Prometheus as “culture hero” deception sacrifice punishment fire/technology woman/Pandora old age citizenship Hesiod, Theogony 521-34 And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew  as much again as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the valiant son of shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetus from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction — not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high,  that the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honored his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos. Sacrifice Theogony  For when the gods and mortal men were coming to a settlement at Mecone, at that time Prometheus put forward a great ox and set portions before them, trying to deceive the mind of Zeus. Before him he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide, covering them with an ox stomach;  but for them he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods said to him: “Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!”  WD 48 Prometheus the crafty deceived him; So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his cunning trick: “Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take which ever of these portions your heart within you bids.”  So he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to his spirit  when he saw the white ox-bones craftily tricked out: and because of this the tribes of men upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed and said to him: “Son of Iapetus, clever above all!  So, sir, you have not yet forgotten your cunning arts!” Th Fire WD So spoke Zeus in anger, whose For the gods keep hidden from wisdom is everlasting; and from men the means of life. Else you that time he was always mindful of would easily do work enough in the trick, and would not give the a day to supply you for a full power of unwearying fire to the year even without working; ash trees for the race of mortal  soon would you put away men who live on the earth.  your rudder over the smoke, But the noble son of Iapetus and the fields worked by ox and outwitted him and stole the far- sturdy mule would run to waste. seen gleam of unwearying fire in a But Zeus in the anger of his hollow fennel stalk. heart hid it, PB I hunted out and stored in fennel stalk the stolen  source of fire that has proved a teacher to mortals in every art and a means to mighty ends. Th Zeus’ Revenge WD And Zeus who thunders on high  He hid fire; but that the noble son of was stung in spirit, and his dear Iapetus stole again for men from Zeus the heart was angered when he counselor in a hollow fennel-stalk, so that Zeus who delights in thunder did not see saw among men the far-seen it. But afterwards Zeus who gathers the ray of fire.  Forthwith he clouds said to him in anger: made an evil thing for men as “Son of Iapetus, surpassing all in the price of fire; for the very cunning,  you are glad that you have famous Limping God formed of outwitted me and stolen fire — a great earth the likeness of a shy plague to you yourself and to men that maiden as the son of Cronos shall be. But I will give men as the price willed. for fire an evil thing in which they may all be glad of heart while they embrace their own destruction.” Th Woman/Pandora WD And as in thatched hives bees  feed  And he bade famous the drones whose nature is to do mischief Hephaestus make haste and mix — by day and throughout the day until the earth with water and to put in it the sun goes down the bees are busy and lay voice and strength of human kind, the white combs, while the drones stay at and fashion a sweet, lovely home in the covered hives and reap the maiden-shape, like to the immortal toil of others into their own bellies — goddesses in face.  even so Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal  And he called this woman men, with a nature to do evil. Pandora, because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread. Th Epimetheus WD  also she bore very But when he had finished the glorious Menoetius and clever sheer, hopeless snare, the Prometheus, full of various Father sent glorious Argus- wiles, and scatter-brained Slayer,  the swift messenger Epimetheus who from the first of the gods, to take it to was a mischief to men who eat Epimetheus as a gift. And bread; for it was he who first Epimetheus did not think on took of Zeus the woman, the what Prometheus had said to maiden whom he had formed. him, bidding him never take a gift of Olympian Zeus, but to send it back for fear it might prove to be something harmful to men. Th Old Age/Jar WD And he gave them a second evil to be  For before this the tribes of men lived the price for the good they had: on earth remote and free from ills and hard whoever avoids marriage and the toil and heavy sicknesses which bring the sorrows that women cause, and will not Fates upon men; for in misery men grow old wed, reaches deadly old age  quickly. But the woman took off the great without anyone to tend his years, and lid of the jar with her hands  and though he at least has no lack of scattered, all these and her thought caused livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is sorrow and mischief to men. Only Hope dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions remained there in an unbreakable home amongst them. And as for the man who within under the rim of the great jar, and did chooses the lot of marriage and takes a not fly out at the door; for before that, the lid good wife suited to his mind, evil of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis- continually contends with good;  for holding Zeus who gathers the clouds. whoever happens to have mischievous children, lives always with unceasing grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this evil cannot be healed. Agents Prometheus Zeus metis, techne metis of sovereign father master Man Prometheus & Zeus & Olympians Epimetheus Actions - Duel of Deception Theogony Works and Days men & gods united men & gods separated Prometheus prepares Zeus prepares gift sacrifice Zeus does not give fire Zeus hides fire Parallels food fire hidden food needs labour new fire must be fed men born from earth new men born from women Sacrifice, thusia gift, trap, gaster Pandora Defining Relationships gods humans beasts thusia cooked meat omophagy ambrosia allelophagy techne marriage Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound trilogy of tragedies (pity and fear) Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Freed, Prometheus the Fire-Carrier not a son of Iapetus & Klymene but of Themis/Gaia 1-396 Prometheus and the gods 397-886 Prometheus, Zeus and Humans 887- end Prometheus and Zeus tyranny/freedom, compulsion-torture, citizenship, For your own flower, flashing fire, source of all arts, he has purloined and bestowed upon mortal creatures. Such is his offence (hamartia); for this he is bound to make requital to the gods,  so that he may learn to bear with the sovereignty (tyranny) of Zeus and cease his man- loving ways. QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture. 36 Well, why delay and excite pity in vain? Why do you not detest a god most hateful to the gods, since he has betrayed your prerogative to mortals? Every job is troublesome except to be the commander of gods;  no one is free except Zeus. I see, Prometheus;  and over my eyes a mist of tears and fear spread as I saw your body withering ignominiously upon this rock in these bonds of adamant. For there are new rulers in heaven, and Zeus governs lawlessly with  new laws; that which was mighty before he now brings to nothing. With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel that the cavernous gloom of Tartarus now hides ancient Cronus and his allies within it. 219-22 Thus I helped the tyrant of the gods  and with this foul payment he has responded; for it is a disease that is somehow inherent in tyranny to have no faith in friends.  As soon as he had seated himself upon his father's throne, he immediately assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper powers. But of wretched mortals he took no notice, desiring to bring  the whole race to an end and create a new one in its place. Against this purpose none dared make stand except me — I only had the courage; I saved mortals so that they did not descend, blasted utterly, to the house of Hades. Ocean I see, Prometheus; and I want to give you  the best advice, although you yourself are wily. Learn to know yourself and adapt yourself to new ways; for new also is the ruler among the gods. If you hurl forth words so harsh and of such whetted edge, perhaps Zeus may hear you,  though throned far off, high in the heavens, and then your present multitude of sorrows shall seem but childish sport. Typho 355 Hear the sum of the whole matter in the compass of one brief word — every art possessed by man comes from Prometheus. 505-6 Chorus  Who then is the helmsman of Necessity? Prometheus The three-shaped Fates and mindful Furies. Chorus Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do? Prometheus Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold. Does it not seem to you that the tyrant of the gods is violent in all his ways? For this god, desirous of union with this mortal maid, has imposed upon her these wanderings. Maiden, you have gained a cruel suitor  for your hand. As to the tale you now have heard — understand that it has not even passed the introduction. Prometheus He shall make a marriage that shall one day cause him distress. Io  With a divinity or with a mortal? If it may be told, speak out. Prometheus Why ask with whom? I may not speak of this. Io Is it by his consort that he shall be dethroned? PrometheusYes, since she shall bear a son mightier than his father. Danaids Fifth in descent from Epaphus, fifty maidens shall return to Argos, not of their own  free choice, but fleeing marriage with their cousin kin; while these, their hearts ablaze with passion, like falcons eagerly pursuing doves, shall come in pursuit of wedlock unlawful to pursue; but God shall grudge them enjoyment of their brides.  Pelasgian soil shall offer the maids a home, when, in the watches of the night, their husbands have been slain by a deed of daring wrought by the women's murderous blows. For each bride shall take the life of her lord, dyeing a two-edged sword in his blood — in such ways may Love come upon my enemies!  However, love's desire shall charm one of the maidens not to slay her mate; rather, her resolve will lose its edge; for she will make her choice between two evil names to be called coward rather than murderess. She it is who shall give birth in Argos to a royal line —  a long story is necessary to explain this clearly; of her seed, however, shall be born a man of daring, renowned with the bow, who shall deliver me from these toils. QuickTime™ an d a In vain you trouble me, as though it were a TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r wave you try to persuade. Never think that, are need ed to see this picture. through terror at the will of Zeus, I shall become womanish and, with hands upturned, aping woman's ways,  shall importune my greatly hated enemy to release me from these bonds. I am far, far from that. basanos- torture Protagoras’ story (mythos; Plato, Protagoras 320d-) • Prometheus and Epimetheus • Technical wisdom with fire 321d Now although man acquired in this way the wisdom of daily life, civic wisdom he had not, since this was in the possession of Zeus;vs. political wisdom 322c Zeus, fearing that our race was in danger of utter destruction, sent Hermes to bring respect and right among men, to the end that there should be regulation of cities and friendly ties to draw them together. • Hermes brings justice (dikê) and shame (aidôs) 322c to all humans Ovid, Metamorphoses 3, the stories of Cadmus, Diana and Actaeon, Semele and the Birth of Bacchus, Tiresias, and Pentheus and Bacchus Actaeon 3.230 “I am Actaeon, look, I am your master.Words failed his will; their baying filled the sky. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. Semele 3.320 Then her mortal frame could not endure the tumult of the heavens; that gift of love consumed her. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r are neede d to see this picture. Tiresias Pentheus Acoetes 577 3. 720 With no hands left to stretch out to his mother, “look, mother,” he cried, and showed the severed stumps. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. The roles of the three actors (hypokritai) in Euripides’ Bacchae. Prologue 1-63 1 Dionysus Parodos 64-169 Episode one 170-369 1 Teiresias, 2 Pentheus, 3 Cadmus Stasimon one 370-433 strophe, antistrophe, epode Episode two 434-518 1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Attendant Stasimon two 519-575 Episode three 576-861 1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Messenger Stasimon three 862-911 Episode four 912-976 1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus Stasimon 977-1023 Episode five 1024-1152 3 Messenger Stasimon five 1153-1164 1 Dionysus, 2 Agave, 3 Cadmus Exodos 1165-end NB The Coryphaeus is a solo singer in the Chorus. Dionysus I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans — Dionysus, whom once Semele, Kadmos' daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame. And having taken a mortal form instead of a god's,  I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remnants of her house, smoldering with the still living flame of Zeus' fire, the everlasting insult (hubris) of Hera against my mother.  I praise Kadmos, who has made this place hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.  and I have come to this Hellenic city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my rites there, so that I might be a deity (daimon) manifest among men. In this land of Hellas, I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and  taking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother's sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin (hamartia) of her bed to Zeus,  a trick of Kadmos', for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my orgies.  And all the female offspring of Thebes, as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling,  that it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the defense (apologia) of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter's son,  who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from poured sacrifices (spondai), and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god (theos).  If ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the Bacchae down from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered my shape into the nature of a man. [62-3] I myself will go to the folds of Kithairon, where the Bacchae are, to share in their dances. Female-shaped 353 112 sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi. (hybris) QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r are need ed to see this picture . QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (LZW) decomp ressor are need ed to see this p icture . hubris 779 Already like fire does this insolence (hubris) of the Bacchae blaze up, a great reproach for the Hellenes. 1297 He was insulted with insolence, for you did not consider him a god. Dionysus 1347-9 Yes, for I, a god by birth, was insulted by you. Kadmos Gods should not resemble mortals in their anger. Dionysus My father Zeus approved this long ago. How justly, yet excessively,  lord Bromius the god has destroyed us, though he is a member of our own family. Rhea - Kybele Blessed is he who, being fortunate and knowing the rites of the gods, keeps his life pure and  has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications (katharmos), and who, revering the orgies of great mother Kybele,  brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.  O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this circle,  covered with stretched hide; and in their excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae; Cadmus  Who is at the gates? Call from the house Kadmos, son of Agenor, who leaving the city of Sidon built this towering city of the Thebans. Oh house once fortunate in Hellas,  house of the Sidonian old man who once sowed in the ground the earth-born harvest of the serpent snake. 1274 You gave me, as they say, to Echion, the sown man. 1314-15 But now I, great Kadmos, who sowed and reaped  a most glorious crop, the Theban people, will be banished from the house without honor. Still it is foretold that I shall bring into Hellas a motley barbarian army. Leading their spears, I, having the fierce nature of a serpent, will bring my wife Harmonia, daughter of Ares, to the altars and tombs of Hellas.  I will neither rest from my troubles in my misery, nor will I sail over the downward flowing Acheron and be at peace.  I saw three companies of dancing women, one of which Autonoe led, the second your mother Agave, and the third Ino. 1291 Where formerly dogs divided Actaeon among themselves. You see the wretched fate of Actaeon, who was torn apart in the meadows by the blood- thirsty hounds he had raised,  having boasted that he was superior in the hunt to Artemis. Teiresias  You persuaded him to this, Teiresias. Do you wish, by introducing another new god to men, to examine birds and receive rewards for sacrifices? If your gray old age did not defend you, you would sit in chains in the midst of the Bacchae,  for introducing wicked rites. auspices - aves specio For two things, young man,  are first among men: the goddess Demeter — she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it  to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief. Dionysus will not compel women  to be modest in regard to Aphrodite, but in nature [modesty dwells always] you must look for that. For she who is modest will not be corrupted in Bacchic revelry. Pentheus 508 You are well-suited to be miserable in your name. What rage, what rage does the earth-born race show, and Pentheus,  once descended from a serpent — Pentheus, whom earth-born Echion bore, a fierce monster, not a mortal man, but like a bloody giant, hostile to the gods. O grief (penthos) beyond measuring, one which I cannot stand to see,  that you have performed murder with miserable hands. I hear that mixing-bowls stand full in the midst of their assemblies, and that they each creep off different ways into secrecy to serve the beds of men, on the pretext that they are Maenads worshipping;  but they consider Aphrodite before Bacchus. And they say that some stranger has come, a sorcerer, a conjuror from the Lydian land,  fragrant in hair with golden curls, having in his eyes the wine-dark graces of Aphrodite. He is with the young girls day and night, alluring them with joyful rites. But your body is not ill-formed, stranger, for women's purposes, for which reason you have come to Thebes.  For your hair is long, not through wrestling, scattered over your cheeks, full of desire; and you have a white skin from careful preparation, hunting after Aphrodite by your beauty not exposed to strokes of the sun, but beneath the shade.  First then tell me who your family is.  Why do you bring these rites to Hellas? Dionysus Dionysus, the child of Zeus, sent me. Pentheus Is there a Zeus who breeds new gods there?  Seeing me just as I saw him, he gave me sacred rites. Dionysus  Tell me what I must suffer; what harm will you do to me? Dionysus  Even now he see my sufferings from close by. Pentheus Where is he? He is not visible to my eyes. Dionysus Near me; but you, being impious, do not see him.  Dionysus, who you claim does not exist, will pursue you for these insults. For in injuring us, you put him in bonds. 592 Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. I have suffered terrible things; the stranger, who was recently constrained in bonds, has escaped me. Ah!  Here is the man. What is this? How do you appear in front of my house, having come out? We fled and escaped  from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they, with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows.  You would see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground,  dragged down by countless young hands. The garment of flesh was torn apart faster then you could blink your royal eyes.  What is this? Shall I then, instead of a man, be reckoned among the women? Women, the man is caught in our net. He will go to the Bacchae, where he will pay the penalty with his death. Dionysus, now it is your job; for you are not far off.  Let us punish him. First drive him out of his wits, send upon him a dizzying madness, since if he is of sound mind he will not consent to wear women's clothing, but driven out of his senses he will put it on. I want him to be a source of laughter to the Thebans, led through the city in  women's guise after making such terrible threats in the past. . . . He will recognize the son of Zeus,  Dionysus, who has been born in station most terrible and yet is most mild to men. Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes, the seven-gated city.  And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast? For you have certainly now become a bull. You alone bear the burden for this city, you alone. Therefore the labors which are proper await you.  Follow me. I am your saving guide: another will lead you down from there. [972-3] You are terrible, terrible, and you go to terrible sufferings, so that you will find a renown reaching to heaven. deinos  . . . changing your form, you will become a dragon, and your wife, Harmonia, Ares' daughter, whom you though mortal held in marriage, will be turned into a beast, and will receive in exchange the form of a serpent. And as the oracle of Zeus says, you will drive along with your wife a chariot of heifers, ruling over barbarians.  You will sack many cities with a force of countless numbers. And when they plunder the oracle of Apollo, they will have a miserable return, but Ares will protect you and Harmonia and will settle your life in the land of the blessed.
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