Full CDRA Strategy Document _145kb_ - Central Drakensberg

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Full CDRA Strategy Document _145kb_ - Central Drakensberg Powered By Docstoc
					  Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association (CDRA)
     Cathkin Park Weed and Invader Plant Strategy
Our Vision
Complete eradication of all weeds and invader plants in the valley may take as many generations as it did for them
to spread. Nevertheless, by persisting together as a community, we shall, year by year, reduce their prevalence and
safeguard the biodiversity of both the valley and the adjoining world heritage site. The CDRA will help all
participating landowners to comply with environmental legislation.

Our Strategy
We shall achieve our vision by inviting landowners– without compulsion – to join a free community-wide effort to
fulfil our legal obligations in respect of the environment and biodiversity. All participants will be part of and have
access to a programme that will pursue:
     Cooperation with Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife and its officers;
     A working relationship with other representative bodies in the valley, such as the Resorts Association;
     Education of the valley’s residents, businesses, workers, and visitors, as well as Government at all levels;
     A professionally run website that supports and markets our strategy;
     All land bought and sold in the valley being subject to an eradication programme;
     Effective and visible leadership;
     An ongoing surveying, monitoring, and reporting schedule of landowners’ progress in respect of eradication;
     The establishment of a non-profit nursery to provide quick-growing grasses and plants for re-vegetation;
     The publicizing of the valley’s efforts through television, radio, and other media campaigns; and
     The reporting of landowners who fail to report or to eradicate weeds and invader plants.
After completing initial surveys, yearly targets will be set, based on the aggregation of individual plans.

The strategy and the proposed action programme will defend the biodiversity of the valley and the adjoining
Okhahlamba/Drakensberg world heritage site, prevent its long-term deterioration, fend off any eventual collapse of
a fragile and protected ecosystem, and preserve an important legacy to future generations.
The CDRA will, on behalf of landowners who join the programme, report to the relevant government authority the
extent and the severity of the occurrence of weeds and invader plants, summarize the eradication efforts that are
taking place, and inform it of progress on a yearly basis. Those members will then have fulfilled their legal
obligations, for as long as they are part of the programme, they eradicate weeds and invader plants in terms of the
agreed plans, and – where they default on those obligations – they take agreed remedial action. They will be
protected against prosecution.

This strategy covers the Cathkin Park Proclaimed Area and adjoining properties (‘the valley’).
The South African government has passed much new environmental legislation and has begun giving it teeth. In
particular, the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA) requires landowners who have a
listed invasive species on his or her land:
     To notify any relevant competent authority, in writing, of the listed invasive species occurring on that land;
     To take steps to control and eradicate the listed invasive species and to prevent it from spreading; and
     To take all the required steps to prevent or minimize harm to biodiversity.
A competent authority may, in writing, direct any person who has failed to comply with these requirements or who
has contravened the provisions of NEMBA to take such steps as may be necessary to remedy any harm to
biodiversity caused by the actions of that person or the occurrence of listed invasive species on land of which that
person is the owner. If that person fails to comply with such a directive, a competent authority may implement the
directive and recover all costs reasonably incurred by a competent authority in implementing the directive from
that person or proportionally from that person and any other person who benefited from implementation of the
      Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 2 of 10

During the course of 2007, the valley will have its own environmental inspector, who will be a competent authority
empowered to inspect properties, enforce environmental legislation, and impose fines. To fail to comply with such
legislation or to contravene its requirements is a criminal act. The district conservation officer with responsibility
for the valley has agreed to allow Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife officers to have oversight of the valley’s compliance
with biodiversity and environmental legislation.
The task of eradicating weeds and invader plants is a daunting one. The work must take place while development
in the valley proceeds apace, pressurizing the valley’s resources, particularly its water, wildlife, and vegetation.
Even if the valley succeeds, the work will not end there; further monitoring and follow-up work will be required,
although this will be considerably easier than the original eradication. This strategy does not propose a completion
date, but year-by-year targets.
Weeds and invader plants do not recognize property boundaries and no one can realistically combat them on his or
her own. The problem – if it is to be properly resolved – calls for a valley-wide, community-based, shared, and
voluntary approach. Criminal charges against landowners are a last resort, but the CDRA will not shrink from it.
The Department of Transport is not exempt from the effort and will be one of the first landowners to be drawn into
the scheme.
If the valley were to continue doing nothing, allowing landowners to tackle the problem as they see fit and as their
consciences dictate, the valley would remain split between those who feel strongly about doing their bit, however
futile, and those who believe that any effort would not only be unnecessarily expensive, but pointless. The gulf
between the valley and Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife would widen. Credibility on other fronts would be damaged. Any
hope of establishing a conservancy would recede.
Laying criminal charges against offenders and seeking their arrest by the SAPS would alienate ratepayers and
effectively divide the community against itself. It may do much, in the short term, for eradication, but residents
may not continue the monitoring and follow-up work required to keep the problem at bay in the long term.
The strategy focuses on first building community buy-in, empowerment, and ownership of the project, before
embarking on a voluntary effort to eradicate weeds and invader plants. Once the majority of landowners have
joined the scheme and have embarked on an eradication plan – however tentative – the possibility exists of
sourcing Government funding, which could allow a specific focus on high-risk properties.

Recommendations: decisions, timetable, and measurable outcomes
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Cooperation with Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife and its officers
Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife (and its partners, such as UNESCO) supports this strategy and is, indeed, willing to train
and lend its staff (particularly the honorary officers, who are themselves residents of the valley) for the important
tasks of surveying and monitoring properties in the valley. It would also assist in the other areas of implementation
listed below. If the programme works well and is sustained for, say, two or three years, it may also be in a position
to source Government funding for parts of the programme and to market the valley’s efforts as a best-practice
model, to be emulated at other sites.
Work with other representative bodies
Immediately upon issuing this strategy to members of the CDRA, we shall embark on a schedule of presentations
to other bodies, especially the Drakensberg Resorts Association, many of whose members have successful
eradication programmes of their own. Apart from informing others and acquiring their support where possible, the
objective will be to seek synergies and cooperation wherever possible. Other parties will be targeted, such as
schools in the area, garden clubs, farmers, and the like, but particular efforts will be made to present the strategy to
the municipality and the Department of Transport to acquire their cooperation.
There are many in the valley with expertise and experience, and they will be provided a forum in which to share
these with others. However, education efforts must be vetted and scrutinized by people unconnected with the
valley, with the following advantages.
   Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 3 of 10

     An external and objective observer, while leading education and information-giving meetings, will resolve
     disputes between in-valley experts and conflicting opinions without discouraging healthy debate.
     Impartiality will go some way to convincing other external parties (UNESCO, Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife,
     NGOs, government bodies, funding agencies, and others) of the authenticity of the valley’s efforts.
With the above in mind, the following efforts will be made.
     A twice-yearly workshop when the valley is full with landowners and tourists (March/April and December).
     Until a permanent venue can be established, it will be hosted by one of the valley’s large conference centres.
     Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife will arrange for an academic specialist in weeds and invader plants to lead these
     Non-rate-paying residents (especially those employed in eradication) and tourists will be invited to the
     The workshops will cover:
          Plant identification;
          Eradication methods;
          Follow-up work; and
          The CDRA’s strategy.
We shall set up a website, to be owned and managed by the CDRA. It will be available for other environmental
issues (waste disposal, noise, water quality, etc.), as well as other, broader valley topics (newsletter, road
maintenance, land claims, etc.). The weed and invader plant section will contain the following:
     The CDRA’s strategy;
     Details of the surveys and the maps outlined above (each landowner will have access to the survey results of
     his or her neighbours’ properties, from the point of view of both friendly rivalry and valley cohesion in
     implementing eradication programmes);
     Notices and summaries of workshops;
     Pictures to help identify weeds and invader plants;
     Tips and instructions for the eradication of these plants; and
     E-mail addresses of useful contacts, particularly those at Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife and in academia who may
     become involved in the valley’s efforts from time to time (such as the leaders of the workshops).
Property sales and purchases
It is against the law to sell or buy a property that does not comply with environmental legislation, including that
pertaining to weeds and invader plants. However – such is the extent of the problem – to enforce this strictly to the
letter of the law may be not only impracticable, but counter-productive. Rather, estate agents dealing with property
in the valley will agree not to sell or buy any property unless:
     The seller of the property has signed and agreed to an eradication programme in terms of this scheme and is
     up to date with his or her commitments in this regard; and
     The buyer agrees to continue with this programme, joining the scheme immediately upon transfer.
Those estate agents who are reluctant to agree to these conditions will be reminded that they will be undermining
the community’s efforts and sensitivity in this regard and that their illegal, unethical, and inconsiderate dealings
will be publicized (see below). They – as well as private sellers of land who decline to adhere to these conditions –
will be referred by the CDRA to a competent authority (such as the SAPS), who will lay criminal charges.
There is no question that members of the CDRA committee will lead by example. They will be first to agree to a
survey of their properties, to commit to a programme of eradication, and to adhere to the scheme as laid out in this
Surveying, monitoring, and reporting
Ezemvelo/KZN Wildlife will train and make available its officers and honorary officers to conduct a survey of
each property in the valley. Under the authority of both the environmental inspector and the CDRA, the survey will
detail the severity of the problem on each property, as well as plot both the range of weeds/invader plants and their
types. In addition, the officers will agree a plan of action with each landowner, with deadlines. The deadlines need
   Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 4 of 10

not be onerous, but each landowner will nevertheless have to commit him- or herself to meet them, sign for them,
and agree to an annual follow-up check on progress. If any landowner neglects to keep to his or her agreed
eradication plan and fails to agree to remedial action proposed by the authorized officers, he or she will be expelled
from the programme and reported to the environmental inspector.
After completion of the survey, which will take until the end of 2009, follow-up surveys will be held each year. In
addition, two maps will be drawn up and made available to all participating landowners on the valley’s website
(see below).
     A colour-coded map of the Cathkin Park showing the severity of the problem on each property.
     A colour-coded map showing the timescale of each property’s planned eradication programme.
Clearly, even after all eradication programmes have been completed, there will be a need to continue monitoring
and clearing weeds and invader plants as they arise. The annual survey of each property will thus be an ongoing
and unending process – it will be a way of life in the valley.
The eventual establishment of a nursery will be helpful. It will be a non-profit site providing indigenous plants at a
nominal charge to those landowners who have signed up and committed themselves to an eradication programme.
The range of plants need not be wide and it will limit itself to a few quick-growing, pioneer plants, such as
sagewood, tree fuchsia, and waxberry, as well as indigenous grasses and seeds. It is important that landowners who
eradicate weeds and invader plants replace them, rather than leaving the land to recover unaided or allowing
erosion to take place. An existing site may be considered, such as nurseries already being run by developments in
the valley. Alternatively, a new site could be identified. The cost of the site will not be high and will be run
voluntarily as far as possible. Indeed, some members of the valley have indicated their willingness to form a club-
like initiative that will grow seedlings and provide a central repository of bagged plants. It could also be combined
with an existing or proposed commercial operation. Residents will be canvassed for their help in realizing this
objective and for expressions of interest.
In addition, if space allows, an information centre will be established, showing pictures of weeds, invader plants,
and indigenous plants; maps of the area and plans for eradication; a history of the valley’s flora; and an
explanation of the importance of maintaining the valley’s environmental integrity. Tourists who visit the centre
will be invited to make a donation to the nursery’s and the centre’s efforts.
Marketing and publicity
A SABC television producer has agreed to produce a programme on the valley’s efforts in terms of this strategy,
once the community has made reasonable headway. The Carte Blanche programme may also be persuaded to
publicize the valley’s efforts. Other initiatives, including the website, advertising hoardings at the entrance to the
valley, and the information centre referred to above, will be considered.
Report offenders and defaulters
The CDRA reserves the right, as a last resort, to report any landowner who has weeds and invader plants on his or
her property, is making no discernable or coherent effort to eradicate them, and has either not joined the valley’s
programme or defaulted on his or her obligations in respect of that programme.
The CDRA, in implementing this strategy, will assume landowners’ legal responsibility for reporting the extent
and severity of invasive species to a ‘competent authority’ (an appropriate organ of state), and assuring the
competent authority, on its members’ behalf, that steps are being taken to eradicate them and to prevent them from
spreading. In this way, landowners who are part of the valley’s voluntary and community-wide eradication
programme will be immune from prosecution, as long as they remain part of the programme, adhere to its
objectives, and keep up with the plans agreed with the valley’s environmental inspector and officers.
  Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 5 of 10

The Legal Framework
   Not only has the South African government passed a slew of new environmental legislation over the last few
   years, it has also embarked on a process that will give teeth to these new laws. During the course of 2007, it is
   likely that the valley will have its own environmental inspector, who will be empowered to inspect properties
   and enforce environmental legislation, including the imposition of fines for offenders who fail to comply.
   Several species have been identified as weeds or invader plants:
        Category 1 plants, which are weeds and serve no useful economic purpose and possess characteristics
        that are harmful to humans, animals, or the environment;
        Category 2 plants, which are plants that are useful for commercial plant production purposes, but are
        proven plant invaders under uncontrolled conditions outside demarcated areas; and
        Category 3 plants, which are mainly used for ornamental purposes in demarcated areas, but are proven
        plant invaders under uncontrolled conditions outside demarcated areas.
   As far as the valley is concerned, the following weeds and invader plants are of particular interest (a complete
   list is given as an appendix to this document):
   Botanical name                 Common name                          Category      Comments
   Lantana camara                 Lantana and any derivatives                 1      This category is
   Nerium oleander                Oleander                                    1      straightforward: do not
   Rubus cuneifolius              American bramble                            1      grow them and eradicate
   Solanum mauritianum            Bug weed                                    1      those that exist.
   Acacia mearnsii                Black wattle                                2      To all intents, these must be
   Eucalyptus camaldulensis       Red river gum                               2      treated as Category 1 plants
   Eucalyptus cladocalyx          Sugar gum                                   2      (i.e. do not grow them and
   Eucalyptus grandis             Saligna gum/Rose gum                        2      eradicate them), unless the
   Eucalyptus paniculata          Grey iron bark                              2      landowner has:
   Eucalyptus sideroxylon         Black iron bark/Red iron bark               2      • surveyed the demarcated
   Hypericum perforatum           St John’s Wort/Tipton weed                  2      area and sent the data to
   Pinus elliotti                 Slash pine                                  2      DWAF;
   Pinus patula                   Patula pine                                 2      • registered the
   Pinus pinaster                 Cluster pine                                2      demarcated area with
   Pinus radiate                  Radiata pine                                2      DWAF and received its
   Pinus taeda                    Loblolly pine                               2      approval;
   Populus deltoids               Match poplar                                2      • prevented any category 2
   Rubus fruticosus               European blackberry                         2      and 3 plants growing
   Cotoneaster franchetii         Cotoneaster                                 3      outside the demarcated
   Cotoneaster pannosus           Silver-leaf cotoneaster                     3      area; and
   Eucalyptus lehmannii           Spider gum                                  3      • even when registered
   Jacaranda mimosifolia          Jacaranda                                   3      with DWAF, not allowed
   Melia azedarach                Syringa                                     3      the plants in red text closer
   Metrosideros excelsa           New Zealand bottlebrush                     3      than 30 metres from the
   Pinus halepensis               Aleppo pine                                 3      outside boundaries of the
   Populus alba                   White poplar                                3      flood areas of perennial
   Populus x canescens            Grey poplar                                 3      watercourses and wetlands.
   Salix babylonica               Weeping willow                              3
   In more detail, the following rules apply to Category 1 plants:
        They shall not occur on any land or on any inland water surface.
        Such plants shall be eradicated.
        No person shall
             sell, offer, advertise, keep, exhibit, import, export, transmit, send, convey or deliver for sale, or
             exchange for anything or dispose of to any person in any manner for a consideration, any weed; or
             in any other manner whatsoever disperse, cause or permit the dispersal of any weed, seed, or other
             propagating material of weed from any place in the Republic to any other place in the Republic or
             from any other country to the Republic or from the Republic to any other country.
        If any weed, seed of weed, or any propagating material of weed adheres to a boat after use on a water
        surface or to an animal driven on a public road, conveyed in a vehicle, or offered for sale at a livestock
        auction, the adhering material must be promptly removed from that boat, vehicle, or animal.
             Such removed material shall be destroyed in a manner that will ensure that it will not be able to
             reproduce itself.
Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 6 of 10

           The authorities may in addition issue specific directives applicable in specific areas to prevent the
           spreading of weeds by the movement of infested vehicles and livestock.
 To category 2 and 3 plants, the following rules apply:
      These may occur or may be established on any area demarcated for that purpose provided that:
           plantings thereof are confined to such demarcated areas;
           controlled conditions of cultivation and care prevail in the demarcated areas;
           plants or products derived from the plants primarily serve beneficial purposes, including uses for
           own consumption, aesthetic value, ornamentation, building material, animal fodder, and fuel; and
           precautionary measures to reduce the spreading of seed or any other propagating material to land
           outside the demarcated areas are implemented.
      If category 2 and 3 plants occur in any area outside these demarcated areas, such plants shall be dealt
      with as if they were Category 1 plants.
      The seed or any other propagating material of Category 2 plants may be imported and may be used in
      trading, subject to the provisions of the Plant Improvement Act, 1976 (Act No. 53 of 1976), the
      Agricultural Pests Act, 1983 (Act No. 36 of 1983), and the regulations in terms of the Environment
      Conservation Act, 1989 (Act No. 73 of 1989) as published by Government Notice No.R.1182 of 5
      September 1997.
      The seed or any other propagating material of Category 3 plants shall not be traded, imported, or used to
      establish new plantings at any place by any person.
      If plants specified as category 2 and 3 plants occur on any land or water surface outside demarcated
      areas, the land user shall control those plants.
      The authorities may, in consultation with the land user, define and declare specific areas where the
      control and, if necessary, the eradication of category 2 and 3 plants within demarcated areas are
      mandatory to protect surrounding areas against invasion.
      No land user shall
           regard an area occurring on a land unit as a demarcated area if it does not conform to the definition
           of a demarcated area; or
           allow plant species specified to occur within and closer than 30 metres from the outside boundaries
           of the flood areas of perennial watercourses and wetlands.
 So-called ‘wood lots’ are not allowed unless the area has been demarcated and registered with DWAF. Even
 those commercial operations that grow pine and eucalyptus may not allow bug weed, for example, to grow in
 their demarcated areas.
 It is also against the law to buy or sell property that does not conform in respect of weeds and invader plants
 (i.e. they must not exist on the property being sold, unless a demarcated area has been registered with and
 approved by DWAF, and no weeds or invader plants grow outside this demarcated area).
 In addition to the weeds and invader plants listed above, there are rules in respect of ‘bush encroachment’,
 which cover the overgrowth of indigenous plants. For the purposes of this document, it is assumed that, for
 the time being, this is of little concern in the valley.
 There exists the option of adding to the list of banned plants, even if they may be indigenous to other parts of
 KwaZulu-Natal or South Africa, on the basis of their invasiveness in the Drakensberg’s specific ecology.
 With the assistance of the valley’s appointed environmental inspector and in consultation with the valley’s
 landowners, such plants can be identified and added to the list of scheduled plants for the valley.
   Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 7 of 10

Appendix: full list of scheduled weeds and invader plants
Botanical name                                 Common name                               Category
Acacia implexa                                 Screw-pod wattle                                 1
Acacia longifolia                              Long-leaved wattle                               1
Acacia paradoxa                                Kangaroo wattle                                  1
Acacia pycnantha                               Golden wattle                                    1
Acacia saligna                                 Port Jackson willow                              1
Alhagi maurorum                                Camel thorn bush                                 1
Anredera cordifolia                            Madeira vine, Bridal wreath                      1
Araujia sericifera                             Moth catcher                                     1
Argemone ochroleuca                            White-flowered Mexican poppy                     1
Azolla filiculoides                            Azolla, Red water fern                           1
Caesalpinia decapetala                         Mauritius thorn                                  1
Campuloclinium macrocephalum                                                                    1
Cardaria draba                                 Pepper-cress, Hoary cardaria, White top          1
Cardiospermum grandiflorum                     Balloon vine                                     1
Cereus jamacaru                                Queen of the night                               1
Cestrum aurantiacum                            Yellow or Orange cestrum                         1
Cestrum laevigatum                             Inkberry                                         1
Cestrum parqui                                 Chilean cestrum                                  1
Chromolaena odorata                            Triffid weed, Chromolaena                        1
Cirsium vulgare                                Scotch thistle, Spear thistle                    1
Convolvulus arvensis                           Field bindweed, Wild morning glory               1
Cortaderia jubata                              Pampas grass                                     1
Cortaderia selloana                            Pampas grass                                     1
Cuscuta campestris                             Common dodder                                    1
Cuscuta suaveolens                             Lucerne dodder                                   1
Cytisus monspessulanus                         Montpellier broom                                1
Datura ferox                                   Large thorn apple                                1
Datura innoxia                                 Downy thorn apple                                1
Datura stramonium                              Common thorn apple                               1
Echinopsis spachiana                           Torch cactus                                     1
Echium plantagineum                            Patterson’s curse                                1
Echium vulgare                                 Blue echium                                      1
Egeria densa                                   Ditch moss, Water thyme                          1
Eichhornia crassipes                           Water Hyacinth                                   1
Elodea canadensis                              Canadian water weed                              1
Hakea drupacea                                 Sweet hakea                                      1
Hakea gibbosa                                  Rock hakea                                       1
Hakea sericea                                  Silky hakea                                      1
Harrisia martinii                              Moon cactus, Harrisia cactus                     1
Lantana camara, and any entity which has partly Lantana, Tickberry                              1
or wholly been derived from the Lantana
camara complex by means of hybridization or
    Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 8 of 10

Botanical name                                     Common name                                          Category
selection under natural or artificial conditions
Leptospermum laevigatum                            Australian myrtle                                          1
Litsea glutinosa                                   Indian laurel                                              1
Lythrum salicaria                                  Purple loosestrife                                         1
Macfadyena unguis-cati                             Cat’s claw creeper                                         1
Mimosa pigra                                       Giant sensitive plant                                      1
Myriophyllum aquaticum                             Parrot’s feather                                           1
Myriophyllum spicatum                              Spiked water-milfoil                                       1
Nassella tenuissima                                White tussock                                              1
Nassella trichotoma                                Nassella tussock                                           1
Nerium oleander                                    Oleander                                                   1
Nicotiana glauca                                   Wild tobacco                                               1
Opuntia aurantiaca                                 Jointed cactus                                             1
Opuntia exaltata                                   Long spine cactus                                          1
Opuntia ficus-indica                               Mission prickly pear, Sweet prickly pear                   1
Opuntia humifusa                                   Large-flowered prickly pear, Creeping prickly pear         1
Opuntia imbricata                                  Imbricate cactus, Imbricate prickly pear                   1
Opuntia lindheimeri                                Small round-leaved prickly pear                            1
Opuntia monacantha                                 Cochineal prickly pear, Drooping prickly pear              1
Opuntia rosea                                      Rosea cactus                                               1
Opuntia spinulifera                                Saucepan cactus, Large round-leaved prickly pear           1
Opuntia stricta                                    Pest pear of Australia                                     1
Orobanche minor                                    Lesser broomrape, Clover broomrape                         1
Paraserianthes lophantha                           Australian Albizia, Stink bean                             1
Parthenium hysterophorus                           Parthenium                                                 1
Passiflora coerulea                                Blue passion flower                                        1
Pennisetum setaceum                                Fountain grass                                             1
Pennisetum villosum                                Feathertop                                                 1
Pereskia aculeata                                  Barbados gooseberry                                        1
Pistia stratiotes                                  Water lettuce                                              1
Pittosporum undulatum                              Australian cheesewood, Sweet pittospormum                  1
Pueraria lobata                                    Kudzu vine                                                 1
Rubus cuneifolius                                  American bramble                                           1
Salix fragilis                                     Crack or brittle willow                                    1
Salvinia molesta                                   Kariba weed                                                1
Sesbania punicea                                   Red sesbania                                               1
Solanum elaeagnifolium                             Silver-leaf bitter apple                                   1
Solanum mauritianum                                Bugweed                                                    1
Solanum seaforthianum                              Potato creeper                                             1
Solanum sisymbrifolium                             Wild tomato, Dense-thorned bitter apple                    1
Spartium junceum                                   Spanish broom                                              1
Tecoma stans                                       Yellow bells                                               1
    Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 9 of 10

Botanical name                             Common name                                   Category
Tithonia diversifolia                      Mexican sunflower                                     1
Tithonia rotundifolia                      Red sunflower                                         1
Ulex europaeus                             European gorse                                        1
Xanthium spinosum                          Spiny cocklebur                                       1
Xanthium strumarium                        Large cocklebur                                       1

Acacia cyclops                             Red eye                                               2
Acacia dealbata                            Silver wattle                                         2
Acacia decurrens                           Green wattle                                          2
Acacia mearnsii                            Black wattle                                          2
Acacia melanoxylon                         Australian blackwood                                  2
Agave sisalana                             Sisal hemp, Sisal                                     2
Atriplex nummularia                        Old man saltbush                                      2
Cannabis sativa                            Hemp only, not dagga                                  2
Casuarina cunninghamiana                   Beefwood                                              2
Casuarina equisetifolia                    Horsetail tree                                        2
Eucalyptus camaldulensis                   Red river gum                                         2
Eucalyptus cladocalyx                      Sugar gum                                             2
Eucalyptus grandis                         Saligna gum, Rose gum                                 2
Eucalyptus paniculata                      Grey ironbark                                         2
Eucalyptus sideroxylon                     Black ironbark, Red ironbark                          2
Gleditsia triacanthos                      Honey locust, Sweet locust                            2
Hypericum perforatum                       St John’s wort, Tipton weed                           2
Leucaena leucocephala                      Leucaena                                              2
Myoporum tenuifolium                       Manatoka                                              2
Passiflora edulis                          Purple granadilla, Passion fruit                      2
Pinus elliotti                             Slash pine                                            2
Pinus patula                               Patula pine                                           2
Pinus pinaster                             Cluster pine                                          2
Pinus radiata                              Radiata pine                                          2
Pinus taeda                                Loblolly pine                                         2
Populus deltoides                          Match poplar                                          2
Prosopis glandulosa                        Honey mesquite                                        2
Prosopis velutina                          Velvet mesquite                                       2
Psidium guajava                            Guava                                                 2
Ricinus communis                           Castor-oil plant                                      2
Rubus fruticosus                           European blackberry                                   2

Acacia baileyana                           Bailey’s wattle                                       3
Acacia elata                               Pepper tree wattle                                    3
Acacia podalyriifolia                      Pearl acacia                                          3
Arundo donax                               Giant reed, Spanish reed                              3
Atriplex lindleyi                          Sponge-fruit saltbush                                 3
Cotoneaster franchetii                     Cotoneaster                                           3
   Central Drakensberg Ratepayers’ Association; Weed and Invader Plant Strategy; Page 10 of 10

Botanical name                            Common name                                    Category
Cotoneaster pannosus                      Silver-leaf cotoneaster                                3
Eucalyptus lehmannii                      Spider gum                                             3
Ipomoea indica                            Morning glory                                          3
Ipomoea purpurea                          Morning glory                                          3
Jacaranda mimosifolia                     Jacaranda                                              3
Ligustrum japonicum                       Japanese wax-leaved privet                             3
Ligustrum lucidum                         Chinese wax-leaved privet                              3
Ligustrum ovalifolium                     Californian privet                                     3
Ligustrum sinense                         Chinese privet                                         3
Ligustrum vulgare                         Common privet                                          3
Melia azedarach                           ‘Syringa’, Persian lilac                               3
Metrosideros excelsa                      New Zealand bottlebrush                                3
Morus alba                                White mulberry, Common mulberry                        3
Pinus halepensis                          Aleppo pine                                            3
Pontederia cordata                        Pickerel weed                                          3
Populus alba                              White poplar                                           3
Populus x canescens                       Grey poplar                                            3
Psidium guineense                         Brazilian guava                                        3
Psidium littorale                         Strawberry guava                                       3
Pyracantha angustifolia                   Yellow firethorn                                       3
Pyracantha crenulata                      Himalayan firethorn                                    3
Robinia pseudoacacia                      Black locust                                           3
Rorippa nasturtium- aquaticum             Watercress                                             3
Rosa rubiginosa                           Eglantine, Sweetbriar                                  3
Salix babylonica                          Weeping willow                                         3
Schinus terebinthifolius                  Brazilian pepper tree                                  3
Tamarix ramosissima                       Pink tamarisk                                          3
Tamarix chinenis                          Chinese tamarisk                                       3
Tipuana tipa                              Tipu tree                                              3
Toona ciliata                             Toon tree                                              3

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