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					                                                    The Progressive Movement

                                                            (1900 - 1920)

I. A Look at the Progressives

       As 20th century dawned, the U.S. was in the midst of a reform movement.
            o From Civil War to turn of the century, America was accentuated by a remarkable burst of energy and development
            o Rapid development came at a tremendous cost!
       We saw in the last unit that laborers began to challenge the system; however, not many Americans listened to them.
       But when farmers began to protest, more people listened! Why?

A. The Origins of Progressivism

       Roots - several earlier reform movements
            o Liberal Republicans - 1870s
            o Mugwumps and Goo-Goos - 1880s
            o Populists - 1890s
            o Reform Darwinism
            o Social Gospel
            o Pragmatism
       Differences between populism and progressivism
            o Support
                      Populists - strength was rural
                      Progressives - strength was urban
            o Education and Wealth
                      Populists - poor and uneducated
                      Progressives - middle-class and well educated
            o Attitudes about change
                      Populists - radical
                                 scared off middle class - feared inflation
                                 scared off business leaders - feared labor unrest
                                 made Progressives look moderate by comparison
                      Progressives - mainstream
                                 willing to compromise
                                 aimed at making the existing system work better from within
                                 sought consensus - broad agreement on how to improve society
            o Success
                      Populists - failed
                      Progressives - succeed in some ways
                                 by 1900 a strong American economy made the timing right
       "Progressives" attempting to correct the abuses of the Gilded Age
            o (political, economic and social)
       Accepted industrialization and urbanization
            o (liked benefits and the higher standard of living produced)
       Sought to correct their evils
       Challenged almost every aspect/level of American society political, economic, and social!
       Made us more aware of what our government should do for us
       What are government’s obligations

B. The Progressives and Government

       ESSAY - Evaluate the political, economic, social goals/achievements of the Progressive Movement
       Goals- Different theories focus on different goals as the most important
       What should our federal government do for us?
           o Preamble - "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure
                domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of
                liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of Amer."
                      To create a better balance between state power and federal power
                               ("a more perfect Union")
                        To improve the court system to insure civil liberties for all ("establish justice")
                        To prevent outbreaks of civil disturbances ("insure domestic tranquility")
                        To protect the country from foreign dangers ("provide for the common defense")
                        To encourage national growth and social progress ("promote the general welfare")
                        To safeguard the freedom of citizens ("secure the blessings...")

C. The Muckrakers

       named by T.R. - writers who exposed corruption and dishonesty in business and politics
           o made the public aware of the need for change
           o S.S. McClure
                     1902 - McClure's Magazine began publishing muckraker articles dealing with all kinds of different issues
                     provided impetus for the movement
                     paid muckrakers to research and uncover corruption
           o Cosmopolitan

D. Who Were the Progressives?

       Progressives - sought to solve the problems of the industrial age
       most were middle class - sought advancement not radical change a new white collar middle class had exploded on the scene
        between 1870 - 1910
       urban not rural
       intellectuals - writers and other educated professionals college-educated
       Never a unified movement (many wanted many things, many roads to Progressivism), many who wanted to make America
        work better!
             o Did not want "revolution"; willing to work within the system to bring about change (grew out of desire to counter
                  socialist doctrine) for the "betterment of society"
             o Believed in "activism" (knew that social ills would not cure themselves)
             o Were enthusiastic ("crusaders"), their goals were both idealistic and realistic (wanted to save America from itself)
       Support for Progressives came from a variety of backgrounds
             o ("progressive profile")
             o Farmers, laborers, urban middle class, college-educated
             o Writers ("muckrakers", who were stronger on diagnosis than remedy, but who popularized the "exposed" to wake
                  up the middle class to take action)
             o Politicians of both parties, Populists, etc.
       Opponents
             o Big Business
             o Those already on top - had something to lose
             o often accepted regulation rather than risk revolution or communism




                                                     REFORMERS CHART

II. Reformers and Muckrakers

Features of Progressivism - What did the Progressives want?

Social Goals

       American moralism
            o work ethic
            o honesty
            o stressed believed that the individual could make a difference
            o believed in experimentation
       Social Gospel/Urban Revivalism
            o apply Christian morals to social problems - Methodist
      Social Justice - "to promote the general welfare"
            o prevent unrest which could disrupt middle class lives
            o (assisted by reformers and muckrakers)
            o labor reform (children, hours, safety, workers compensation)
            o urban reform (settlement house movement)
            o prohibition (temperance movement, 18th Am. - 1919)
            o women's rights
            o black rights
      equality of opportunity for all
      equal protection/due process
      better quality of life

Urban Reformers

      Jane Addams (1860-1935)
           o Accomplishment - Hull House 1889 - Chicago settlement house
                     addressed problems of the slums
                     day care
                     kindergarten
                     public parks
                     boy's clubs
                     child labor
                     sweatshops
                     garbage
                     public health
                     housing
                     education
                     services to the poor
           o Noble Peace Prize - 1931
           o Social Gospel
      Florence Kelly (1859-1932)
           o worked with Jane Addams
           o focused on labor conditions in the cities
           o state labor law enforcer
           o Accomplishments - 8 hr. work day - women
           o Child Labor laws
           o housing code
      Jacob Riis (1849-1914)
           o How the Other Half Lives - 1890
           o used photography of slums in NYC to show terrible living conditions
           o influenced TR - called 1st muckraker
           o theory - poverty is a major cause of crime
           o water purification, parks, playgrounds, boys clubs

Temperance Movement

      13 states outlawed smoking by 1913
            o cigarette taxes replaced those laws because they were easier to enforce
      arguments against alcohol
            o hurt those who drank - kept them from reaching their potential
            o hurt employers
                      absenteeism
                      injuries on the job
                      mistakes at work
            o excessive drinking caused many social problems
                      breakup of family
                      abuse
                      unemployment
                      poverty
      Francis Willard - Women's Christian Temperance Union - 1874
            o movement goes back to the 1820s
       Carrie Nation - Anti-Saloon League - 1893
            o hatchet wielder
            o started with state and local laws
            o much of the country dry before WWI
            o WWI added patriotism to the reasons for the amendment
       18th amendment - 1919 - Prohibition
            o prohibit the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages

        Amendment 18: Prohibition (1919)

       Volstead Act - enforced prohibition on a national level - 1920s chapter
       Discuss Victorian Morality

Black Civil Rights

       Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
            o Founded Tuskegee Institute
            o Stressed vocational education for blacks (especially agriculture)
            o Stressed earning respect - patience - wanted "gradualism"
            o Stressed ignoring segregation - changes would come when earned
            o visited TR in White House - but TR did little to help the cause
            o Taft suggested that blacks should leave the country - that the problem would never be solved
            o Wilson imposed segregation in the federal government - fired those who complained
       Ray Stannard Baker - muckraker
            o Following the Color Line
            o focused on making whites aware of the problems blacks faced living in a segregated America
            o Accomplishment - built white support for ending segregation through NAACP
       W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)
            o The Soul of Black Folks
            o 1st black to graduate from Harvard (phD)
            o opposed Washington's approach as too passive - wanted "immediacy"
            o argued for a black college educated elite to fight segregation through the system
            o stressed black pride
            o 1905 - Niagara Movement
            o Accomplishment - founded NAACP (1909)
                       DuBois - editor of The Crisis - NAACP journal
                       1st ct. victory - 1915
       1910 - National Urban League
            o founded to address economic issues for blacks because the NAACP tended to ignore them
            o Tried to help blacks find homes, jobs, and job training.
            o (better conditions in the city)
       Progressive Presidents and Race
            o In Roosevelt's Lincoln Day address in Feb. 1905, he "appealed for white racial purity."
            o Later that year, on trips into the South, he "lectured Tuskegee undergraduates about the dangers of falling into
                 crime, and derided African-Americans
            o as a 'backward race.'" (David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. DuBois) He described black people as "wholly unfit for the
                 suffrage."
            o The Progressive Party rejected a civil rights plank in 1912. (Eric Foner, Story of American Freedom,186)
            o In 1911, Roosevelt argued that "the negro is on a different and far lower level than is the case with the white man,"
                 and suggested that the lazy,
            o shiftless, and criminal negro was a greater danger than the lynchers. (Leon Litwack, Trouble in Mind, 372)
            o He wrote Owen Wister that black people were "altogether inferior to the whites." (John Dittmer, Black Georgia in
                 the Progressive Era, 105)
            o TR did defend black patronage appointments in the south.
            o He made no public condemnation of 1906 pogrom in Atlanta
            o (Wilson would remain silent in 1917 during the St. Louis racial pogrom).
            o Because black votes were important in a number of northern and midwestern states, he did not make public his
                 dismissal of the Brownsville soldiers until the day after the election of 1906.
            o It is hard to defend "the silence, treachery, and moral bankruptcy of the 'Progressive' presidents," as Leon Litwack
                 put it, with regard to African
            o Americans. (Trouble in Mind, 472)
           o     As a Princeton professor, Wilson said, "'Unpracticed in liberty . . . excited by a freedom they did not understand,' the
                 former slaves
           o     and their descendants . . . were not ready of participation in American public life." (Eric Foner, Story of American
                 Freedom, 132)
           o     When Wilson segregated the federal bureaucracy, his cabinet members actually demoted or drove from office many
                 black employees to achieve his goal.
           o     It is true that black leaders had supported him in 1912, he also assured these leaders, when they protested his
                 segregation policies, that the action was in their own best interests. And when William Monroe Trotter spoke
                 forcefully, Wilson grew very angry.
           o     He admired the Reconstruction KKK.
           o     Of course the Progressives by and large had a blind spot when it came to African Americans

Women's Rights

      Goals
          o    In the labor force (better pay, more opportun.)
          o    To end "second class citizenship"
                     (to be able to do the things in public that men could)
           o Suffrage - voting rights for women
      Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)
           o helped led the movement to gain women the right to vote for 40 years along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
           o Seneca Falls Declaration - 1848
           o Founded National Woman Suffrage Association - 1869
           o women could vote in 4 western states by the time she stepped down
           o Accomplishment - 19th Amendment - 1920
      Lucy Stone
           o 1869 - founded the American Woman Suffrage Association
                     focused on passage of state laws allowing the vote
                     1869 - Wyoming was first - became a state in 1890
      Jane Addams - "Humanize" politics or "ruin it"?
      Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947)
           o 1900 - became leader of National American Women's Suffrage Association replacing Anthony
           o Was successful in completing Anthony's goal of obtaining the 19th Amendment
           o helped by WWI
           o Founded League of Women Voters to make sure that women voted intelligently
      Alice Paul (1885-1977)
           o 1913 - created Women's Party
           o 1917 - women picketed the White House (WWI)
                     criticism of Wilson actually slowed the 19th amendment
           o continued to fight for women's rights after passage of 19th amendment
           o 1923 - proposed an Equal Rights Amendment
                     still not ratified today
           o still around for the revival of the women's movement in the 1960s
      Margaret Sanger
           o Control of their bodies
                     birth control
                     (busted for sending obscene lit. through the mails...info about birth control)




Economic Goals

      Economic Progress - Efficiency
          o Believed that material progress achieved at too high a cost
                   they believed that "progress" was basically good
                   wanted "orderly progress" toward a better America
          o efficiency - correct abuses in the system by industry and government
          o focused on business practices that affected their life directly
                   monopolies - destroyed small middle class businesses
                   tariffs - raised middle class prices
                   quality of products purchased by middle class customers
           o they were efficient administrators whose ability kept them in power
           o Abandon laissez faire
                   Big business choking free competition
                   People had little protection against exploitation
          o Regulated capitalism (some advocated socialism)
                   business license
                   public utilities
                            cities regulate them
                            take them over (socialism)
                   rr, insurance companies, telephone
                            states regulate them
          o Better redistribute the wealth
                   (1893 - 9% had 71% of all the national wealth)
      Economic Fairness and Honesty
          o Control "special interests" (like protective tariffs)
          o competition
          o standard of living
          o bus. expansion
          o better distribution of wealth
          o conservation of natural resources, create jobs)
          o business mistreated workers and mislead customers
          o regulation - restore opportunity to business




Business Reform

      Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)
           o The Jungle - 1906
           o most famous muckraker
           o description of Chicago meatpacking industry
           o Accomplishment - Pure Food and Drug Acts - 1906 Meat Inspection Act - 1906
      John Spargo
           o The Bitter Cry of the Children
           o exposed horrible conditions of child labor
           o accomplishment - Keating-Owen Child Labor Laws
      Ida Tarbell (1857-1944)
           o The History of Standard Oil Company - 1902-1904
           o exposed business practices of John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
           o worked for him for 6 years
           o Accomplishments
                     Clayton Anti-Trust Act
                     Federal Trade Commission
      Marie and Bessie Van Vorst
           o The Woman Who Toils - 1903
           o startling book about the conditions of women's labor
      Francis Perkins
           o 1910 - executive secretary of New York Consumers' League
           o 1911 - witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
                     500 workers trapped
                     146 died
                     the company was acquitted of any crime
                     had locked the fire escapes
           o became executive secretary of New York Commission on Safety
                     took lawmakers to visit sweatshops and factories
                     led to improved health and safety rules including fire codes
                     shorter work week for women (48 instead of 54)
                     1933 - 1945 - Secretary of Labor
                            first woman Cabinet member
Political Goals

       they made basic structural changes in the way government and business operate in the US
       Felt that the size of business and government had led to complexity and corruption
             o government ignored voters' concerns
             o threatened the rights of the individual and the future of democracy
             o government was a tool to promote the welfare of all citizens
                        done through regulation of business
       Efficient/Responsible Government
             o reorganization to prevent overlapping
             o budgets
             o fixing responsibility
             o fight the "political machines"
                        too much corruption
                        biggest threat to American life - alliance between big business and "pol. machines"
             o "balance of power"
                        among branches
                        state and federal
                        two-party system
       active government - necessary to protect middle class interests
             o government had to play a greater role in protecting the well-being of all citizens
             o moving from laissez-faire to an active government
             o several progressive mayors, governors, and presidents who emphasized the public-service functions of government
                  (schools, roads, public health, etc.)
                        Only has the "leverage" to bring about needed changes
             o Gov't went from little involvement (laissez faire) to involvement in most aspects of American life (good or bad?)
       democratic government
             o government had to become more responsive to the people
             o represented true American democracy at work
             o government controlled by the people not special interest groups
             o political power too concentrated
             o the "cure", more democracy (Lincoln's definition?)
       What are the responsibilities of gov't? (Preamble)




Political Reform

       Lincoln Steffens - local government
            o The Shame of the Cities - 1904
            o focused on corruption, bribery, and theft in local govt.by political machines and bosses
            o Accomplishments - held out some mayors as models for others to follow
                      Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones
                               applied golden rule in business and in politics
                                        Social Gospel
                               business man gave his workers
                                        paid vacations
                                        eight-hour work day
                               1897 - 1904 - mayor of Toledo, Ohio - policies
                                        playgrounds
                                        a golf course
                                        free kindergartens
                                        night school for adults
                                        minimum wage for city workers $1.50 (2x normal)
                                        homeless shelter
                                        open air - non-denominational church
                      Seth Low
                               Brooklyn mayor - 1881 - 1885
                                        set up Bureau of Charities - 1878
                                        improved school system
                                        used merit system for jobs
                            President of Columbia University - 1890 - 1901
                                    adult education program
                                    improved graduate school
                          New York City mayor - 1901 - 1903
                                    replaced Tammany Hall bosses
                                    improved police
                                    improved civil service
                          1907 - president of National Civic Federation
                          1914 - president New York Chamber of Commerce
                Tom Johnson - Cleveland
                          City ownership of utilities
                          increased vigilance over corporate - political connections
                Commission System - 1901 - Galveston (400 by 1920)
                          non-partisan elections - five board members
                          each chosen based on expertise and put in charge of a particular department
                          (police, sanitation, public works, etc.) to "fix" responsibility and
                          hurricane had destroyed 1/6 population 1/3 property
                          "get things done" (after crisis, kept the system)
                          Steffens spread the use of this system to middle size cities it did not work well in large ones
                          by WWI, over 400 cities adopted it
                City Manager System - 1908 - Staunton, Va.
                          Board or (elected) City Council hired a professional non-political manager to run city affairs;
                          by WWI, some 250!
                          Managers job was to solve the city's problems rather than the mayor
   Hiram W. Johnson (1910 - 1918) - governor of California
        o eight-hour work day for women
        o limits on child labor
        o workmen's compensation - state run insurance system that supported workers injured on the job
        o public control of utilities
        o government regulation of RR
        o later senator from Cal.
   William U'Ren - Oregon System - state government
        o brought most dem. reforms to the state level
        o used intiative and referendum 32 times from 1902 - 1910
   Robert M. "Fighting Bob" LaFollette - State government
        o elected governor - Wisconsin - 1900 - 1906
        o Senator 1906 - 1925
        o Wisconsin Idea - university professors used as experts to help run the government
                develop a whole "reform package"
                experimentation
        o Brain Trust
        o Also used initiative, referendum, and recall (by 1918 - 20 states)
                initiative - gave voters the power to propose a bill and present it to the legislature for a vote
                          initiated by petition
                          force lawmakers to deal with difficult issues
                          vote them out of office if they don't support reform
                referendum - public votes on a bill offered by the legislature
                          controversial bills could be voted on by the public
                          legislature could avoid being kicked out of office
                recall - power to petition the removal of officials who do not represent the wishes of the voters - before the
                    next scheduled election
        o Direct Primary System
                gave party memebers a chance to choose their party's candidates for office
                party leaders had chosen the candidates
                get around "machines" and "bosses"
        o voter registration
        o Australian ballot - secret ballot in use everywhere by 1910
        o direct election of senators (17th Am. - 1913)
        o limited campaign spending (Every state by 1915)
                1907 - especially by corporations
        o fought to regulate rr, public utilities, corporations, banks, lobbying
        o State income tax passed
           o Workmen's Comp and factory safety standards passed also
       Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926) - Socialism
           o proposed eliminating capitalism and replacing it with socialism government ownership of some of the major
               businesses in America
           o 5 time socialist candidate for President
           o Led Pullman Strike
           o Many of his ideas were used by more mainstream candidates
       David Graham Phillips (1867-1911) - national government
           o The Treason of the Senate - 1906
           o Senate depicted as a millionaire's club representing banks and corporations
           o instead of the people

                Amendment 17: Direct Election of Senators (1913)

       Progressive ideals must be incorporated at the very top levels of government (needed a "progressive president")
            o In 1901, the Progressives got one!




II. Labor Reform in the Cities and States

D. Progressivism Tested in the Courts

       Holden v. Hardy - 1898
            o 1st time the SC had approved a law limiting working hours
            o dangerous conditions in the mines
       Lochner v. New York - 1905
            o SC ruled against 10 hour work day or 60 hour work week
            o argued that no dangerous conditions existed - no reason to limit hours
       Muller v. Oregon - 1908
            o Louis D. Brandeis
            o used statistics showing how long hours and poor working conditions harmed workers
            o Oregon law limiting the work hours of women in hazardous industries
                       threat to ability to have children
       1917 - SC ruled that workmen's comp was constitutional
       1912 - SC ruled against minimum wage
       SC supported yellow dog contracts - stated that the workers did not belong to a union and promised not to join one - they
        could be fired if they lied




                                                   The Progressive Presidents

                                                           (1900 - 1920)




                                                                                                       W. Wilson (D) - New
                  T. Roosevelt (R) - Square Deal                  W.H. Taft (R)
                                                                                                       Freedom
                  sued 25/44
                                                                  sued 90
                                                                                                       Clayton Anti-Trust Act
                          Northern Securities Case
Business                  American Tobacco Company                        US Steel
                                                                                                       Federal Trade Commission
Regulation                Standard Oil Trust                              International Harvester
                                                                                                       War Industries Board
                  Elkins Act - Hepburn Act                        Mann-Elkins Act
                   Meat Inspection Act

                   Pure Food and Drug Act

                   Bureau of Corporations

                           precursor to FTC


                   Coal Strike - 1902

                   Department of Commerce and Labor                                                 Keating - Owen Act

                   -supported ideas later passed by Wilson                                          Kern -McGillicuddy Act
Labor
                           8 hour work day                                                         Adamson Act
                           regulation of hours for women and
                            children                                                                War Labor Board - Samuel
                           limiting use of injunctions                                             Gompers
                           owner liability for accidents


                   Conservationist
                                                                  supported Ballinger vs. Pinchot
                   1st national monument

                                                                         preservation
Environment        1st wildlife preserve                                                            National Park Service Act

                                                                  withdrew more land for national
                   National Conservation Congress
                                                                  forests
                   National Reclamation Act
Banking            Panic of 1907                                                                    Federal Reserve Act
Tariffs                                                           Payne-Aldrich Tariff              Underwood Tariff

I. Theodore Roosevelt - The Square Deal

A. Roosevelt's Road to the White House

         Roosevelt's Background
              o From a wealthy family (but despised their "conspicuous consumption")
              o Educated at Harvard, Columbia law school
              o After his wife died (his mother died on the same day), he went to the West
                        owned a ranch in the Dakota Territory
                        went broke in the winter of 1885-86
                        Author (Winning of the West, about Daniel Boone and the West)
              o 1889-1895 - Civil Service Commission
              o 1895 - President of the NYC Board of Police Commissioners
              o 1897 - Assistant Secretary of Navy
              o 1898 - War hero (Spanish-American War)
              o 1898 - Served as state leg. and gov. of NY (worked with muckrakers)
         1900 Election
              o (McKinley vs. Bryan)
                        McKinley chose TR as Vice President
                        (Old Guard "kicked" him upstairs to the then dead end job of VP)
              o Leon Czolgosz - anarchist - assassinated McKinley

B. Roosevelt and the Presidency
       At 42, youngest ever to serve as President
       Rating - 1962 - 4/31 / 1982 - 7/38 - near great
       As President, stood for "Square Deal"
            o A "character"
            o Mark Twain called him the "Tom Sawyer of Politics"
       Views
            o Pres. should be a strong, active leader
                      do anything not prohibited by the Constitution
                      (politics could be made honest only by strong, responsible leadership)
            o Warned Wall Street to yield to popular demand or be dragged down by revolution!
            o A "cautious" progressive ("lunatic fringe"), but he changed with the times
                      by 1908, he was turning "left"
                      (supported an income tax, inheritance tax, lots of gov't regulation)
                      the "Old Guard" viewed him as dangerous!
            o Most of the progressive measures enacted during his admin. had "loopholes"
                      big on "gentlemen's agreements (but usually happy with what he got)

C. Roosevelt and the Trusts

       Square Deal - all sides are equal - fairness
       "rule of reason" - "bust" bad trusts, leave good ones alone
            o HE decided which were good and which were bad
            o depended on what they did
            o there were "good trusts" and "bad trusts"
       NORTHERN SECURITIES CASE
            o Developed a reputation as a "trust buster" (won 25 of 44 cases)
            o Asked Congress for stronger laws; Congress refused; TR looked for a "test case"
            o 1902 - Northern Securities Case
            o a holding company formed by
                      J.P. Morgan/Edward Harriman
                      Union Pacific by John D. Rockefeller
                      James J. Hill, Great Northern
            o after a bidding war over control of a connecting line nearly collapsed the Stock Market
            o In 1904, the SC ordered it to dissolve!
                      Some of the nation's most powerful held accountable!
                      However, no major players ever really hurt!
            o also sued
                      meatpacking
                      American Tobacco Company
                      Standard Oil Company
       1903 - Department of Commerce and Labor
            o (with a Bureau of Corporations that could investigate bus. practices)
            o 1905 - Swift vs. US ("stream of commerce") - corporations must be held accountable
       Interstate Commerce Act - 1887 - strengthened
            o TR wanted to put "teeth" into rr legislation
            o especially help the farmers who were at the mercy of the rr "middlemen"
            o 1903 - Elkins Act - made rebates illegal
            o 1906 - Hepburn Act
                      gave ICC power to inspect books
                      fix max. rates
                      disallowed free passes to legislators
                      put burden of proof on business instead of ICC
                      also allowed regulation of pipelines

D. Giving Workers a Square Deal - Labor Relations

       1902 Coal Strike
            o UMW (John Mitchell) led 140,000 out on strike for 20% pay raise, 8-hr. day, recognition
            o Owners refused! (George Baer - spokesman)
            o TR called both sides, he would "arbitrate"
            o (workers agreed, owners did not)
                       threatened to take over the mines!
             o   Settled in March 1903 (9-hr. day, 10% raise, no union recognition)
             o   However, coal companies were encouraged to raise prices to offset costs of raises!
             o   First time federal gov't did not intervene on the side of management; treated both as "equals"!

E. A Square Deal for Consumers - Public Health

       Upton Sinclair's The Jungle - inspired action
       1906 - Meat Inspection Act - gov't got power to inspect meat packing plants (at gov't cost)
       1906 - Pure Food and Drug Act - banned harmful substances in foods and drugs
            o (many narcotics...and worse!)
            o work done by Dr. Harvey Wiley, the Dept. of Agriculture's chief chemist
            o alerted many to the adulterants and additives put in food and drugs ("poison squad")
            o others exposed conditions in the food and drug industry
            o Edward Bok
       1914 - Harrison Narcotic Act
            o cocaine and other harmful drugs outlawed by the national government
       1927 - Food and Drug Administration was created - required labeling of contents
            o Significance - govt's responsibility to protect the public's health and safety!

F. Conservation (TR believed this his greatestachievement) - called the Great Conservationist

       Having lived in the West, TR knew results of exploitation
            o sought to balance protection of nature (preservation) with need for resources (conservationist)
            o had studied to be a naturalist at Harvard before turning to law
       1872 - Yellowstone - 1st national park
       1892 - John Muir - Sierra Club
       Gifford Pinchot - Chief Forester (conservationist)
            o national forests increased from 42 million acres to 172 million acres
            o national parks
            o the first national monument - 1906 - Devil's Tower
                      created 13
                      included Grand Canyon
            o Pelican Island - the first wildlife sanctuary - 1903
                      created 51
       Refused to allow big business to exploit oil reserves
       1902 - National Reclamation Act
            o Money from sale of public land used to pay for irrigation projects
            o ($80m by WWI)
       1908 - National Conservation Congress
            o called first ever governor's conference
            o (to get states in on the solution) to discuss a national problem: conservation - state parks
            o (only 3, one in 30s on the Depression, one in '89 on education)
       Created a Conservation Commission to study our dwindling resources (most states did likewise)

G. Legacy?

       Decided not to run in 1908 (had won in 1904 against Alton Parker, 7.6m to 5m, 336 to 140); was becoming very "radical" in
        his progressive views
       Enlarged the role of the President
       Champion of the idea that the public must be protected from abuses by "special interests"
       Established a progressive trend for future presidents




II. William Howard Taft ("Big Bill" Taft - 326 lbs.)

A. Taft's Road to the White House
       1908 Election (vs. William Jennings Bryan)
       Background
            o Educated at Yale
            o Served as a judge (would later be Chief Justice)
                      lawyer not a politician
            o Picked by TR
            o Governor of the Philippines
            o Only elective office ever - President
            o Not dedicated enough to the progressive cause
                      (ran for his wife; then she fell seriously ill after inauguration)
            o Caught between the Progressives and the Old Guard
            o "Overshadowed" by Roosevelt (what would TR have done?)
       Rating - 1962 - 16/31 / 1982 - 20/38 - average

B. Taft and the Tariff

       Payne - Aldrich Tariff
           o Taft had promised to revise it downward - Progressive position as well
           o called special session to lower tariffs
           o Payne (House, low) - Aldrich Tariff (Senate, high) of 1909
                     it actually raised duties on most common items
                     (Taft signed it, called it the best tariff ever)
                     overall, tariff still at about 40%!
           o Taft did not want to challenge the "Conservatives", the "Old Guard" in Congress
                     showed lack of ability as leader - you should know what his options were

C. More Trouble for Taft

       House Revolt
           o Speaker Joseph Cannon, who ran the House with an iron fist
                     (appointed committees, made rules, established calendar)
           o "Insurgent" Revolt - progressives wanted change
           o Taft indicated he supported Cannon and the Old Guard conservatives
           o The "insurgents" won, but not with Taft's support!

D. Some Taft Victories

       Business regulation
            o 90 antitrust suits (TR, only 44)
            o Mann-Elkins Act (1910)
                      brought telegraph, telephone, the wireless, and cable under ICC
       Labor reform
            o 8-hr. day for workers contracting with federal government
            o Federal Children's Bureau
            o Department of Labor created
       Publicity Act - parties must make public sources and amounts spent on elections
       16th Amendment (he strongly favored it) - 1913; as was the 17th Amendment

E. Taft and Conservation

       Ballinger (Sec of Interior) - preservationist (preserve the beauty of nature for future generations)
       Pinchot (Chief Forester, Forest Service created in 1905 by TR) - conservationists (conserve resources for future generations)
       Ballinger was selling land to private companies for development purposes - saving only those that should be preserved
       Pinchot went to Taft to get him to stop
       Taft fired Pinchot, who went public on what Ballinger was doing
             o (turning over coal reserves and water power sites to private interests)
             o turned conservationists against Taft
       Pinchot went to Europe to tell TR
       Added lands to national forests (withdrew more land than TR) - no credit
F. The Rough Rider's Return

       New Nationalism
            o TR policy in 1912 more liberal than Square Deal
            o more safety and welfare laws
            o more taxation of business
            o more government regulation of large corporations
            o In 1910 - split Republicans and gave Democrats the House
            o believed that only the federal government could achieve progressive reforms
            o more democracy
       Bull Moose Party - Progressive Party
            o TR determined to beat Taft even if Democrats won
       New Freedom
            o Wilson policy in 1912
            o stressed the need to protect small businesses from being wiped out by larger companies
            o Wilson placed more faith in actions by the states
            o equality for all
            o bring back competition;
            o fed. gov't would be "umpire"

G. The Election of 1912

       first to use presidential primaries - the highwater mark for progressivism!
              o Rep - Taft - most conservative of the 3
              o Progressive ("Bull Moose") - TR
                        political cartoon
              o Dem - Woodrow Wilson
              o Results
                        Wilson - 435
                        TR - 88
                        Taft - 8
                        socialist - Eugene Debs got nearly 1m votes (but no electoral votes)
              o So, what did the public think about Progressivism?
                        Progressives won both Houses of Congress




III. Woodrow Wilson

A. The Career of Woodrow Wilson

       Father a Presbyterian minister (morality)
       Educated and taught at Princeton (and served as its President)
       Taught history and political science
       Governor of New Jersey
       Views
            o Like TR, believed Pres. should be a strong leader
            o Cautious as a progressive
                      (did not endorse black or womens' rights)
                      but some of most permanent laws enacted during his presidency
       Ranking - 1962 - 4/31 / 1982 - 7/38 - great

B. Wilson as President - Progressive Reforms

       Underwood Tariff (1913)
           o Called special session of Congress, personally addressed Congress
           o lowered tariff to 30%
           o went over the head of the Senate and appealled directly to the American people to get the bill passed
           o Lost revenue would be made up from the income tax
           o didn't last long - WWI led to a return to higher rates
       Amendment 16: Income Tax (1913)
           o Progressive income tax - one that assigns higher tax rates to people with higher incomes
           o would redistribute the wealth
                     no tax - under $4000 - this included most farmers and factory workers
                     1% over $4000
                     6% over 1/2m
           o 1st passed in 1894 - declared unconstitutional
       Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (a compromise)
           o Depressions are the "downside" of capitalism (supply and demand hard to regulate)
           o A Depression in 1907 had led to the creation of the Aldrich Commission
                     to study the nation's banking
                     it reported that it needed overhauling
                     because there was no "central money supply" to fight depressions
           o Needed to get money moving (from region to region),
                     make it easier to get credit during downturns ("fluidity")
           o Pujo Commission - money is a "trust" (concentration of wealth)
           o Progressives wanted gov't to control banks
           o conservatives wanted private ownership
           o the act created a true national banking system (three-level)
                     Created a Federal Reserve System, a "banker's bank" - the "Fed"
                     Federal Reserve Board
                             members appointed by the President
                             in charge of controlling the money supply
                             by raising or lowering interest rates to expand or shrink the amount of money in circulation
                                 ("flexibility")
                     12 regional banks
                     Member state banks - 6% of their capital
                     Issued federal reserve notes
                             (40% gold- backing, rest in commercial paper)
                             led to "inflated currency"
                             the volume of currency no longer at the mercy of the supply of gold!
                            
                     It really didn't destroy trusts, but it did give greater flexibility to banking

C. Regulating Big Business

       c. Antitrust Legislation (Wilson campaigned to break the nation's trusts)
            o Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
                       passed to plug the "loop-holes" in the Sherman Antitrust Act
                       clearly defined unfair practices, etc.
                       Added holding companies and interlocking directorates to Sherman Act
                       prohibited price discrimination
                       Exempted labor
                       Curtailed use of injunction in labor disputes
            o Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) - set up a Federal Trade Commission to:
                       Investigate corrupt practices (interstate corps.)
                       Issue "cease and desist" orders in using unfair practices
                                 (misleading advertising, eliminating competition, etc.)
                                 (in 1921, SC ruled that only courts could do this!)
                       FTC could define "unfair practices"
            o Continued suits
                       AT&T
                       suits ended with war

D. Helping Workers

       Labor
            o   Keating-Owen Act (1916)
                    inspired by The Bitter Cry of the Children - John Spargo - 1906
                    prohibited interstate transportation of goods made by children
                      (keep kids under 14 out of the labor force)
                      This and several other attempts by progressives were declared unconstitutional
                      child labor laws were not passed during the Progressive era
                      they passed in the 1930s
            o    Adamson Act (1916)
                      time and one-half overtime - 8 hour work day
                      (began for rr workers engaged in interstate commerce)
            o    Kern-McGillicuddy Act (1916)
                      workers compensation
       Farmers
            o Smith Lever Act (1914)
                   aid to rural schools to help them maintain high educational levels
            o Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)
                   created 12 Federal Farm Loan Banks
                   made it easier for farmers to get favorable interest rates
                   compromise - farmers had sought government ownership of all banks

E. African Americans and Progressivism

       See reformers chart

F. Wilson and Conservation

       National Park Service Act
            o created the National Park Service
            o to oversee/operate the 25m acres of national parks in the U.S.

VI. End of Progressivism

       A. U.S. Entry into World War I
       B. What were the Progressives' goals?
       C. What did the Progressives achieve? Many positive accomplishments.
            o 1. Political? (Many Democratic reforms)
            o 2. Economic? (Forced Big Business to be cautious)
            o 3. Social? (More provision for the "general welfare")
       D. Specifics
            o 1. Responsible government and forceful leadership
            o 2. Gov't has a responsibility for all of its citizens (promote the general welfare)
            o 3. Precedent for later reforms

       Goals/Achievements
           o Political
                     -greater democracy
                     -active gov't
                     -efficient gov't
                     -abandon laissez-faire
                     -responsible gov't (Preamble)
                     -structural changes
           o Economic
                     -curb abusive business practices (monopolies)
                     -distribution of wealth
                     -better circulation of money (banking)
                     -lower tariff
                     -labor reform
           o Social
                     -equality of opportunity (women, blacks, immigrants)
                     -public health
                     -conservation
                     -better quality of life (prohibition, urban)
Essays
#1 - 1984
A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing gap between wealth and poverty in the United
States. Compare and contrast THREE of the following authors' explanations for this condition and their proposals for dealing with it.
A. Henry George, Progress and Poverty
B. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
C. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth
D. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
E. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
#2 - 1993
Analyze the ways in which state and federal legislation and judicial decisions, including those of the Supreme Court, affected the
efforts of any TWO of the following groups to improve their position in society between 1880 and 1920.
African Americans
Farmers
Workers
#3 - 1979
"Most reform legislation since 1900 has been the work of special interests seeking to advance their own well-being, but the adoption
of such legislation has required the general support of others who were not directly affected but who perceived it to be in the public
interest."
Assess the validity of this statement with reference to THREE examples of reform legislation since 1900. You may draw your
examples from reform at any level of government: national, state, or municipal.
#4 - 1987
"The Progressive movement of 1901 to 1917 was a triumph of conservatism rather than a victory for liberalism." Assess the validity of
this statement.
#5 - 1988
Why did socialism fail to become a major force in American in American politics between 1900 and 1940 despite widespread
dissatisfaction with the social and economic order and significant support for radical movements during that period?
#6 - 1989
DBQ: Booker T. Washington and WEB DuBois offered different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and
discrimination faced by Black Americans at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of twentieth centuries. Assess the appropriateness
of each of these strategies in the historical context in which each was developed.
#7 - 1981
"In American politics the most significant battles have occurred within the major parties rather than between them."
Discuss this statement with reference to the periods 1850-1861 and 1900-1912.
#8 - 1983
"Shifts in party control of the presidency during the 20th c have typically not brought major shifts in domestic policy."
Assess the validity of this statement. Illustrate your argument by discussing the extent to which TWO of the following Presidents
adopted the domestic programs of the previous presidential administrations given in parenthesis beneath their names.
Woodrow Wilson (Administrations of Taft and Roosevelt)
FDR (Administration of Hoover)
Eisenhower (Administrations of FDR and Truman)
Richard M. Nixon (Administrations of JFK and LBJ)
#9 - 1989
"Vice Presidents who have succeeded to the presidency on the death of the President have been less effective in their conduct of
domestic AND foreign policy than the men they replaced." Assess the validity of this statement for any TWO of the following pairs:
William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson
 #10 - 1997 - DBQ
To what extent did economic and political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of
American women during the period 1890 - 1925?

				
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