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					                          Status of Rickshaw Puller in Nepal
                                                                                     - Santosh Raj Sharma

                                       CHAPTER ONE

                                     INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study:
 Nepal, having great diversity, is a mountainous country. The country is dominately a rural country with
86% population of the total. At the beginning of 21st century around 81% population is highly dependent
on agricultural activities. The livelihood condition of rural people is very low and miserable. The life of
people and the agricultural activities of the country have not been improving as expected.

Besides this, some urban areas are also developing in different part of the country. But only around 14%
populations live on these urban areas. In comparison with rural areas, the urban areas are more
developed and many physical activities and service are available. There are the possibilities of job and
other vocational centres in urban areas. This results a comparative high living standard and opportunities
for employment in the urban areas.

On the other hand, due to poor condition the agrarian people have been struggling for maintaining their
daily life in most of rural area of the country. The rural population, who are unemployed and struggling
with great deep-rooted poverty, come to urban area in search of employment and relief. A vast majority
of urban workers come from village, continue to have their roots there. The poorest among them come
from the most helpless strata of rural population. This suggests a high rate of migration towards the
urban centers. Such gathering of unskilled and diverse background creates problems in urban areas and
exhorts “urban poverty”

 Poverty is a familiar concept and has existed in every society at all times. It is primarily a rural or
agricultural or a social phenomenon. It is wide spread all over the world. A major characteristic of the
poor is that they lack assets. They either have a verry small amount of unproductive land or no land at
all. It is deeply rooted in developing economy. Such a society is generally characterized by mass
poverty. They cannot even satisfy their minimum required level of food, clothing, shelter and fuel. Two
third populations of developing countries are living below the poverty line. One third of the world
populations are living in poverty ridden backward condition in underdeveloped countries. Unfortunately
Nepal belongs to the group of such countries. (Shrestha, D.L.- 2001)

Poverty is a situation of hunger, starvation, malnutrition, inadequate housing without safe drinking water
supply and sanitary facility in turn resulting in poor living condition, disease, distress and finally death
(Ram & Ramaswamy 1985, PP. 7-8). In general illiteracy, malnutrition, poor health, inadequate housing,
unsafe drinking water, high rate of infant mortality, unlimited growth of population etc, characterize
poverty.

Nepal‟s landlockedness, poor physical infrastructure, inadequate, natural, financial and human resources
are the main constraints for national development and poverty alleviation. It essence, despite tremendous
progress made by some countries in the region are reducing poverty. It will remain a major challenge in
the region into the 21st century. All developing countries in the region will have to along way to
eradicate poverty.

Poverty is not a new phenomenon in Nepalese rural society. However, its rapid expansion over the years
has been a matter of growing concern to the domestic planners and donor communities. For last four
decades, the country has implemented a range of policies related to some wages or another to alleviate
poverty.

Different thinkers have defined poverty in their own way. There are two broad concept of poverty. They
are known as „Relative poverty‟ and „Absolute Poverty‟. The income, which is required to meet just
minimum subsistence norm, is absolute poverty line income. People having income below this line are
absolute poor. The above poverty line poor with income above the absolute poverty level, but below the
income level required to meet the national average consumption expenditure should be treated as
relative poor (or relative poor are known as above absolute poor and below the wolf point.)

The absolute poverty considers a family or an individual to be poor if its income is not sufficient to meet
the specified minimum requirement of food and non-food items. The people who fall below the poverty
line are considered as poor. Thus, the calculation of poor people increases or decreases according to
measurement of the poverty line income. The absolute poverty can be measured with the help of income
or consumption data. The popular measure to find poverty line income is on the basis of minimum
calorie need per person per day based on the constant market price. Absolute standards of poverty are
absolute in the sense of denoting as specific standard of living. They are no absolute in the sense of
being fixed in time or more specifically in denoting a set of needs which has some short of inherent.
(J.L. Roach & J.K. Roach, Opcit P.24)

Rickshaw is a prevalent means of local transportation in most of the urban centers of Terain and in the
central hills i.e. Kathmandu and Pokhara. Most people use Rickshaw in Terain area. With 2/4 days
training a person can get a permanent employment in this occupation. Today the number of Rickshaw is
increasing rapidly. Rickshaw pullers pay a fixed pre-determined amount to the Rickshaw owner from
their daily earning. The exact date of entering of rickshaw into Nepal is not known.

1.2    Statement of the problem:
 Poverty is the basic problem of Nepalese people. More than 81% people in the country are engaged in
agricultural activities while more than 50% people are below the line of poverty. Up to 1983 A.D. 43%
of the total population were below the line of basic necessities while in 1991
A.D. reached 49% but according to 9th plan 42% people are under the poverty line. On an average, a
person needs 2256 calories intake per day and Minimum 11 meters cloth is necessary through out a year
bout both necessities are not available for more than 50% Nepalese people even today. Where the urban
poor constitute 23%, the corresponding proportion in rural areas is 44%.

  It is therefore, the poverty in the rural areas that compels the people to search alternative ways of life in
urban areas. These are more job opportunities in urban areas than in the villages but these opportunities
are limited because the limited number of urban areas in Nepal. But, the rate of migration towards urban
centers in search of employment is gradually increasing, that results the scarcity of jobs and compels to
take inferior and low paying jobs to the people. In this way, poor from village continue to be poor in
urban centers too.

 Most of the migrated peoples seem to be illiterate though they are physically capable. So, they are
involved in different types of labour work and other daily wage activities most of which includes
physical work and rather than knowledge and skills. Among them, Rickshaw pulling is one important
occupation. Rickshaw pulling is specially carried out using the foot power.

Most of the rickshaw pullers spend their whole day on this work. Despite such hard work even some of
them would not be able to provide the basic necessities and requirements in their daily life. Their desire
for progress has been ceased by shortage and penury. Only few of them have managed good economic
status and have been able to provide one or two extra rickshaws to other persons on rent by their
earnings.

In such a condition, the problems faced by Rickshaw pullers and their socio-economic status (poverty)
are seemed to be appropriate for research and investigation. As a result, the following research questions
are posed in order to guide this study. Why do they adopt this? Occupation? Basic necessities have been
fulfilled or not? If not, why they do not possess other    occupation? Are they able to save from their
earnings? If not, why?

1.3    Rationale of Study:
Nepal is a very poor country and poverty is wide spread all over, More than 50% people are living
below the absolute poor or very poor condition. Most of the researches related to the socio-economic
condition and poverty have been done in the rural sector. But, poverty and poor living standard is only a
rural phenomenon but it exists in both rural as well as in urban areas. Thus, an attempt has been made to
study the living standard of urban people especially of those who depend on i.e. Rickshaw pulling. It is
hoped that the attention of the related and responsible sector can be drawn to the urban poor as they
prevail in urban area. Among various urban occupations Rickshaw pulling is an important one. People
involved in this profession are forced by the poverty in the urban area. So, this study mainly aims to
identify the socio-economic status of Rickshaw pullers and their working condition, relationship
between income and expenditure. This information is considered notable to examine the condition of
urban poor in general and help to make appropriate policies to raise the living standard of Rickshaw
pullers. This study also expected to be useful reference for the researchers in this field on coming days
to pursue their course of action.

1.4    Objective of the study :
                      The basic objective of this study are as followings:
                 To analyze the social status of the Rickshaw pullers of Dhangadhi Municipality
                 To find the economic condition of the Rickshaw pullers of these.
                 To point out the problems related to socio-economic status to the policy makers.


                                      CHAPTER TWO

                                  LITERATURE REVIEW
         For the preparation of this research different books and literature have been reviewed.

1.5    Review on poverty: (socio economic studies)
                               A survey on “Employment, Income Distribution and consumption pattern
in Nepal” conducted by the National Planning Commission during 1976/77 in 10 Town Panchayat (now
renamed as municipality) and 128 villages Panchayat (now renamed as village development committee)
of 37 districts of the country was the first and biggest survey attempt to define and quantify the level of
poverty in Nepal. The minimum subsistence level of income and expenditure were used for derivation of
the poverty line in the survey. In order to establish the incidence of poverty in the country NPC devised
a consumption norm of 2256 calories as average per capita per day required lead to healthy life. An
income level of rupee 2 per capita per day at 1976/77 prices was taken to meet the consumption
requirements as the minimum subsistence level. The criteria at that time gave a poverty estimate if 40.3
percent of household and 36.2 percent of population below the poverty line by the income measure as
compared with 33.6 percent of households and 31.5 percent of the population according to the
consumption measure.
                                R.P. Rishal, a research worker in his research paper “An economic
Analysis of Income Distribution, Consumption Pattern and poverty in Urban Nepal” has analysed the
distribution of income and poverty in urban Nepal” has analysed the distribution of income and poverty
in urban Nepal. The writer has used various tools to calculate the inequality such as Gini Co-efficient,
Lorenz Curve, Theil‟s Index, and normal Log variance. He has used the Keynesian linear consumption
function to derive brake-even point. Most of the analysis is done on the basis of secondary data (Risal,
1977).
                                Nepal Rastra Bank (central bank of Nepal) (1994) specifies that the urban
poor is highly visible because they are hungry, if not starving. They are most often malnourished and
frequently diseased. They are usually illiterate or insufficiently educated. They are badly clothed and
live in ramshackle housing under unsanitary condition.
                                “Poverty to prosperity in Nepal” written by S.C. Jian focuses on the
various poverty problems in Nepal and recommends some long term policies to reduce it. His study is
based on the sample survey done by National Planning Commission. He categories poor people into two
groups. Poorest of the poor and poor above the poverty line. In the former case, he takes the people who
have income less than NRs. 2 per day in 1977 prices and he calculated the 36.2 percent of the total
population full in this group. Thus 55.6 percent of the total population is poor in Nepal. According to
him, 97 percent of the total poor live in rural areas of Nepal. He recommended some policies for
additional income generation in order to raise the living standard of the poor people of Nepal (Jain:
1981)
                                Taylor (1968) has explained the condition of urban poor and their
characteristics According to him “ urban poor who live in slum are characteristically economically poor;
dane skinned or otherwise minority types, inadequately educated; and occupationally depressed. The
slums may generate them in cycles of poverty or they may be recent arrivals…. Most of the evident to
the outside are the deteriorated houses crowded together, then open sewers, uncontrolled garbage, poor
sanitation, files, standing water and poor lighting… Inside the tiny dwellings live after six, ten, twelve
and more family and kin members… All face the constant treat of eviction and prostitution are virtually
the only option…. Older children, some no more than 10 years old take care of their younger siblings
while adults are away…. Children remain undernourished and underweight… Many succumbs during
their first year of life. Those who survive to school age may attend for a year or two only to dropout
because their parents cannot afford even the modest sum of money needed to keep a child in school or
because their services are needed at home… Money is always scarce.”
                                Ramaswamy and Ram (1985) have described that always poverty is
looked upon in terms of income. But, the poverty does not occur due to low income always. To support
these points they have sighted a comparative example of an auto rickshaw driver in the city and a bank
clerk. A bank clerk, for the function of making entries in different book, would be earning Rs. 1000 to
Rs.1500 per month. The auto rickshaw driver too would be earning the same amount per month by the
way of quick extraction of fares by professing to run for short distance only, and also charging double
the rate at odd hours, and working according to his whims and fancies which he thrusts on the
commuter. A rainy day is boon day for him. He would refuse to go where the commuter wants to go,
unless double the payment is made customer can be treated harshly both by himself as well as the bank
clerk.
                                But we can see the bank clerk, enjoying his weekends, seeing the choice
movies with his family and spending leisure time in middle class pre-occupations. The auto rickshaw
driver, often suffers from his occupational hazards, disease of piles, eats in cheap restaurants and
probably drinks the country liquor, if not the illicit one. Yet both make the same income chance are that
the auto driver may be beating his wife, and is more likely to get involved in a brawl.
                                This quality of life in comparison is definitely an indicator to show that
poverty is not a function of income. It is more questions of life, habits, culture and may even be of
environment.
                                Seddon (1987) in his book, “Nepal: A state of Poverty” examined the
causes of poverty in Nepal. According to him increasing population, agricultural mismanagement and
the wide gap between rich and poor are the main reason for poverty. The study is based on field survey
between 1974 and 1982. In his analysis due consideration in given to the struggle for basic needs of life,
by people of Nepal. Seddon recommended that policies of the government should give high emphasis on
the role of government.
                               A research paper has presented a comparative study of poverty between
hills and Terain Villages of Nepal. Hasanpur lies in Hill and Belwa lies in Terain. This work is based on
primary data. Some statistical tools like chi-square and comparison table are used to fulfill the purpose
of the study.
                               His study showed that nearly 65.6 percent of populations in hill village are
engaged in agriculture where as nearly 84.4 percent of Terain people are engaged in other occupation.
He emphasized the poverty in these areas are due to the degradation socio-economic condition which is
represented by lack of food, shelter, clothing, basic education, health care, employment and other
opportunity. Most of poor household either do not possess land or possess a very small size of land.
Poverty is aggravated of unskilled labour, poor health, lack of opportunities in production, natural
disaster, lack of employment in other sectors than farming etc. He concluded that farming and wage
labour are the main source of earning of rural poor.
                               Dhital (1991) pointed out that poverty inequality and unemployment are
closely connected with each other. Their interconnection has puzzled social scientist especially the
students of development, who question whether there are three separate problems. For example,
eliminating unemployment doesn‟t automatically eradicate poverty. Thus, they are not synonymous but
there are some close inter connections.
                               Most of urban settlements in Nepal are small towns and cities
characterized by limited build-up areas. Low-income groups are found in all residential areas with minor
exceptions as in the case of larger cities like Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Birganj. In these areas, social
clusters of poor people are developing fast. Towns in Nepal suffer from serious deficits in Most of the
basic infrastructure services. Recent assessment of infrastructure in 36 municipalities clearly indicates
this situation.
                               „Statistical Year Book-1997‟ indicates that about 95 percent of the poor
are in rural areas and about 82 percent of them are either in self employed agriculture or agricultural
laborers. The estimated per capita annual income of the rural poor is less than 45 percent of that of the
rural non-poor. Similarly of the urban poor it is less than 40 percent.
                               Anand highlights the poverty and income inequality in the context of
Malaysia. He has applied in absolute and relative approaches to define poverty lines. His analysis of
poverty is based on an examination of the lower and of the Malaysian income distribution. To
examination of the context of poverty, Sen‟s poverty index is applied with secondary sources of data. By
analyzing the data, he founds that 40.2 percent people of Malaysia are below the poverty line and the
estimated average poverty gap in MS 9.05 per month. According to him, the disparities of income is the
main cause of poverty (S. Ananda, 1989)
                               The challenge of poverty in the SAARC countries is quite serious. The
region consists about one-fifth of total population of the world, of which about 40% is below the poverty
line. The SAARC Independent commission on poverty Alleviation in its report “Meeting the challenge
(1990)” found the size of poverty incidence in the region is (about 440 million in 1991). Staggering,
which is likely to grow substantially if the present population growth tends continue. The report
summarizes that social deprivation goods and services, especially in remote areas, further aggravate the
problem of poverty. The report recommends capital formation organization of poor and ensuring their
direct participation in making decision, which affect their lives through grassroots level.
                               Shrestha (1985) identifies the migration situation of Rickshaw pullers in
some rural areas and migration from India. The study indicates that the appearance of Rickshaw in
Bhadrapur (Study areas) increased the immigration trend of Indian people on this occupation. For a long
time, this occupation remained dominated by Indian pullers but later Nepalese citizen also started. The
high prevalence of immigrants in Rickshaw pulling is affected both aspects i.e. the size of population
and the development process in Bhadrapur.
                               Wagle (1928) examines the contraceptive prevalence rate among the
rickshaw pullers. This study finds that female sterilization and condom are the dominant method of
contraceptive use among the Rickshaw pullers. The use of contraceptive among the Rickshaw pullers
seems to be of national average but it only belongs to mail respondents. The poor acceptance of level of
contraceptive among the young aged (below 25 years) indicates that most of couples want to fulfill their
desired family size and they seek permanent sterilization. So, it is seen that as the age at marriage
increases, the rate of contraceptive use also increases among the Rickshaw pullers.
                               Guindel (1988)” identifies that the most of the Rickshaw pullers are from
the socially and economically poor family of the rural area. Most of them have lack of education,
Knowledge and skill. People are compelled to migrate from the rural to urban due to severe condition of
low economic status because the agriculture condition of the country is not able to sustain the way of life
of people. The study indicates that more than half of the Rickshaw pullers of the study area are from
India. At last he suggests that economic planning policies and programs should be made to alleviate the
poverty of rural sector, from where people migrate to urban area in search of employment for livelihood.
                               “In the light of high demand for regular and systematic transport facility
on account of the growing population and increased economic and social activities within the valley,
“Sahidgate-Patan Dhoka Bus” service (4.5 km) was started with four buses by Nepal Transport
Company in 1960. This was the first bus service started within the valley in the history of urban
transport. In recent years the mass transport system in the valley have increased. The private sector has
captured a substantial proportion of transport system with new models of transport, among them
Rickshaw played an important role for transporting good & people.

1.6    Studies on Labour Aspects:
                               Labour is defined in different ways. It is one of the most important factors
in all the aspects of development. By definition labour means only those who are employed in any sector
according to their skill and ability, especially those who are not academically trained and who primarily
perform unskilled works. Of the various forms of labour, the present study, however, deals with
Rickshaw workers (labours). These Rickshaw pullers play an important role in providing transport
service in the urban and sub-urban areas.
                               Dipak Mazundar, an expert on labour Markets and the author of “Micro
Economic Issues of Labour Markets in Developing countries”, has divided the urban labour market into
formal and informal sub-sectors. He also has discussed private sector and self-employed labours and the
factors affecting the determination of wages. He states “wages in formal sector (public) are relatively
high in a sense protected from being bid down by lower-income labour in the urban informal sector. The
protection enjoyed in the formal sector is sometimes ascribed entirely to such institutional factors as the
existence of trade unions and labour laws, it may also be related to economic factors. Informal (privet)
sector is easy to enter and earning within it is determined by supply and demand. Earnings within
informal sectors are determined by supply and demand. These earnings approximate the level of
alternative earnings (the supply price). The earnings in the rural sector in turn, determine the supply
price, since rural migrants feed urban labour markets.
                               The bottom of the informal sectors is casual labour such as portage,
transportation and construction. The wages of these workers, competitively determined by supply and
demand, are particularly flexible. Next come wageworkers in small enterprises. A third segment of the
informal sector is composed of the self-employed. The self-employed are a very heterogeneous group,
many of whom posses only their labour power which they sell for low remuneration as shoeshine boys,
peddlers and the like.
                               Mazunder further differentiates self-employed and wage earners and
writes that some of the self-employed, however, might be using capital (equipment or finance)
belonging to a large businessman. These self-employed are actually wage earners employed on a piece
rate system by large entrepreneurs.
                               If we look at the Rickshaw pullers in this framework, we can place those
who have their own Rickshaw under the category of self-employed. They are both owners and workers
and sell their labour power for remuneration. Rickshaw puller who does not have their own Rickshaw
can not placed fully under the category of self-employed as their employment depends upon renting out
Rickshaw from owners. If would, therefore, be appropriate to place them either under the category of
semi-self employed or wage earners.
                               The International Labour Organization (ILO) was set up in 1919 to
improve the condition of labours for the sake of social justice. ILO conference 1984 adopted a
declaration, which states “ the right of all human beings to presume both their material well beings and
their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity of economic security and equal
opportunity.
                               The member nations of ILO have been following these principles. Nepal,
being a member of ILO, has brought a great of improvement and reforms in working classes over the
past few years. But, no attention has been paid yet to improve the condition of transport labours
especially Rickshaw and thela-pushers.

1.7    Existing Labour and Labour Related Acts in Nepal:
                                In developing countries like Nepal, where there is mass unemployment,
the supply of labourers exceeds the demand. Because of this situation the bargaining power of laborers
decreases and they have to accept all terms and condition of their employers. In this light the
government intervention is necessary. For this reason many labour related acts have appeared in Nepal
for the betterment of laborers.
                                Nepal factory and factory workers Act-2016 B.S (1959 A.D.) has made
some provision to improve the conditions of Industrial labourers to a certain extent. This act specified
minimum facilities to be provided to the labourers. The major previsions of the act are followings:
                                No workers can be compelled to work more than 8 hours a day and 48
hours in a week. Working hours cannot exceed eight hour a day and the work should not be continued
for more than 5 hours at a stretch without providing for a rest of at least 30 minutes in between. If a
worker is employed more than eight hours a day or more than 48 hours a week, he/she is entitled to
overtime payment at the rate of 150 percent of usual wage. But the overtime should not exceed 15 and
10 hour for adult and minor workers respectively.
                                No workers can be compelled to work in the time before six am in the
morning and after 6 pm in evening.
  Note: But this rule will not be applicable to some factories where working is essential other than this
time

                                 Moreover, the act has made provision for other welfare facilities such as a
provident fund, insurance, compulsory retirement and leave for factory workers.
                                 The government still lags behind, however, in terms of improving the
working conditions and social security of self-employed off-farm labours such as Rickshaw pullers and
cart-pushers.
                                 For the smooth operation of transport service the National Transportation
Management act was promulgated in the year 2026 B.S. However, rickshaw and other non-mechanized
vehicles were excluded from the act. The act has defined „transport service‟ as follows:
                                 “Transport service means to carry some goods, people or animals from
one place to another by any means of mechanized vehicles which is sum in land, water or rope-way by
taking fare.”
                                 The Act has made many provisions for welfare facilities such as insurance
and working conditions for the upliftment of transport labourers. Unfortunately the rickshaw pullers are
not entitled to these facilities because the act does not consider rickshaw as mechanized vehicles.
                                 Contrary to this the Sawari Ain-2020 B.S. (1963 A.D.) (Transport Act)
has considered Rickshaw as a means of transport. Being a means of transport it is to be registered before
use in public services.
                                 The act has defined the means of transport as follows:
              Elephant, horse or other animals used for transport purpose.
              Ox-cart, horse cart or other cart that are pulled by animals.
              Motor, car, bus, truck, lorry, tractor, motorcycle, rickshaw, thela, boats and others, which
               are pulled by human force.
                                These acts are silent about labourers engaged in these transport activities.
                                In summery, poor people sell their physical labour from morning to
evening in the urban centers in order to meet their daily need. The poverty situation of urban people
(labour) is deteriorating. Most studies and research works are related to poverty where the studies on
urban poor are very limited.
                                Occupational diversity of urban laboures is one major aspect, which
directly affects their economic status throughout life. Thus, the low earning status of urban workers puts
them into “urban poor”. There is not enough research work done based on different occupational
workers considering their poverty level, way of life, livelihood condition and livelihood strategies. The
studies reviewed provides so far information on various topic i.e. urban poor, rickshaw pullers, labour
aspect and labour act of Nepal etc but the studies on livelihood strategies of urban poor is not carried out
yet. So, this study basically aims to analyze the socio-economic condition of urban poor based on the
work carried out as rickshaw pulling.

                                     CHAPTER THREE

                           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Rationale of the selection of the study area:

                              The rickshaw is used in a massive scale in this area. Along with this, area
being a boarder of two countries Nepal and India, many people keep going and coming, so the
occupation of rickshaw pulling is being promoted by this condition.
                              Instead of going to other unknown places of Nepal in the limited money,
manpower and time I chose Dhangadhi as it is my native place and being a permanent resident too. So
that establishing a mutual co-operative relation with the rickshaw-pullers, facts and essential information
can be procured.
3.2 Nature and sources of Data:
                              Primary and secondary data had been used in this study. The primary data
were collected by field survey where as the secondary data were collected through different studies,
municipality office, central Bureau of statistics and other studies.

3.3 Research Design:
                             Being research design an important task of social research, both research
designs i.e. descriptive as well as explorative method were taken into consideration. Due to lack of
available researches about rickshaw pullers, exploratory research design is made to investigate the
minimum acquaintance about these pullers. On the other hand, descriptive research design is made to
describe the socio-economic condition and major problems associated with them. By this descriptive
research design the causes pertaining to the recent situation or problems were brought out.

3.4 Universe and Sampling:
                              The rickshaw puller has no specified time of work. They do not know
when they be back to home. They have to go here and there pulling the passengers. So, it was very
difficult to make definite time and place to meet them. Therefore, accidental sampling procedure within
non-probability sampling was chosen because of their mobile nature and uncertainty. In this sampling
method any rickshaw puller, who were in favorable condition and free could be selected as sample to get
information. According to municipality office, there were Nine hundred and twenty four rickshaws in
the study area. As per the research methodology 10 percent or 92 respondents were taken as sample out
of the total. So that reliability in the conclusion can be drawn.
3.5 Data collection Techniques:
                             The data had been collected using the following techniques:
  3.5.1 Structured Interview:
                               For the collection of reliable data and information from the pullers,
 interview was used. This method helps to the researcher to collect primary data and information. The
 questionnaire was prepared to obtain the socio-economic condition, demographic background,
 working condition, health & hygiene etc. of the rickshaw pullers.
  3.5.2 Informal Interview:
                                By the structured interview it is not possible to collect all the
 information about the respondents. Therefore, establishing a co-operative and mutual Friendly relation
 with the informants‟ data of internal feeling and emotions were acquired by an informal interview.

  3.5.3 Case Study:
                               This method is very useful to reach in depth of problem. By the case
 study method, we know their background, what was the cause, which made them to adopt such
 occupation, far from native place. In this regard, a few case studies have been conducted to get more
 information about rickshaw pullers as well reliable information on their past and present situation of
 them, which helps to know the reason that pushed them to Dhangadhi for searching the job.
 3.5.4 Observation:
                  To know more detail about their attitudes, behavior, actual condition, living wags,
 family environment etc, the non-participatory observation method had been taken into consideration.
 3.5.5 Reliability and validity of the data:
                  Since all the data were collected himself by the researcher meeting with all the
 targeted resource persons, the collected data are reliable. Based on this reliable data there isn‟t any
 question regarding the validity of the conclusion.
 3.5.6 Data processing and Analysis:
                  For the analysis of data simple statistical tools as numbers, percentages and tabulating
 has been used. Since both qualitative and quantitative data are gathered through interviews,
 questionnaire and observation, the data are analyzed descriptively. Primary data are edited firstly
 following secondary data and they are being interpreted by using tables, numbers and percentages.
 3.5.7 Limitation of the study:
                  There are some limitations of the study due to the different circumstance, which are as
 follows:
           These has been limited time and budged for the research to be undertaken.
           Due to lack of resources and time only 10% sample size was taken into consideration.
           The study area is attached with India boarder, so the result or conclusion of this study
               may not be applicable to the rickshaw pullers of other urban areas.
           The research may not reflect the whole situation because it is based on the chance
               sampling method within non-probability sampling method.



                                    CHAPTER FOUR

                  DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
                      The area that is now known as Dhangadhi was once under the ownership of India.
The Sugauli treaty of 1816 declared that the Terain land between Kali and Rapti (Kailali, Kanchanpur,
Banke and Bardia) belonged to the East India Company. However, during an 1857 Indian Army
rebellion, Nepal‟s Prime Minister provided armed force to the East India Company, which helped
suppress the outbreak. In reward for this support, a treaty between Nepal and the East India Company
returned ownership of the land back to Nepal.
                        This subtropical region of Dhangadhi was initially considered inhabitable for the
general population because of wide spread malaria. Tharu people, however, who had migrated from East
Nepal and had immunity against the disease, populated the area. After the eradication of Malaria in the
late 1950s, Many people migrated to Dhangadhi from the hills and it became one of the important
commercial city in the Far west Region.
                        Today, Dhangadhi enjoys an economically advantageous location in terain area.
Not only does its economic activities extend to most of the far west and some parts of the mid west
region, but the road extensions to the northern hills have enhanced Dhangadhi‟s role as a trade and
service center in those areas also. The improvement of the east-west highway facilitates Dhangadhi‟s
trade links with the rest of Nepal as well.
                        There are numerous small industrial establishments in Dhangadhi. Most of these
industries are agriculture-related: mills, food processing and wood industries. There are also several
large industries (such as resin, turpentine and solvent plants; and katha and timber factories), which lie
just outside the boundary of Dhangadhi municipality along the Dadeldhure highway. So, the migrations
of people to Dhangadhi are increasing due to the different types of employment opportunities. Now a
day‟s people from the rural areas are attached to come to city because of Maoist insurgency. Definitely,
the environment and circumstance of the urban area have been produced some job opportunities, but
these opportunities are not enough to the people who come from rural areas. And it is also true that those
rural people do not possess any advanced knowledge and skills. Therefore, they involve as wage labour
workers such as rickshaw pulling and other types of physical labour. Rickshaw pulling is one of the
major occupations in the study area.

SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL SETTINGS OF DHANGADHI MUNICIPALITY
                          Dhangadhi Municipality has an area of 9304.4 hectares. Bela Devipur, Shreepur
and Geta VDC and the Khutiya River bound it to the east, and Kanchanpur and Mohana River to the
west. It is located within the far west development region, the Seti zone and the kailali district. It has a
latitude of 28o29‟, a longitude of 80o33‟ and an elevation of 170 meters. Its sub-tropical climate means
that it is hot throughout most of the year, with its warmest month usually in June. The extreme
maximum temperature of the Dhangadhi is 43 o C and the minimum temperature of 5 o C
                         61 schools have been established here in Dhangadhi. There are 2 higher
secondary schools, B.Ed. Campus, campus-providing education up to a master level in Art and
commerce. A 55-bed zonal hospital was established in 2044 B.C.
                         The social life of the municipality is mixed type (traditional and modern). The
dressing and fooding habit found semi-modern because the city is in the process of modernization. The
traditional dressing habits have been almost abandoned due to the influence of new fashions. Traditional
ornaments can be seen rarely because artificial ornaments supplement it. In the previous days peoples in-
migrated to the city from the different places found distinct on their dressing habits, ornaments and
language but it is different now a days. Peoples having different mother tongues started speak Nepali
language within their families too. But the peoples from the different cultures in the city are celebrating
their traditional festivals.

4.1 Age and Sex distribution:
                     According to population census 2001, the total population of Kailali district is
616697. Within the total population of Kailali, Dhangadhi Municipality includes the population of
67447. According to CBS in the population of Dhangadhi 52.23% i.e. 35228 are males and 47.77% i.e.
32219 females comprising of 11738 households. Ward wise distribution of population of Dhangadhi
Municipality is shown in the table no.1.

                                           Table-1
               Ward wise distribution of population of Dhangadhi Municipality

       Ward     Number of           Male               Female                  Total
        no.    Households   No      Percentage     No     Percentage        No  Percentage
       1.      1937        5128     14.56        4367    13.55            9495  14.08
       2.      1581        4419     12.54        3992    12.39            8411  12.47
       3.      1403        4230     12.01        3938    12.22            8168  12.11
       4.      917         2530     7.18         2202    6.83             4732  7.02
       5.      1394        4022     11.42        3495    10.85            7517
       6.      514         1964     5.58         1840    5.71             3804  5.64
       7.      815         2885     8.19         2646    8.21             5531  8.20
       8.      732         2308     6.55         1974    6.13             4282  6.35
       9.      245         877      2.49         808     2.51             1685  2.50
       10.     204         789      2.24         766     2.38             1555  2.31
       11.     241         994      2.82         968     3.00             1962  2.91
       12.     1266        3337     9.47         3493    10.84            6830  10.13
       13.     291         1099     3.12         1022    3.18             2121  3.14
       14.     198         646      1.83         706     2.19             1352  2.00
       Total   11738       3522     100          32219   100              67447 100
                           8
        Source: National Census 2001

                    The table shows that the majority of population in Dhangadhi Municipality is in
ward no.1 where as ward no. 14 constitutes least number of populations.


 4.2. Religious groups of Dhangadhi Municipality:
                   Out of the total population in the municipality most of them are Hindu comprising
of 96.13%. Islam comes after Hindu where as there are very less number of people i.e. 0.18% who
prefer Kirat.

                                                Table-3
                                  Religious groups of Dhangadhi Municipality

                Religious group            Numbers                Percentage (%)
                Hindu                            64839                    96.13
                Islam                             1099                     1.63
                Bouddha                           1015                      1.5
                Christian                          275                     0.42
                Kirat                              123                     0.18
                Others                              96                     0.14
                Total                            67447                     100
       4.3 Literacy Rate:
                               Literacy status of Dhangadhi Municipality is shown in the table-4. According to
       this table, among the total population of 6 years and above of the Dhangadhi Municipality 68.53% are
       literate and 31.47% are illiterate.
                                                      TABLE-4

                   Distribution of Dhangadhi Municipality aged 6 years and above by literacy status and sex

                        Literacy       Male                      Female                 Total
                         Status  Number Percentage         Number Percentage      Number Percentage
                      Literate   23541  40.88              15923   27.65          39464   68.53
                      Illiterate 6516   11.32              11603   20.15          18119   31.47
                      Total      30057  52.2               27526   47.80          57583   100
                     Source: CBS-2001




                                            CHAPTER FIVE
                          DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
       5.1 Socio-Demographic Status

       5.1.1 Age of the respondents
                                                  Table: 5
                                         Age group of the respondents

                          Age group                 No of Pullers            Percentage (%)
                  18-22                                   8                       8.70
                  23-27                                  15                      16.30
                  28-32                                  25                      27.17
                  33-37                                  24                      26.09
                  38-42                                  11                      11.96
                  43-47                                   9                       9.78
                            Total                        92                       100
                                      Source: Field Survey, 2003


          According to the municipality source, license is given to those pullers who have the age between 18-
50 years. Table-5 shows that, majority of the
            Pullers are of age group 28-32 years, which is 27.17% i.e. 25 people followed by the age group 33-
       37 years which is 26.09% i.e. 24 people. Least number of pullers i.e. 8.70% i.e. 8 people are found
       between the age group of 18-22 years.

      5.1.2 Caste/ Ethnicity of the respondents
                                                    Table: 6
                                         Cast/ ethnicity of the respondents

                       Caste/ ethnicity              No. of Pullers            Percentage (%)
                  Tharu                                   41                        44.56
                  Chhetri                                 27                        29.35
                  Occupational Caste                      24                        26.09
                             Total                        92                         100
                                   Source: Field Survey, 2003
          Table-6 shows that majority of the rickshaw pullers i.e. 41 (44.56%) are from Tharu community,
followed by Chhetries who come from the far western hills and eastern Terain regions comparing of 27 in no
and 29.35%. Least of the respondents i.e. 24 people (26.09%) are from the occupational caste groups, which are
known as Dalits these days

       5.1.3 Educational status of the respondents:

                                                      Table-7
                                        Educational status of the respondents


                           Particular             No. of pullers              Percentage (%)
                  Literate                               31                        33.70
                  Illiterate                             61                        66.30
                             Total                       92                         100
                                      Source: Field Survey, 2003
                Table: 7 shows that 31 respondents i.e. 33.7% are literate and 61 respondents i.e. 66.30% are
illiterate.

         5.1.4 Marital status of the respondents:
                                                      Table-8
                                         Marital status of the respondents:

                              Marital status             No of pullers            Percentage (%)
                       Married                                75                      81.52
                       Unmarried                              17                      18.48
                       Total                                  92                        100
                                       Source: Field Survey, 2003
                       Table-8 shows that majority of rickshaw pullers are married and some of them are
unmarried. As the table shows 81.52% are married and 18.48% are unmarried. But, the unmarried are also
looking after their families.
       5.1.5 Number of family members of the respondents:

                                         There were altogether 555 family members found in the total
respondents house. Out of which 50.27% are female and 49.73% are male. Most of the pullers are found living
in the city in the rented house and looking after their wife and children. And, they also have to support to their
parents and other family members.

         5.1.6 Birth Place of the respondents:
                                                      Table-8
                                           Birth Place of the respondents
                                  Place                    No. of pullers             Percentage (%)
                        Within the city                         16                        17.39
                        Out of city                             47                        51.09
                        Out of the district                     29                        31.52
                                  Total                         92                         100
                       Source: Field Survey, 2003

                        From the study an attempt was made to known the birthplace of the respondents. It was
found that 17.39 percent pullers were born in the
        city, 51.09 percent pullers were born within the district but out of the city and 31.52 percent pullers were
born within the country but out of the Kailali district. The further description is shown above in the table-8. The
data of the table shows that, a large number of rickshaw pullers were from out of the city but within the district.


       5.1.7. Living place of the respondents:

                         From the researchers personal observation pullers from the nearby villages were visiting
the city daily to pull the rickshaw. But, they are loosing their time and money also.
                                                       Table-9
                                           Living place of the respondents

                                  Place                  No. of pullers               Percentage (%)
                             Living in the city                49                         64.47
                            Come from outside                  27                         35.53
                                  Total                        76                          100
                                      Source: Field Survey, 2003


                       Table-9 shows that 64.47 percent pullers are living in the city and 35.53 percent are
               coming from nearby villages as to pull the rickshaw daily. Out of the pullers who are from out of
               the city and district some of the pullers visiting from nearby villages, are living in the rented
               house in the villages.

       5.1.8 Educational status of the children of the respondents

                                                    Table-10
                                                 Child Education


                     Send to school             No. of pullers               Percentage (%)
               Yes                                   28                          30.44
               No                                    64                          69.56
                         Total                       92                           100
                                      Source: Field Survey, 2003

                 Table-10 shows that only 30.44 percent pullers send their children to school and 69.56 percent
pullers don‟t send their children to school.
       The data shows that the tendency of schooling of children among the pullers was the least. About one
third of the total pullers tended to send their children to school. On the question, why they did not send their
children to school or what were the cause for not schooling the children are categorized in the table no-11.
                                                   Table-11
                                               Cause for not schooling

                        Cause                  No. of pullers            Percentage (%)
              Domestic works                          6                         6.52
              Far distance                            5                         5.43
              Poor economic condition                65                        70.65
              Others                                 16                        17.40
                        Total                        92                         100
                                    Source: Field Survey, 2003
              Table-11 shows that mote than 70 percent pullers do not send their children to school because of
the poor economic condition and less 5 percent pullers do not send because of the far distance of the school.

       5.1.9 Health situation of the respondents:

                If a person is not healthy he/she cannot do any things for economic earnings. Health aid is very
essential part of human life. But, where he gets this facility depends on his knowledge and approach.

                                                     Table-12
                                                    Health Aid

                        Treatment Institutions          No of Pullers              Percentage (%)
                      Hospital                                7                         7.61
                      Health Post                             8                         8.70
                      Jadibuti (Herbal)                       3                         3.26
                      Hocus-Pocus (Dhami)                     8                         8.69
                      Hospital / Health post                  9                         9.78
                      Hospital / Hocus-pocus                 27                        29.35
                      Health post / Hocus-                   30                        32.61
                      pocus
                                Total                         92                         100
                      Source: Field Survey, 2003

                         Table-12 shows that among the total pullers, it was found that 7.61 percent pullers used
to visit to the hospital, 8.7 percent to health post, a least number of 3.26 percent to Jadibuti, 8.69 percent to
hocus-pocus only, 9.78 percent to both hospital and health post, 29.35 percent to both hospital and hocus-pocus
and a large no of 32.61 percent pullers visit to both the health post and hocus-post. Even now the process of
faith healing is being given priority. May be due to cheap expense have given first priority to the faith healing
and then to the medicinal treatment.

5.2. Economic status of respondents:

       5.2.1 Occupational background of the respondents:

              5.2.1.1. Previous Job: Most of the pullers do not start their career of employment by pulling
       rickshaw. Most of the pullers adopted this job only not getting the other job opportunities.

                                                           Table-13
                                                Previous job of the respondents
                             Previous Job                 No of pullers           Percentage (%)
                Farming (as Kamaiya)                           25                     27.17
                Industrial labour                              10                     10.87
                Daily wage labour                              16                     17.39
                Other (Mechanic, bus boy, hotel                30                     32.61
                boy etc)
                Non of them                                     11                     11.96
                Total                                           92                      100
                           Source: Field Survey, 2003

                                 Table-13 shows that 11.96 percent pullers started their job career by
 pulling rickshaw and remaining 88.04 percent pullers were found involved in different types of jobs.
 Economically, those who were very poor started to work from the adolescence, period. But the data
 shows that they did not come in this occupation directly. First, they give priority to the job because of
 difficulties and requirement of more physical power to pull the rickshaw than other job. But, after being
 failure to get proper job in the absence of knowledge and skills they adopted this occupation. It seems
 not an option but obligation. Among the total pullers 27.17 percent were involved as kamaiya (bonded
 labour) 10.87 percent as an industrial labour, 17.39 percent as daily wage labour and 32.61 percent as a
 maintenance mechanic, bus boy, hotel boy etc. before this job.
                                 Respondent‟s perceptions towards their own job, 81 pullers are not
 satisfied with their occupation but they were helpless. 11 pullers were satisfied with their occupation and
 they also say that the present fare rate is reasonable. But, majority i.e. 81 pullers are not satisfied with
 the present fare-rate. In the researchers personal observational also, the fare-rate of city is very low as
 compared with the fair-rate of the other cities. Most of the pullers thought that they get very small sum
 of money in return of very hard work.
                                 Among the total respondents 75 pullers wanted to give up this occupation
 if they get another job because of low fair-rate, bad behave of the passengers, being hard work etc. 17
 pullers do not want to leave this occupation because they think that they are getting the job in the near
 by town place. So, even being unsatisfied on unreasonable fare rate they are compelled to pull the
 rickshaw for their livelihoods.

5.2.1.1. Working period of the respondents:
                                                        Table-14
                                                      Working period


                                 Period (in years)               No of pullers          Percentage (%)
                             Less than 5                              35                    38.04
                         6 –10                                        17                    18.48
                         11-15                                        21                    22.83
                         16-20                                         9                     9.78
                         21-25                                         7                     7.61
                         26 and above                                  3                     3.26
                         Total                                        92                     100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                                        Table-14 shows that 38.04 percent pullers were pulling rickshaw
 from less than and equal to 5 years, 18.48 percent from 6-10 years, 22.83 percent from 11-15 years, 9.78
 percent from 16-20 years 7.61 percent from 21-25 years and 3.26 percent 26 years and above. A large
 majority of pullers are involved in this occupation from less than equal to 5 years.
                                   Table-14 shows that due to urbanization and population growth the
number to rickshaw pullers have increased. As the table shows 38.04 percent respondents adopted this
occupation for last five years.



                                                              Table-15
                                                  Working calendar of the respondents


                                   Description                  No of pullers          Percentage (%)
                        Regularly                                    78                    84.79
                        Leisure period                                8                     8.69
                        Occasionally                                  6                     6.52
                        Total                                        92                     100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                               Table-15 shows that 84.79 percent pullers were pulling rickshaw daily.
8.69 percent pullers were pulling in leisure time. Only 6.52 percent pullers are pulling rickshaw
occasionally. It was only the means of livelihood for those who are pulling daily. Those who were
pulling rickshaw in leisure time were engaged in other occupation also.

5.2.1.2 Behaviors of passengers towards respondents:

                        The question on how the passengers behave with you was put to the pullers. 35
pullers told that passengers have good behavior towards them. 10 pullers told about the bad fares, some
do not pay the whole fare and some had found rubbery behavior also. Rest of 47 pullers found average
type of behavior of passengers.
5.2.1.3 Working days of the respondents:

                                As it is known to all that, a puller has to pull maximum two passengers all
the day during his working time in a rickshaw. There is no doubt a puller must has to apply his physical
power all the day. So, it is reasonable if he feels tired and wants rest.

                                          Table-16
                            Monthly working days of the respondents

                                  Working days                  No of pullers          Percentage (%)
                        Less than 10                                  1                     1.09
                        11-15                                        20                    21.74
                        16-20                                        18                    19.56
                        21-25                                        21                    22.83
                        26-30                                        32                    34.78
                        Total                                        92                     100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                       Table-16 shows that 1.09 percent pullers were found working less than 10 days in
a month, 21.74 percent pullers were working less than 11-15 days, 19.56 percent pullers 16-20 days,
22.83 percent pullers 21-25 days and 34.78 percent pullers from 26-30 days in a month.
        Table shows that most of the pullers had adopted rickshaw pulling as a major occupation. As far
as it concerns to the working hours of the pullers, there are no any hard and fast timetable. But, the
pullers, who are taking rickshaw pulling as their livelihood means, starts pulling after taking their
breakfast.

                                          Table-17
                                Working hours of the respondents

                                       Hours                    No. of pullers          Percentage (%)
                         4-6                                         15                     16.30
                         6-8                                         20                     21.74
                         8-10                                        40                     43.48
                         10-12                                       17                     18.48
                         Total                                       92                      100
                          Source: Field Survey, 2003

                              Table-17 shows that, 16.30 percent pullers pulls rickshaw for 4-6 hours.
21.74 percent pulls were pulls for 6-8 hours. A large group of the pullers, i.e.43.48 percent were pulling
for 8-10 hours and 18.48 percent pullers pulls for 10-12 hours.

5.2.1.4 Ownership of the rickshaw

                      A new rickshaw costs about 8-12 thousand rupees. So, it is difficult to afford this
much cost to buy new rickshaw for them. Most of pullers take rickshaw in rent. They have to pay certain
amount of money to the rickshaw owner.

                                                            Table-18
                                                       Rickshaw ownership
                                 Ownership                   No. of pullers             Percentage (%)
                         Own                                       6                         6.52
                         Rental                                   86                        93.48
                         Total                                    92                         100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                       Table-18 shows that, a least no of pullers, i.e. 6.52 percent has their own
rickshaw. A large number of pullers i.e. 93.48 percent were pulling rented rickshaw. Due to the nature of
income of this occupation they cannot save that much amount of money to buy own rickshaw because
they earn daily and spend daily. So, it is difficult for them to save money.

                                            Table-19
                                Willingness to have own rickshaw
                                Willing to own             No. Of pullers               Percentage (%)
                         Willing                                56                          60.87
                         Unwilling                              36                          39.13
                                     Total                      92                           100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                       Table-19 shows that 60.87 percent pullers were willing to have own rickshaw.
And 39.13 percent pullers had unwillingness to have own rickshaw. As they felt it is more comfortable
to pull the rickshaw in rent than own rickshaw

5.2.2 Economic status of the rickshaw pullers:
       5.2.2.1 Daily income of the respondents

                       It is not sure that how much the pullers earn in a day. The earnings depends on the
time duration, they pull the rickshaw.

                                           Table-20
                       Daily income of respondents from rickshaw pulling

                               Income (Rs.) /Day              No. Of pullers         Percentage (%)
                        80-100                                      8                     8.70
                        101-120                                    17                    18.48
                        121-140                                    25                    27.17
                        141-160                                    40                    43.48
                        160 and above                               2                     2.17
                                      Total                        92                     100
                         Source: Field Survey, 2003

                              Table-20 shows that 8.70 percent pullers earning average Rs. 80-100 per
day. 18.48 percent earning Rs 101-120, 17.17 percent were earning Rs.121-140, 43.48 percent were
earning Rs 141-160 and least 2.17 percent were earning Rs. 161 and above. From this earnings the
pullers, who had taken rented rickshaw, have to pay Rs. 30 daily to the owners.

       5.2.2.2. Employment status of the respondent‟s household:

                               There were only 3 persons from respondent‟s family who was involved in
this occupation. Rest of the family member were not involved in this occupation. But some members of
respondent‟s family were involved in other occupation.

                                          Table-21
                      Employment situation of the respondent‟s households

                                Description               No. of households           Percentage (%)
                        Employed                                  15                      16.30
                        Unemployed                                77                      83.70
                                   Total                          92                       100
                        Source: Field Survey, 2003

                              According to the table-21, 16.30 percent puller‟s household member were
involved in other occupation and rest of 88.70 percent pullers household member were not involved in
other occupation. They all had depended on the income of respondent.

       5.2.2.3 Yearly income of the respondents including other source of incomes:
                            There were some pullers who do not earn alone in his household but also
some family member as they were involved in other occupation.

                                                  Table-22
                      Yearly Income of the respondents including other source of incomes

                           Income ( in thousand)            No. of pullers            Percentage (%)
                        10-20                                    14                       15.22
                        20-30                                    20                       21.74
                         30-40                                      30                        32.61
                         40-50                                      15                        16.30
                         50-60                                      13                        14.13
                                     Total                          92                         100
                          Source: Field Survey, 2003

                According to the table-22, 15.22 percent pullers had yearly income including other
sources of income found 10-20 thousand rupees, 21.74 percent had 20-30 thousand rupees, 32.61
percent had 30-40 thousand rupees, and 16.30 percent had 40-50 thousand rupees and least of 14.13
pullers had 50-60 thousand found. Here, according to data yearly average income of the puller is Rs.
30004. And yearly per capita income           Rs. 4975.79 or about US $ 69 in current exchange rate.
Where as according to the CBS-2001, per capita income in the national level is US $ 220. On the basis
of per capita income it can be imagined that the population of the pullers households are in great scarcity
and living below poverty line. Income from rickshaw pulling is hardly sufficient for their livelihood.



       5.2.2.4 Yearly expenditure of the respondents household:

                                            Table-23
                                 Yearly expenditure of households

                              Expenditure, Rs (in              No. of pullers            Percentage (%)
                                   thousand)
                         10-20                                        5                        5.43
                         20-30                                       15                       16.31
                         30-40                                       20                       21.74
                         40-50                                       30                       32.61
                         50-60                                       22                       23.91
                                     Total                           92                        100
                          Source: Field Survey, 2003

                         About the yearly expenditure of the pullers to nourish their family it was found
that only 5 pullers (i.e. 5.43 percent) had yearly expenditure of 10-20 thousand rupees. Likewise, 16.31
percent pullers had 20-30 thousand rupees of yearly expenditure, 21.74 percent pullers had 30-40
thousand rupees yearly expenditure, 32.61 percent pullers had 40-50 thousand rupees and 23.91 percent
pullers had 50-60 thousand rupees yearly expenditure. Table-23 shows that the yearly expenditure of
majority of pullers is Rs 40-50 thousand. Now, comparing income to the expenditure it is seen that
expenditure is a little bit greater than income. For the imbalance of income and expenditure, it can be
taken that generally a man is always conceals his income and shows a big expenditure than others.


        5.2.2.5 Yearly expenditure of needs:
                        A man needs a lot of things in his life, but in limited income at first he must give
priority to those things, which are very essential.

                                             Table-24
                                    Yearly expenditure of needs

                         Description                        Expenditures (Rs.)           Percentage (%)
                         Cloths                                 293250                        8.54
                         Festivals                                224250                      6.53
                         Treatment                                195250                      5.69
                         House rent                                58800                      1.71
                         Rice                                    1415880                     41.25
                         Pulse                                    341900                      9.96
                         Flour                                    125856                      3.67
                         Vegetables                               455400                     13.27
                         School expenses                           96550                      2.81
                         Alcohol                                  225125                      6.56
                                     Total                       3432261                      100
                          Source: Field Survey, 2003

                         According to the data, in case of pullers it was perceived that out of total
expenditure of basic things 8.54 percent was spent for clothing, 6.53 percent for festival celebration,
5.69 percent for treatment, 1.71 percent for house-rent, 41.25 percent for rice, 9.96 percent for pulse,
3.67 percent for flour, 13.27 percent for vegetable, 2.81 percent for school expenses and 6.56 percent for
alcohol.
                         According to the data, per head yearly expenditure of cloth is only Rs. 528. A
simple cotton cloth costs Rs 70 per meter. In this way they are still unable to get enough cloth where the
11-metre cloth is basic necessity yearly.
                         In the case of festivals, they do celebrate according to their capacity. This is the
time when they spend money comparatively little bit more to eat and drink. For the treatment most of
the pullers are still depended on faith healing. If the disease sounds not curable by faith healing then
only they take patient to the hospital and health post. Due to the lack of proper knowledge about
childcare, generally their children are caught by child-hood diseases. But the data show, per head yearly
expenditure on treatment is Rs.351.80 only, which is very least. So the condition of the health among the
pullers is not satisfactory.
                         There were 52 pullers, who were living temporarily in the study area and in the
nearby villages in the rented house. So the yearly average house rent is Rs. 1120.77 and monthly is Rs.
94.23. It means they are living in very congested and unhealthy rooms. In the researcher‟s personal
observation, there where at least four person living in a single room.
        The very small sum of income is spent for the education than other expenditure. Which is only
2.81 percent of total expenditures. The data show, only 24.67 percent pullers send their children to
school. Yearly average expenditure is Rs. 3448.21 and monthly average expenditure is Rs. 287.35. On
this much expenditure it is very difficult to maintain the entire educational requirement such as; books,
copy, pen, exam fee, Tiffin, school uniform etc. That‟s why most of the pullers were found not able to
send their children to school.
        A big amount of money was spent in alcohol i.e. 6.56 percent and 225125 rupees. Which is more
than two times of the expenditure on
education. In this use of alcohol the pullers said that they feel relief both physically and mentally
drinking alcohol at the evening after pulling rickshaw all the day.


       5.2.2.6 Yearly consumption and expenditure of foodstuff:

                                          Table-25
                            Consumption and expenditure of foodstuff

                     Description       Total             Consumption/head Cost/kg              Total cost
                                       consumption          (Daily)       (Rs.)                Rs.
                                       Yearly (Kg)
                      Rice                94392             466g                    15         1415880
                      Pulse               9768.5            48g                     35         341900
                      Flour                8116             95g                     16         129856
                      Vegetable           30360             150g                    15         455400
                      Total              172996.5           759g                               2343036
                       Source: Field Survey, 2003

                         According to the table-24, it is seen that 68.15 percent of the total expenditure is
 done on foodstuff, such as rice, pulse, flour and vegetables.
                 A very big sum of income is spent for foodstuff, in another word what ever is earned, is
 only enough to eat food to survive. Yearly, rice 94392 kg cost Rs. 1415880, pulse 9768.5 Kg cost Rs
 341900, flour 8116 kg cost Rs.129856 and vegetable 30360 Kg. Cost Rs 455400 are consumed by the
 total number of pullers households. Here average per kg cost of vegetables is taken Rs 15, because
 generally the pullers were found not tend to eat expensive vegetable due to unaffordable by their income
 and most of the pullers were non-vegetarian but such expenditure has not been calculated within the
 expenditure of foodstuff. According to the data daily per head consumption of foodstuff are rice 466
 gram, pulse 48 gram, flour 95 gram and vegetable 150 gram. A man needs 2256 calorie for a day and
 this calorie can be obtained from 605-gram cereals and 60-gram pulses. In this way it is seen that the
 population of pullers households are only able to get just required calorie.
                         According to the table-22, the average yearly income of the pullers is Rs. 30004.
 But, here average expenditure of foodstuff is Rs. 25467.
                 In the condition of such limited income any other things cannot be managed to make life
 comfortable except eating.

5.2.2.7 The Range and purpose for loan:
                          The loan was found as an indispensable part of the respondent‟s life. As they
  earned daily and bore the expanse, so generally in the case of extra expenditure out of daily basic needs
  they has to take lone to solve it. Because none of them had bank account as they cannot save money
  from their earning to deposit in the bank. Even a very small sum of money had to taken as loan. At the
  time of data collection 62 pullers (67.39%) had taken loan rest 30 pullers (32.61%) had not taken loan at
  the time of data collection.

                                              Table-27
                                            Range of loan


                                     Range (Rs.)                   No. of pullers        Percentage (%)
                          Less than 1000                                18                   29.03
                          1000-2000                                     13                   20.97
                          2000-3000                                      9                   14.52
                          3000-4000                                     12                   19.35
                          4000-5000                                      6                    9.68
                          More than 5000                                 4                    6.45
                                        Total                           64                    100
                           Source: Field Survey, 2003


                       About the range of loan 29.03 percent pullers had taken less than one thousand
 rupees. 20.97 percent had Rs.1000-2000, 14.52 percent had Rs 2000-3000, 19.35 percent had Rs. 3000-
 4000, 9.68 percent had Rs. 4000-5000 and least of 6.45 percent had more than 5000 rupees as a loan.
                                                     Table-28
                                                  Purpose for loan

                               Purpose                    No. of pullers                   Percent
                     Rickshaw buying                            2                            3.23
                     Cloth                                      3                            4.84
                     Food                                      11                           17.74
                     Marriage                                  12                           19.35
                     Festivals                                  6                            9.68
                     Treatment                                 20                           32.26
                     Others                                     8                           12.90
                                Total                          62                            100
                                             Source: Field Survey-2003

                 As far loan concerns to the purpose, majority i.e. 32.26 percent pullers had taken for
treatment. Because disease and treatment are not pre planned phenomena. Nobody knows when a
disease will catch him. When a member of pullers households fall in sick, they must take loan for the
treatment as they remain always-empty pocket for extra expenditure. Secondly, marriage is a very
important event of human life in which 19.35 percent pullers had taken loan. In this occasion at least a
feast is held an some new things and gifts are bought. So every body needs some money for marriage
ceremony. But due to the failure to manage from their income they must take loan the range of loan for
this purpose is greater than others generally. Like wise 3.23 percent pullers had taken loan for rickshaw
buying, 4.84 percent for cloths, 17.74 percent for other purposes like to buy goat, to repair house, to visit
to relatives, to drink liquor and sometimes in funeral rites.
                 About the sources of loan it was found that most of the pullers were tended to take loan
from Sahu-Mahajan than from banks. As told by them, banking loan system is very complicated and not
easily available, and they do not have any things to keep in the bank as mortgage for the loan. But from
Sahu-Mahajan they can get loan easily without any mortgage.

       5.2.2.8. Owing land by the respondents:
                                                      As it has already described that the most of the
pullers belong to a poor family background, either they are from the study area or out of the study area.
According to data only one puller had land within the city, only 0.03351 hectare and he did not have any
income from that land.
                On the other hand according to table-8 there were 76 pullers from outside of the study
area. But according to the data in table-29 shows that only 27.17 percent pullers hold land out of the
total outsiders. They hold total 3.5398-hectare land. Which is not enough for their survival.

                                                     Table-29

                                              Owning land out of city

                Hold                     Area                   Do not hold            Total
                25                       3.5398                 67                     92
                27.17                                           72.83

               Source: Field survey- 2003.

				
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