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					                                      UNCLASSIFIED




        ASA (AL&T)

                      ASA(ALT) System of Systems
                        Engineering Processes

                     CMMI Technology Conference
                            16 Nov 2010
                      Implementation Strategy & the CMMI®


                                     Mr. Terry Edwards
                                 Director, ASA(ALT) SoSE
                                       (703) 614-4540
                                terry.edwards@us.army.mil
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                              The Army’s View of CMMI…
        ASA (AL&T)




             CMMI has arrived, and we have embraced it !!!

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                              Strategic Environment
        ASA (AL&T)




  • Operational                                • Budget
   Persistent conflict,                        Pressure to cut defense & other
   Hybrid threats requiring hybrid            spending
  solutions                                     Topline base budget expected to
   Advanced/improvised                        have modest, but steady growth
  technologies targeted against the             “Do more without more”
  warfighter                                    Reduce lifecycle-costs




                                              • Acquisition Reform
  • Army Modernization                        Increased competition throughout
  BCT-centric                                acquisition process
  Buy fewer, more often                      Reduced tolerance for cost/schedule risk
  Incremental fielding of capability         Revised Milestone certification reqs
  thru ARFORGEN                               Foster innovation
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                System of Systems Engineering (SoSE) – Environment
        ASA (AL&T)                   Mission      The Mission of ASA(ALT) SOSE:
   Scope                             Provide the Army’s leadership and materiel       Product
                                     developers with the necessary
         Tactical        Business
                                     engineering/architectural products to manage                     Cost
                                     and shape the Army’s materiel portfolio, to
         Domain          Domain      ensure a System Engineering discipline across
                                     the Materiel developer community throughout
                                     the acquisition life cycle and grow the System      Technology          Capability
               Infrastructure                                                             Maturity
                  Domain             Engineering capability within the Army –
                                     through education, engineering policy,
                                     guidelines and adoption of best industry
        Build the Bench              practices,....”Build the Bench”.                                 Time

   • Organize the Army
     Engineering Community                            Manage
   • Establish Technical Authority                                                          Capability Sets
     and engineering                                the Army’s
     expertise/capability
                                                      Portfolio
   • Pursue accreditation and
     certifications of organic
     workforce & organizations                                                           2011/12 13/14 15/16
 Create Data Transparency                   Enable the Process                            Manage the Portfolio
• Establish CM and an                • Establish the engineering process to    • Support the prioritization of
  authoritative repository for         deliver synchronized capability           capabilities within the portfolio
  products                           • Establish the analytical structure with • Set the baseline architecture
• Establish a collaboration            models & simulations                      roadmap over time
  environment                        • Establish the engineering compliance • Support the resourcing process
• Establish a common operating         structure/process for acquisition       • Synchronize and align the S&T,
  environment for engineering          execution excellence                      systems integration, test, and
  Products                           • Deliver engineering support to HQ         certification activities
          SoSE                                                           DESIGN * DEVELOP * DELIVER *
                                       staff and acquisition community
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                                    Organizing the SoS Space
          ASA (AL&T)                                   AAE
                                                      MilDEP                     Acquisition
    G3/5/7           G8                                                           Decision
                                                                                  Authority                        - PEO
                                                    EXECUTIVE
            ARMY                                                                                                   - SoSE
          ANALYTICAL                                 COUNCIL
TRADOC                                        DAS-M Chair         PEOs                                             - S&T
           FACTORY
& OTHER                   G6                       ENGINEERING                                                     - INTEGRATION
 STAFF                                                                                    Configuration
                                  LWN               OVERSIGHT                               Steering               - RDECOM
                                  GOSC   SoSE ChairCOUNCIL (EOC)
          ASA(ALT)                                                       DPEOs               Board                  - FFRDC



                                          MISSION
                       AVIATION                                   FIRES/AMMO               TRANSPORT
                                         COMMAND                                                               SoSE Cross-IPT
                                                                                            & NETOPS
                                                                                                               Integration WGs
                                                NETWORK
                                              INTEGRATION
          Tactical Vehicle/                     MISSION COMMAND                                                   INTEL &
                                                   INTEGRATION
           Sustainment                                                                                           SENSORS
                                                       INTEG BASE
                                                         DEFENSE
               Ground Combat                                 PLATFORM
                                                           INTEGRATION                         SOLDIER           PEO TIER 2
                  Systems
                                                              JOINT COMBAT
                                                                                                              SE GOVERNANCE
                                                                    ID
                                                                                          SIM &
                                         Business              Chem / BIO
                 DOMAIN SE IPTs                                                         TRAINING

                                                     Authoritative System                       Acquisition
                                                        Architectures                            Analysis

                Authoritative
                Data Sources
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                               The ‘Network’
        ASA (AL&T)


         Typical ‘Network’ Layers
         • Sensors
         • Applications
         • Services
                            Applications
         • Transport        & Services
         • Standards
         Added
         • Force Structure
         • NETOPS



     “The Network is the singularly most important program to the Army”
                      -- GEN George W. Casey, Jr. 23 July 2010
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                       Army Network – Enterprise View
        ASA (AL&T)
                                                                      GIG                                    Satellite
                                                                                                             Transport
             At Home/TDY                                         LandWarNet
                                                                    Core
                              Internet       Area Processing Center   NOSC
                                                                              Teleport/STEP
                                                                                  FRHN




                                                                                              Deployed
        Post/Camp/Station
                                                                                Tactical
                                         Garrison


                                                                                                 Sensors




                                                        Transport                                      JTF
                                                        Tactical                                    (Corps/ESB)




            Reset (Phases 0-1)                               Transition         Deploy (Phases 2-5)
          SoSE
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                                  COE Architecture Guidance
        ASA (AL&T)


                                                                      •      CIO/G-6 in close coordination with
                                                                             ASA(ALT) Systems of Systems Engineering
                                                                             (SOSE) has developed COE Architecture
                                                                             Guidance
                                                                      •      COE Architecture Guidance:
                                                                              –   Defines the COE and Computing
                                                                                  Environments
                                                                              –   Describes the CEs architecture and services
                                                                              –   Specifies COE principles and technical
                                                                                  architecture standards
                                                                              –   Details a maturity model for cost-benefit
                                                                                  analysis trades and to evaluate programs’
                                                                                  alignments with COE
                                                                      •      ASA(ALT) will develop COE Implementation
                                                                             Plan:
                                                                              –   Inform Program Objective Memorandum
                                                                                  (POM) 13-17 investment decisions
                                                                              –   Identify the implementation strategy, time
                                                                                  lines, effective dates and key milestones for
                                                                                  moving Army systems to the COE
       “Establishing 'left and right limits' . . .
       Chiarelli Touts Common Operating Environment Architecture At AUSA
       - By Tony Bertuca, Inside the Army, October 29, 2010
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                    Army needs a Software “Eco-System”
        ASA (AL&T)
  Software Ecosystem defined as a set of businesses functioning
  as a unit and interacting with a shared market
  for software and services, together with relationships among
  them. These relationships are frequently underpinned by a
  common technological platform and operate through the
  exchange of information, resources, and artifacts – David G. Messerschmitt and
  Clemens Szyperski (2003). Software Ecosystem: Understanding an Indispensable Technology and Industry. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT
  Press.




  An Army Eco-System would need to provide:
  •     Improved agility
  •     Reduced life cycle costs
  •     Adaptability
  •     Means to address cyber threats
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               Realizing the Army Software Eco-System
        ASA (AL&T)
 Eco-System Realization: A Common Operating Environment
   (COE)

 Common Operating Environment:
 Automation services that support the development of the
 common reusable software modules that enable
 interoperability across multiple combat support applications.
 This includes segmentation of common software modules from
 existing applications, integration of commercial products,
 development of a common architecture, and development of
 common tools for application developers.
 Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. US Department of Defense 2005.




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                              But, an Army COE Must
        ASA (AL&T)
  Operate across families of computing environments (CE):
  • Data Center / Cloud
  • Command Post
  • Real-Time, Safety-Critical, & Embedded
  • Mounted
  • Mobile/Handheld
  • Sensors

  AND
  • Improve agility: In development, acquisition & operations
  • Reduce life cycle cost: In both new and legacy applications
  • Be adaptable: To changing standards across all Army systems
  • Address cyber needs: Keep pace with ever changing threats


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                              Computing Environment Example
                                                                              (Mobile Handheld)
        ASA (AL&T)
     Data Center-CE/Command Post-CE

                                                                                             PKI                               GRSS
                                                                                                                 RSS


                                                    NETOPS          User-Specified Apps Could be PEO/PM purchased/developed                                                              SECURITY
                                                                    Could be User configured/programmed Could be unique unit service
                                                                    LandWarNet 2010 Apps4Army
                                                                    Standard Apps
                                                     App Usage      Internet, Native, Hybrid, Web                                                                                                                           PKI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           User-Logon
                              Mobile Hand Held CE




                                                                                                                                                                         http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/checklist/index.html
                                                                   Runtime Application Framework & SDKs                                            PDK=Standard set of
                                                                                                                                                   core assets,
                                                                                                                                                   APIs, libraries,
                                                                                                                                                   product builders,
                                                                                                                                                   documentation
                                                     Remote MGNT

                                                                   Core Services /Data                                                            Map SVCs
                                                                                                                        Ucore SVCs
                                                                    Data Caching SVCs        Transmission SVCs                                    VMF SVCs
                                                                                                                        Web Tech SVCs

                                                                               Operating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Data at Rest
                                                                               System


                                                                   CORE Physical                    COTS                             Ruggedized         Wearable


                                                                                                                                                        COTS                                                               Encryption

                                                                                                                                                        Capability
                                                                    Peripherals




         Transport/transmission                                                                       Tactical Cell
           PAN



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                              CE Relationships and Boundaries
        ASA (AL&T)
  Data Center-CE / Command Post-CE


                                                                 PKI                                          UTO
                                                                            RSS          GRSS Map Imagery

              Command Post - CE
                                       Data
         DATA Center-CE                Gateway
          Enterprise App Store         Payload
                Services               upload                                                                 Sensor-CE
         (Map, BlueForce, VMF)
            Payload upload                                     Wearable                                Heart beat monitor
                                                                                                         Biometric capture
                                                       Ruggedized
                                                                               H                 USB
                              SOAP, REST,
                              KML, UCORE,                                      Y                 Serial
                              VMF RSS, SMS                                     B                 Ethernet
                                                                               R                 WiFi
                                                           COTS                                  Blue Tooth
                                                                               I
                                                                                                 ZiGBE…..
                                                                               D
                                                     Android/iPhone
            Platform-CE                                                                                         COTs
           Mounting, Power                                                                                    Peripherals
                                                     Mobile Hand Held CE                               Keypad, smart pen,
            Data Gateway
            payload upload                                                                                visualization
                                                 Function Objectives: Connect,
                                                 Communicate, Collect,
                                                 Share, collaborate, local Situation
                                                 Awareness

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                                               Adaptability Game Changer
         ASA (AL&T)
                                                                  Data at Rest, User
    SMS, e-mail,
   Safari, WebKit
                                             COIN, SUGV
                                              Controller
                                                                   ID, Encryption
                                                                     over the Air
                                                                                                         Adaptability Game Changer
                                                                      AES 256
                                                                                                         Attributes
                  Governed
                  By Other
                             User Defined Applications                                                   • Provides ability to access enterprise
 Android, Apple
                                                                         Others:                           application store
      iOS                                                                Cascade Style Suite (CSS) 3.0
                             Standard Applications
                                                              S
                                                                         Super Java Script               • Provides ability to rapidly deliver
                                                              E          Unified Font
Mediate, Query,
     Filter
                             Run-Time Application Framework
                                                              C    N
                                                                   E     HTML 5.0 Secure Web               mission specific/soldier centric
                                                              U
   SQLLite
                  Governed
                             Data Services                    R    T
                                                                   O
                                                                         Operating Systems
                                                                         Android 2.2 (Java, C, C++)
                                                                                                           capabilities
                                                                   P
                  by COE

                             Core Services
                                                              I
                                                              T    S     iOS 4.2 (objective C)
                                                                         Research in Motion 5.0 (C?)
                                                                                                         • Provides the ability to let the soldier
                                                              Y
                                                                                                           tailor different applications, widget
 Voice / Data /              Core Physical Components
 Video (H.264)                                                                                             to meet their function, task, condition,
                             Transmission Network                                                          standard for mission success
     iPhone 4G,
    Droid X, HTC
                                                                              User/Device
                                                                              Management                 • Enables short release cycles of
        EVO                   3G/4G, WiFi,
                               Blue Tooth
                                                                         Exchange Active Sync
                                                                                                           functional capability (deployed as
                                                                                                           apps)
                                                                                                         • Enables flexible delivery of
                                                                                                           capability
                                                                                                         • Enables user or 3rd party
                                                                                                           contributions of capability (through
                                                                                                           the Enterprise App Store)
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                              Will a COE work?
        ASA (AL&T)
  It has to, because today…
  • Software has value only in the context of the system it was developed to
      support (and the contractor who developed it)
  • Software Integration & Interoperability have become intractable
  • It takes too long to capitalize on commercially available
      solutions/innovations

  It can if…
  • The implementation starts with a minimum set of standards
  • Standards & common services are planned to evolve continuously (with
      appropriate resources) aligned with Army goals & objectives
  • Compliance is incentivized (and enforced)
  • The processes for managing the COE are disciplined, transparent and
      support application developers


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                                How CMMI Can Help
        ASA (AL&T)

   CMMI provides a model that can support the disciplined
   enterprise-level implementation of the processes needs to
   develop, evolve, and deliver the common services required by
   the COE:                                      Used for
                                                                              managing
                                                                         interfaces/solicitat
                                                                          ion of needs from
                                            CMMI for
            Used to                         Services                         application
       implement/evolve                                                      developers
       common services


                               CMMI for                 CMMI for
                              Development              Acquisitions
                                                                                Used to buy
                                                                              commercial/indus
                                                                                try supplied
                                                                                  services



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                         CMMI – The Value Proposition (1)
        ASA (AL&T)
 Goal – Reduce Armament SEC software life       Defects Phase Containment / Leakage
    cycle costs by identifying and fixing      (High Severity Defects - Priority 1, 2 & 3)
    defects closer to phase of origin     100%
                                                      92%
    (requirements, design, code,           90%               240%
    integration, test)                                       Improvement
                                                           80%
       Established Armament SEC baselines and
       models using industry-standard Defect               70%
       Containment Matrix (DCM) methodology                                                                       84%
       – Tracked defect “phase leakage” (finding           60%                                                    Reduction
          defects in phases after the originating phase)
                                                           50%                                  90%
                                                                                     43%        Reduction
                                                                                                                              ML3
                                                           40%
                                                                                                                              ML5
                                                                                                            31%
                                                           30%
                                                                   27%

                                                           20%

                                                           10%
       Maturity Level 5 projects’ focus:                                                   4%                     5%

       – Optimize within-phase verification                0%
          processes (e.g., Peer Review,                          Captured within    Leakage = 1         Leakage > =2
                                                                     Phase
          Unit Testing, etc)
                                                           Cost avoidance realized:
       – Leverage reuse of mature code                  Less rework late in life cycle when it is most expensive to repair
       – Increase automation of testing                 Resulting in reduced schedule risk
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                           CMMI – The Value Proposition (2)
          ASA (AL&T)
             Defect Density by Priority (PCR)
              (High Severity Defects Only)                                   Average Hours per Defect per Phase
               (Ave Project – 219 KSLOC)                                      to Repair (High Severity Defects)
  0.800

                                                                     120.0
  0.700
                                                                                                                              24% Fewer
                                   80%
  0.600                            Reduction           83%           100.0                                      96.1
                                                       Reduction                                                                     ML3
  0.500                                                               80.0                                                           ML5
                 79%                                          ML3                                                      72.5
                 Reduction
  0.400                                                       ML5
                                                                      60.0

  0.300
                                                                      40.0
  0.200
                                                                      20.0
  0.100                                                                                         11.3 10.3
                                                                                8.1   7.5

                                                                       0.0
  0.000
                                                                              Requirement & Code & Unit Test   Integration &
              Priority 1      Priority 2       Priority 3                        Design                         Formal Test

  Highest severity defects leaked are decreased by                       Defects discovered in ML5 projects cost less to
  at least 79%:                                                          repair in all phases on average – in particular,
   More rigorous peer reviews focusing on systemic issues               Integration & Test phases achieved a 24%
   Broadened participation and tailored role-based review               reduction of hours expended
    criteria

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               Build the Credentials of the Organization
        ASA (AL&T)

       • Pursue improvement opportunities across
         the Army acquisition/engineering
         community                                                                      TARDEC SEC
       • Share best practices among diverse Army                                        Warren, MI
         acquisition/engineering organizations
       • Leverage high performing                                                                           ARDEC SEC
         acquisition/engineering organizations                                                              Picatinny, NJ
       • Army Systems Engineering Forum
       • Army Strategic Software Improvement
         Program                                                                             CECOM SEC/CERDECSED Ft
                                                                                             Monmouth, NJ/Aberdeen, MD




                                                 CDF Rayleigh Curve
                                      100%
                                       90%                                                 Huntsville, AL
                                       80%
                                       70%
                                       60%
                                                                                           AMRDEC SED
                              Percent 50%
                                       40%                             Defects
                                       30%
                                                                       Predicted
                                       20%
                                       10%
                                        0%
                                             1     6      11      16

                                                        Period



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                              BUT – This is Uncharted Territory
        ASA (AL&T)

    • There is scant data about actual use of the CMMI
      constellations in common operating environments,
      which suggests
            – It hasn’t been done before
            – If it has been done, the results are being held proprietary
       We’d love to hear your
       thoughts &
       experiences…




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