. 90
             5) Racial Affirmative Action Requires Compelling Need ................................................................................................. 90
         C. Use of Quasi-Suspect Group Requires Persuasive Justification ..................................................................... 90
             1) Government Must Show Persuasive Justification.......................................................................................................... 91
             2) No Violation if Women Treated Same as Men.............................................................................................................. 91
             3) No Violation if Actuarial Differences Ignored .............................................................................................................. 91
             4) No Violation if a Crime Necessarily Applies Only to Men ........................................................................................... 91
             5) Sex Based Affirmative Action Requires Persuasive Reason ......................................................................................... 92
             6) Discrimination by Legitimacy Requires Important Reason ........................................................................................... 92
             7) No Violation if Reasonable Alternatives Provided ........................................................................................................ 92
             8) No Violation if Father of Illegitimate Child Abandons ................................................................................................. 93
         D. Use of Disability, Age or Sexual Orientation Needs Rational Purpose .......................................................... 93
             1) Age and Physical or Mental Ability Not Inherently Suspect ......................................................................................... 93
             2) No Strict Scrutiny When Law Based on Sexual Orientation ......................................................................................... 94
CHAPTER 11: CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................................. 95

INDEX .......................................................................................................................................................................... 96




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           Chapter 2: The Constitutional Powers of Congress
The rights and powers of Congress are often the first subject of discussion in the study of
Constitutional Law. Congress has the authority to enact federal laws, but for any federal law to be
valid, it must be one that Congress had the Constitutional authority to enact. That authority is
narrowly defined and limited by the Constitution.

                          1. The Enumerated Powers of Congress
The view that the Congress of the United States has broader powers than the States to adopt laws
for the health, education and safety of the citizens is absolutely incorrect. Under the Constitution
Congress only has those powers that are expressly granted to it. The 10th Amendment expressly
states that all powers that the Constitution does not specifically delegate to the United States
(federal government) or prohibit to the States are retained by the States, or to the people.

         10th Amendment: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
         nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the
         people.”

But where the Congress has authority in any area, it also has the authority to create any law
necessary and proper to give effect to those powers. This is called the “Necessary and Proper
Clause”:

         Article I, Section 8: “[1] The Congress shall have Power … [18] To make all Laws
         which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing
         Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the
         United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.”

In some areas Congress has “plenary” power, meaning that it has absolute power over the subject
matter and states may not intercede. In other areas Congress has “concurrent” power, meaning that
states may also exercise authority in those areas. But where federal and state law conflict, the
federal law always overrides state law under the supremacy clause of Article VI.

Some of the powers of Congress are more important and some are less important, in terms of law
school studies, because they are not discussed or tested as much. The more important powers will
be discussed in detail in this chapter.

The “less important” powers of Congress are still important to know because they can be raised in
essay questions or the focus of MBE questions on the Bar Exam. But they are less likely to be the
main focus of a law school essay question.

         For Example: The State of California announces it will print a postage stamp honoring its
         former governor, Pete “I Blame the Mexicans for Everything” Wilson. Can it do that? No,
         because Congress has plenary (absolute) power over the postal system.




                                                      4
                                                                  Chapter 3: The Constitutional Powers of the States


        Chapter 3: The Constitutional Powers of the States
The 10th Amendment reserves to the individual States or the people every power not specifically
delegated to the federal government by the Constitution or specifically prohibited to the States.

       10th Amendment: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
       nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the
       people.”

                     1. The Enumerated Powers of the States
The mandate of the 10th Amendment is so sweeping that there are few other provisions in the
Constitution granting States specific rights and powers except those prohibitions against Congress
discussed above. To recap, the major specific rights and powers of States are as follows:

   1. The right to maintain and train the militia and appoint militia officers (Article I, Section
       8 [16].)
   2. The right to export goods free from federal tax (Article I, Section 9 [5].)
   3. The right to send and receive goods free of duties to other States (Article I, Section 9 [6].)
   4. The right to equal treatment in federal regulation of interstate commerce (Article I,
       Section 9 [6].)
   5. The right to a republican form of government, protection from invasion and, upon
       request, protection against domestic violence (Article IV, Section 4, the “Sovereignty
       Clause.”)
   6. The right of ratification of Constitutional amendments by three-fourths of the States
       (Article V.)
   7. The right to at least one representative in the House (Article I, Section 2 [3].)
   8. The right to an equal voice in the Senate (Article V.)
   9. Protection from lawsuits in federal courts filed by private citizens (11th Amendment.)
   10. The power to control the use and sale of alcoholic beverages (21st Amendment.)
                                              — o0o —

A. Limited State Sovereignty
Sovereignty of the several States, within the limits imposed by the Constitution, is implied by the
10th Amendment and the sovereignty clause of Article IV:

       Article IV, Section 4: “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union
       a Republican Form of Government…”

But State sovereignty does not mean states can do whatever they want without limit. State
sovereignty is limited by the other Constitutional provisions, including the supremacy clause of
Article VI [2]. While both the state and federal governments are sovereign, but they are NOT
equal sovereigns.




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                     Chapter 5: The Powers of the President
The Office of the President has not been discussed previously because it is not really of much
importance to the study of Constitutional Law. This may be surprising because of the important
role the President plays in national and international affairs. But Congress and the States establish
the laws, the courts interpret the laws, but the President just carries out the law. Since the
President does not make or interpret the laws, the only Constitutional Law issue that involves the
presidency is the Separation of Powers.

 “Separation of Powers” means that the Constitution delineates three branches of the federal
government and states the authority of each. If either the Congress or the President attempt to
cross over into the territory of the other branch it is unconstitutional per se and said to be a
violation of the separation of powers doctrine.

                               1. Delegation of Legislative Power
In reality, the separation of powers in the federal government may appear illusionary because the
executive branch is composed of numerous administrative departments that establish laws in the
form of regulations and adjudicate claims under those laws in administrative hearings.

It is a fundamental principal of Constitutional Law that Congress may not delegate its legislative
power to any other branch of the government. Nevertheless, Congress may legislate in broad terms
and allow the other branches of government discretion in developing detailed rules. But the acts of
Congress must provide sufficient guidance and clear principles. Otherwise there would be an
improper delegation of legislative power.

The separation of powers doctrine requires that 1) Congress has authorized or directed the
administrative agency to establish regulations via an “enabling statute” that provides sufficient
guidance to prevent an impermissible delegation of legislative power and 2) parties are provided
with a reasonable means to appeal administrative decisions to the Courts.

         For Example: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes a regulation
         setting a limit for benzene in wastewater treatment plant effluent. The City of Hoboken is
         cited for exceeding the benzene release limits, and an administrative law judge (ALJ),
         employed by EPA determines in an administrative hearing that the City of Hoboken should
         be fined $10,000 per day until the limits are no longer exceeded. Does this violate the
         separation of powers doctrine? Not if the regulations were authorized and adopted in
         accordance with a valid enabling statute passed by Congress and the ALJ’s findings can be
         challenged in a regular Court.

In sum, when the Congress tells the President to “establish regulations and an administrative
process” the subsequent actions of the President are actually “carrying out the law” rather than
creating the law, even if the actions are legislative in nature.

But there are Constitutional limits on how far the President and the Congress can each invade the
turf of the other.



                                                      34
                                                                            Chapter 7: 1st Amendment Rights


                     Chapter 7: 1st Amendment Rights
The 1st Amendment prohibits the government from restricting the rights of the people to freedom
of religion, speech, the press, association, assembly, and the right to petition government over
grievances. All of these rights are now held to be fundamental rights.

       1st Amendment: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,
       or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the
       press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the
       Government for a redress of grievances.”

The rights protected by the 1st Amendment can be remembered with the mnemonic ARTS:

   •   ASSEMBLY
   •   RELIGION
   •   TRAVEL
   •   SPEECH, PRESS and EXPRESSION

                                1. Freedom of Assembly
The 1st Amendment protects the freedom of people to assemble and associate with others from
infringement by the government (originally the federal government, but now also the states
because of the 14th Amendment as explained previously). The protection is established by
implication in the express provisions citing protection of the freedom of speech and freedom to
“peaceably assemble.”
                                             — o0o —

A. Government Action to Discourage Association
If government can dissuade, discourage or forbid people from assembling together to speak among
themselves and worship together, then the freedoms of speech and religion would be hollow
promises. Therefore, unrestricted freedom of assembly and association are fundamental rights
that may not be suppressed unless government proves it is narrowly tailored and necessary to
attain compelling and legitimate government purposes.

       For Example: Alabama wants to stop the NAACP from helping Black students enroll in
       the State University, so it demands the names and addresses of all the NAACP’s members.
       An Alabama Court orders the information revealed. But the information could be used to
       threaten and harass the association’s members. That would infringe the 1st Amendment
       right to freedom of association, a fundamental right. So Alabama must prove it has a
       compelling and legitimate need for the lists. (NAACP v. Alabama (1958) 357 U.S. 449.)
                                             — o0o —

B. Government Action to Force Association
Conversely, the freedom of an individual to assemble and associate with others holding similar
views implies a freedom to refuse to assemble and associate with others as well.
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          Chapter 9: Due Process and the Taking of Property
The rights of the people, both the fundamental rights and those that are not fundamental, were
discussed above. Those rights are not absolute, and the government can deprive individuals of
those rights. But the manner by which this can be done is restricted by the concept of “due
process.”

The 5th Amendment protects people from having their property and rights taken from them by the
federal government without just compensation and due process. It states, among other things:

         “No person…shall be…deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of
         law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”
         (5th Amendment, 1791.)

The 14th Amendment subsequently was adopted to protect the rights of the people from
infringement by the States. It states:

         “…nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due
         process of law…” (14th Amendment, 1868.)

                                               1. Due Process
The term “due process” is not defined in the Constitution and judicial interpretation of the concept
has a long and twisted history. The purpose here is to explain what the concept is today rather than
dwell unnecessarily on how it came to be so.

         DUE PROCESS means that government may not 1) deprive people of their rights to
         life, liberty or property unless it is 2) justified by the government need and 3) done in
         a reasonable manner.

The basic concept of due process is that government must treat the people in a manner that is fair
and reasonable given a balance between the needs of the government and the injury it inflicts on
the individual.
                                                      — o0o —

A. Every Deprivation of Rights Demands Due Process
Due process is required when government intentionally deprives an individual of any legally
entitled right.

1) Rights Must Be Interests Based on Legal Entitlement

An individual has a “right” to due process if they would be denied an “interest” in life, liberty or
property to which they otherwise would be entitled. An “entitlement” to an interest requires more
than a mere need or desire or expectation. It requires legal recognition. Legal entitlement may
created by statute, rules, regulations, a course of dealing or practice, or contract provisions.


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                                                                   Index

                                1                                                                      C
  th
10 Amendment, 1, 4, 5, 17, 18, 39, 40, 66                                Central Hudson Test, 60
11th Amendment, 1, 3, 17, 19, 20, 21, 33                                 Civil Rights, 2, 21, 59
14th Amendment, 1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22, 24, 40, 41,             Commerce Clause, 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 17, 18, 22
    43, 45, 55, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84                               Commerce Clause, Violence Against Women Act, 11
15th Amendment, 2, 14, 16, 20, 85                                        Commercial Speech, 60
19th Amendment, 2, 14, 16, 21                                            Community Property, 99, 100
1st Amendment, 1, 15, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50,            Conception Rights, 67
    52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 76,          Content Neutral, 62, 63
    88                                                                   Contraception Rights, 67
                                                                         Cooley Doctrine, 6
                                                                         Cruel and Unusual Punishment, 15, 16, 39, 40
                                2
  st
21 Amendment, 1, 7, 10, 17                                                                             D
2nd Amendment, 16, 40, 41
                                                                         Defamation, Freedom of Expression, 59
                                                                         District of Columbia, Powers of Congress, 14, 26
                                3                                        Divorce, 54
 rd
3 Amendment, 16, 40                                                      Dormant Commerce Clause, 6
                                                                         Due Process, 1, 2, 3, 14, 15, 21, 22, 24, 32, 40, 41, 42, 72,
                                                                            73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 84, 87, 88
                                5                                        Due process, procedural, 42, 76, 77, 78, 79
5th Amendment, 1, 15, 40, 41, 72, 75, 80, 84                             Due process, substantive, 74
                                                                         Due Process, substantive, 74
                                                                         Due Process, Takings, 1, 15, 80, 83
                                7
 th
7 Amendment, 15, 40                                                                                    E
                                                                         Eminent Domain, 78, 80
                                8                                        Equal Protection, 1, 2, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22, 40, 41, 42, 55,
                                                                            84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94
8th Amendment, 15, 16, 39, 40
                                                                         Equal Protection, sexual orientation, 93, 94
                                                                         Equal Protection, Suspect Groups, 42, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93
                                9                                        Establishment Clause, freedom of religion, 45, 46
 th
                                                                         Ex Post Facto laws, 16, 21, 39
9 Amendment, 39, 66

                                                                                                       F
                                A
                                                                         Family Rights, fundamental rights, 68
Abortion Rights, 67                                                      Federal Court Jurisdiction, standing, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 57,
Abstention, 32, 33                                                          77
Abstention, Younger Abstentions, 32                                      Federal Courts, suits against States, 1, 3, 17, 19, 20, 21, 33
Affirmative Action, 90, 92                                               Federal Preemption, 6
Aggregation Doctrine, 2, 7, 11                                           Foreign Relations, powers of presidency, 36
Alcohol, State regulation, 1, 7, 10, 17                                  Free Exercise Clause, freedom of religion, 45, 50
Alienage, 89                                                             Freedom of Assembly, 1st Amendment, 40, 43
Americans with Disabilities Act, 21                                      Freedom of Expression, defamation, 59
Article I, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23,         Freedom of Expression, symbolic, 42
   24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35, 36, 53, 54                                Freedom of Expression, time, place, manner, 53, 62
Article II, 1, 5, 12, 13, 19, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35                         Freedom of Religion, 1st Amendment, 40, 45
Article III, 1, 12, 13, 19, 26, 27, 28, 29                               Freedom of Religion, Smith Test, 51, 52
                                                                         Freedom of Religion, Yoder Test, 52
                                B                                        Freedom to Travel, penumbral rights, 53, 55
                                                                         Full Faith and Credit Clause, 1, 22, 23, 24, 54
Balance tests, 19, 23, 42, 44, 52, 59, 72, 82                            Fundamental Rights, 2, 3, 22, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 52, 66, 67,
Bills of Attainder, 16, 21, 39                                              69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 88
Brandenburg Test, 59                                                     Fundamental Rights, extension to States, 41, 75




                                                                    96
                                                                                                                                Index

                              G                                       Presidential Powers, 1, 35, 36, 37
                                                                      Presidential Powers, veto, 36
General Welfare, 5, 18                                                Prior Restraint, 61
                                                                      Prisons, rights, 73
                                                                      Privacy, Right to Personal Autonomy, 40, 66, 69
                              H                                       Private Forums, Freedom of Expression, 56, 57
Homosexual Acts, 41, 71                                               Privileges and Immunities Clauses, 1, 22, 24, 25, 53
                                                                      Procedural Due Process, 42, 76, 77, 78, 79
                                                                      Public Figure, defamation, 59
                              I                                       Public Forums, Freedom of Expression, 56, 57, 62
Illegitimacy, quasi-suspect group, 92, 93                             Public Morality, Freedom of Expression, 69, 70
Impairment of Contracts, prohibition, 22                              Public Morals, 70
Inferior Courts, 13                                                   Public Schools, 63


                              J                                                                     Q
Jurisdiction of the Courts, 1, 12, 13, 19, 26, 27, 28, 29             Quasi-suspect Groups, 92, 93
Jurisdiction, Supreme Court, 2, 3, 7, 12, 13, 26, 27, 28, 29,         Quasi-Suspect Groups, 90, 93
   31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 48, 71, 76
                                                                                                    R
                              L                                       Rational Relation Test, 42, 84
Land Use Restrictions, 80                                             Real Property, 100
Lemon Test, 46, 47                                                    Remedies, 99, 100
Lopez, Commerce Clause, 11, 18, 54                                    Rent Control, Takings, 82
                                                                      Right to bear arms, 16, 40, 41
                                                                      Right to Hearing, procedural due process, 78
                             M                                        Right to jury trial, 15, 40
                                                                      Right to Personal Autonomy, 41, 67, 71
Market Participant, Commerce Clause, 7, 9, 10, 11                     Right to Personal Autonomy, marriage, 67
Marriage, Right to Personal Autonomy, 67                              Right to Personal Autonomy, medical care, 69
Mathews v. Eldridge, 78                                               Right to Personal Autonomy, sodomy, 71
Medical Treatment, Right to Refuse, 69                                Right to Privacy and Personal Autonomy, 40, 66, 69
Military, Powers of Congress, 13                                      Right to Travel, exceptions, 54
Miller Test, obscenity, 60                                            Right to Vote, 15
Mistake, iv                                                           Rights of Prisoners, 73
Mullane, procedural due process, 76                                   Rights Reserved to States, People, 1, 4, 5, 17, 18, 39, 40, 66
                                                                      Rights, speech, religion, assembly, 1, 15, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45,
                              N                                          46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62,
                                                                         63, 64, 65, 66, 76, 88
Narrowly Tailored, Freedom of Expression, 44, 61, 62, 66,             Ripeness, 32
   89
Naturalization, Powers of Congress, 1, 12, 37, 86
Necessary and Proper Clause, 4                                                                       S
New York Times, Freedom of Expression, 59                             Sales Broker Commissions, iv
                                                                      Selective Incorporation, 41, 75
                              O                                       Semantics, 6
                                                                      Sexual Orientation, 93, 94
Obscenity, Miller Test, 60, 63                                        Slavery, prohibition, 2, 40
Overbroad Laws, Freedom of Expression, 57, 58, 62                     Smith Test, 51, 52
                                                                      Sodomy, Right to Personal Autonomy, 71
                              P                                       Standing, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 57, 77
                                                                      State Sovereignty, 1, 9, 17, 18, 19, 23, 89
Penumbra of the Constitution, 39, 66                                  State Sovereignty, Supremacy Clause, 1, 3, 4, 6, 17, 18
Penumbral Rights, 39, 66                                              States, due process and equal protection, 1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15,
Powers of Congress, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19,             18, 21, 22, 24, 40, 41, 43, 45, 55, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80,
   21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35, 36, 53, 54                     84
Powers of Congress, immigration, 1, 12, 19, 37, 86                    Strict Scrutiny, 41, 50, 51, 66, 75, 84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93,
Powers of Congress, Indian tribes, 1, 2, 6                                94
Powers of Congress, inferior courts, 13                               Stripping Doctrine, 20
Powers of Congress, maritime, 13                                      Substantive Due Process, 74
Powers of Congress, military, 13                                      Supremacy Clause, 1, 3, 4, 6, 17, 18
Powers of States, 17                                                  Supreme Court, 2, 3, 7, 12, 13, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35,
Powers of the Presidency, 1, 5, 12, 13, 19, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35            36, 48, 71, 76
Presidential Immunity, 37                                             Suspect Groups, 42, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93

                                                                 97
Nailing the Bar – Simple CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Outline

Symbolic Expression, O’Brien Test, 42                                                    V
                                                           Veto, Presidential Powers, 36
                            T                              Violence Against Women Act, 11
Takings, Due Process, 1, 15, 80, 83                        Voting Rights, 15
Takings, rent control, 82                                  Voting, no racial discrimination, 2, 14, 16, 20, 85
Tax and Spend Clause, 1, 5, 6, 18, 87                      Voting, no sexual discrimination, 2, 14, 16, 21
Time, Place and Manner Restraints, 53, 62
                                                                                         Y
                            U                              Yoder Test, Freedom of Religion, 52
Uniform Code of Military Justice, 13                       Younger Abstentions, 32

                                                                                         Z
                                                           Zoning, Takings, 31, 77, 80, 81, 82




                                                      98
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