29 The Power of the Gods - powerpoint Presentation by wuxiangyu


									Prometheus as “culture hero”
     old age
Hesiod, Theogony 521-34

And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds,
cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him
a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by
night the liver grew [525] as much again as the long-winged bird
devoured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the valiant son of
shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetus
from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction — not
without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high, [530] that
the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it
was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and
honored his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from
the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched
himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos.

Theogony [535] For when the gods and mortal men were coming
to a settlement at Mecone, at that time Prometheus put forward a
great ox and set portions before them, trying to deceive the mind
of Zeus. Before him he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat
upon the hide, covering them with an ox stomach; [540] but for
them he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and
covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods
said to him:
   “Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly
you have divided the portions!” [545]

WD 48 Prometheus the crafty deceived him;
So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily
Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his
cunning trick:
   “Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take
which ever of these portions your heart within you bids.” [550] So
he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting,
saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he
thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be
fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry
at heart, and wrath came to his spirit [555] when he saw the white
ox-bones craftily tricked out: and because of this the tribes of men
upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant
altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed and said
to him:
   “Son of Iapetus, clever above all! [560] So, sir, you have not yet
forgotten your cunning arts!”
                  Th                 Fire                  WD
  So spoke Zeus in anger, whose               For the gods keep hidden from
  wisdom is everlasting; and from             men the means of life. Else you
  that time he was always mindful of          would easily do work enough in
  the trick, and would not give the           a day to supply you for a full
  power of unwearying fire to the             year even without working;
  ash trees for the race of mortal            [45] soon would you put away
  men who live on the earth. [565]            your rudder over the smoke,
  But the noble son of Iapetus                and the fields worked by ox and
  outwitted him and stole the far-            sturdy mule would run to waste.
  seen gleam of unwearying fire in a          But Zeus in the anger of his
  hollow fennel stalk.                        heart hid it,

PB I hunted out and stored in fennel stalk the stolen [110] source of fire that has
proved a teacher to mortals in every art and a means to mighty ends.
             Th                Zeus’ Revenge
And Zeus who thunders on high        [50] He hid fire; but that the noble son of
was stung in spirit, and his dear   Iapetus stole again for men from Zeus the
heart was angered when he           counselor in a hollow fennel-stalk, so that
                                    Zeus who delights in thunder did not see
saw among men the far-seen
                                    it. But afterwards Zeus who gathers the
ray of fire. [570] Forthwith he
                                    clouds said to him in anger:
made an evil thing for men as
                                        “Son of Iapetus, surpassing all in
the price of fire; for the very     cunning, [55] you are glad that you have
famous Limping God formed of        outwitted me and stolen fire — a great
earth the likeness of a shy         plague to you yourself and to men that
maiden as the son of Cronos         shall be. But I will give men as the price
willed.                             for fire an evil thing in which they may all
                                    be glad of heart while they embrace their
                                    own destruction.”
              Th                Woman/Pandora
And as in thatched hives bees [595] feed    [60] And he bade famous
the drones whose nature is to do mischief   Hephaestus make haste and mix
— by day and throughout the day until the   earth with water and to put in it the
sun goes down the bees are busy and lay     voice and strength of human kind,
the white combs, while the drones stay at   and fashion a sweet, lovely
home in the covered hives and reap the      maiden-shape, like to the immortal
toil of others into their own bellies —     goddesses in face.
[600] even so Zeus who thunders on high
made women to be an evil to mortal          [81] And he called this woman
men, with a nature to do evil.              Pandora, because all they who
                                            dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift,
                                            a plague to men who eat bread.
    Th              Epimetheus                          WD

 [510] also she bore very        But when he had finished the
glorious Menoetius and clever    sheer, hopeless snare, the
Prometheus, full of various      Father sent glorious Argus-
wiles, and scatter-brained       Slayer, [85] the swift messenger
Epimetheus who from the first    of the gods, to take it to
was a mischief to men who eat    Epimetheus as a gift. And
bread; for it was he who first   Epimetheus did not think on
took of Zeus the woman, the      what Prometheus had said to
maiden whom he had formed.       him, bidding him never take a
                                 gift of Olympian Zeus, but to
                                 send it back for fear it might
                                 prove to be something harmful
                                 to men.
            Th                 Old Age/Jar                                 WD
And he gave them a second evil to be         [90] For before this the tribes of men lived
the price for the good they had:             on earth remote and free from ills and hard
whoever avoids marriage and the              toil and heavy sicknesses which bring the
sorrows that women cause, and will not       Fates upon men; for in misery men grow old
wed, reaches deadly old age [605]            quickly. But the woman took off the great
without anyone to tend his years, and        lid of the jar with her hands [95] and
though he at least has no lack of            scattered, all these and her thought caused
livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is   sorrow and mischief to men. Only Hope
dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions    remained there in an unbreakable home
amongst them. And as for the man who         within under the rim of the great jar, and did
chooses the lot of marriage and takes a      not fly out at the door; for before that, the lid
good wife suited to his mind, evil           of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis-
continually contends with good; [610] for    holding Zeus who gathers the clouds.
whoever happens to have mischievous
children, lives always with unceasing
grief in his spirit and heart within him;
and this evil cannot be healed.
Prometheus                 Zeus
metis, techne       metis of sovereign

Prometheus &        Zeus & Olympians
  Actions - Duel of Deception
     Theogony               Works and Days
  men & gods united       men & gods separated

Prometheus prepares        Zeus prepares gift

Zeus does not give fire      Zeus hides fire
food                       fire
hidden food needs labour   new fire must be fed

men born from earth        new men born from
Sacrifice, thusia
  gift, trap, gaster       Pandora
  Defining Relationships

 gods        humans        beasts

 thusia    cooked meat    omophagy
ambrosia                 allelophagy
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound
trilogy of tragedies (pity and fear)
Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Freed, Prometheus the Fire-Carrier

not a son of Iapetus & Klymene but of Themis/Gaia

1-396            Prometheus and the gods
397-886          Prometheus, Zeus and Humans
887- end         Prometheus and Zeus

tyranny/freedom, compulsion-torture, citizenship,
For your own flower, flashing fire, source
 of all arts, he has purloined and bestowed
upon mortal creatures. Such is his offence
  (hamartia); for this he is bound to make
  requital to the gods, [10] so that he may
      learn to bear with the sovereignty
    (tyranny) of Zeus and cease his man-
                  loving ways.                       QuickTime™ an d a
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 36 Well, why delay and excite pity in
vain? Why do you not detest a god most
hateful to the gods, since he has betrayed
      your prerogative to mortals?

Every job is troublesome except to be the
commander of gods; [50] no one is free
               except Zeus.
I see, Prometheus; [145] and over my eyes a mist of tears and fear spread as I saw your
body withering ignominiously upon this rock in these bonds of adamant. For there are
new rulers in heaven, and Zeus governs lawlessly with [150] new laws; that which was
mighty before he now brings to nothing.

With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place
myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel
that the cavernous gloom of Tartarus now hides ancient Cronus and his allies within it.

Thus I helped the tyrant of the gods [225] and with this foul payment he has responded;
for it is a disease that is somehow inherent in tyranny to have no faith in friends.

 [230] As soon as he had seated himself upon his father's throne, he immediately
assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper
powers. But of wretched mortals he took no notice, desiring to bring [235] the whole
race to an end and create a new one in its place. Against this purpose none dared
make stand except me — I only had the courage; I saved mortals so that they did not
descend, blasted utterly, to the house of Hades.
I see, Prometheus; and I want to give you [310] the best advice, although you yourself
are wily. Learn to know yourself and adapt yourself to new ways; for new also is the
ruler among the gods. If you hurl forth words so harsh and of such whetted edge,
perhaps Zeus may hear you, [315] though throned far off, high in the heavens, and then
your present multitude of sorrows shall seem but childish sport.

Typho 355

Hear the sum of the whole matter in the compass of one brief word — every art
possessed by man comes from Prometheus.             505-6

Chorus [515] Who then is the helmsman of Necessity?
Prometheus The three-shaped Fates and mindful Furies.
Chorus Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do?
Prometheus Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold.

Does it not seem to you that the tyrant of the gods is violent in all his ways? For this
god, desirous of union with this mortal maid, has imposed upon her these wanderings.
Maiden, you have gained a cruel suitor [740] for your hand. As to the tale you now
have heard — understand that it has not even passed the introduction.
Prometheus He shall make a marriage that shall one day cause him distress.
Io [765] With a divinity or with a mortal? If it may be told, speak out.
Prometheus Why ask with whom? I may not speak of this.
Io Is it by his consort that he shall be dethroned?
PrometheusYes, since she shall bear a son mightier than his father.

 Fifth in descent from Epaphus, fifty maidens shall return to Argos, not of their own
[855] free choice, but fleeing marriage with their cousin kin; while these, their hearts
ablaze with passion, like falcons eagerly pursuing doves, shall come in pursuit of
wedlock unlawful to pursue; but God shall grudge them enjoyment of their brides.
[860] Pelasgian soil shall offer the maids a home, when, in the watches of the night,
their husbands have been slain by a deed of daring wrought by the women's
murderous blows. For each bride shall take the life of her lord, dyeing a two-edged
sword in his blood — in such ways may Love come upon my enemies! [865]
However, love's desire shall charm one of the maidens not to slay her mate; rather,
her resolve will lose its edge; for she will make her choice between two evil names to
be called coward rather than murderess. She it is who shall give birth in Argos to a
royal line — [870] a long story is necessary to explain this clearly; of her seed,
however, shall be born a man of daring, renowned with the bow, who shall deliver
me from these toils.
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through terror at the will of Zeus, I shall
     become womanish and, with hands
upturned, aping woman's ways, [1005] shall
    importune my greatly hated enemy to
 release me from these bonds. I am far, far
                 from that.

             basanos- torture
         Protagoras’ story (mythos; Plato, Protagoras 320d-)

• Prometheus and Epimetheus
• Technical wisdom with fire 321d Now although man acquired in
  this way the wisdom of daily life, civic wisdom he had not, since this
  was in the possession of Zeus;vs. political wisdom 322c Zeus,
  fearing that our race was in danger of utter destruction, sent
  Hermes to bring respect and right among men, to the end that there
  should be regulation of cities and friendly ties to draw them
• Hermes brings justice (dikê) and shame (aidôs) 322c to all humans
Ovid, Metamorphoses 3, the stories of Cadmus, Diana and Actaeon, Semele and the Birth of
                     Bacchus, Tiresias, and Pentheus and Bacchus
3.230 “I am Actaeon, look, I am your master.Words failed his will;
their baying filled the sky.

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3.320 Then her mortal frame could not endure the tumult of the
heavens; that gift of love consumed her.

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Pentheus Acoetes 577
3. 720 With no hands left to stretch out to his mother, “look,
mother,” he cried, and showed the severed stumps.

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The roles of the three actors (hypokritai) in Euripides’ Bacchae.

Prologue 1-63 1 Dionysus
Parodos 64-169
Episode one 170-369      1 Teiresias, 2 Pentheus, 3 Cadmus
Stasimon one 370-433     strophe, antistrophe, epode
Episode two 434-518      1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Attendant
Stasimon two 519-575
Episode three 576-861 1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Messenger
Stasimon three 862-911
Episode four 912-976 1 Dionysus, 2 Pentheus
Stasimon 977-1023
Episode five 1024-1152 3 Messenger
Stasimon five 1153-1164 1 Dionysus, 2 Agave, 3 Cadmus
Exodos 1165-end

NB The Coryphaeus is a solo singer in the Chorus.
 I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans — Dionysus, whom
once Semele, Kadmos' daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame.
   And having taken a mortal form instead of a god's, [5] I am here at the
     fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my
thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remnants of her house,
smoldering with the still living flame of Zeus' fire, the everlasting insult (hubris)
 of Hera against my mother. [10] I praise Kadmos, who has made this place
 hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the
                          cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.
    [20] and I have come to this Hellenic city first, having already set those
 other lands to dance and established my rites there, so that I might be a deity
     (daimon) manifest among men. In this land of Hellas, I have first excited
 Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and [25] taking a thyrsos in
my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother's sisters, the ones who least should,
     claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had
 conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin (hamartia) of
   her bed to Zeus, [30] a trick of Kadmos', for which they boasted that Zeus
  killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I
have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains,
  out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my orgies.
 [35] And all the female offspring of Thebes, as many as are women, I have
   driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of
  Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn,
even if it is unwilling, [40] that it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that
I plead the defense (apologia) of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to
                   mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus.
 Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter's son,
[45] who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away
from poured sacrifices (spondai), and in his prayers makes no mention of me,
  for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god (theos).

 [51] If ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the Bacchae down
from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with
them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered
                          my shape into the nature of a man.

[62-3] I myself
will go to the
folds of
Kithairon, where
the Bacchae are,
to share in their
Female-shaped 353

112 sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi. (hybris)

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779 Already like fire does this insolence (hubris) of the Bacchae blaze up, a
                       great reproach for the Hellenes.

 1297 He was insulted with insolence, for you did not consider him a god.

     Dionysus 1347-9 Yes, for I, a god by birth, was insulted by you.
       Kadmos Gods should not resemble mortals in their anger.
           Dionysus My father Zeus approved this long ago.

How justly, yet excessively, [1250] lord Bromius the god has destroyed us,
                  though he is a member of our own family.
                       Rhea - Kybele
  Blessed is he who, being fortunate and knowing the
 rites of the gods, keeps his life pure and [75] has his
soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired
     frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications
   (katharmos), and who, revering the orgies of great
       mother Kybele, [80] brandishing the thyrsos,
           garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.

 [120] O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy
Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes
  with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this
 circle, [125] covered with stretched hide; and in their
  excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced
 breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother
Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae;
 [170] Who is at the gates? Call from the house Kadmos, son of Agenor, who
       leaving the city of Sidon built this towering city of the Thebans.

 Oh house once fortunate in Hellas, [1025] house of the Sidonian old man
 who once sowed in the ground the earth-born harvest of the serpent snake.

          1274 You gave me, as they say, to Echion, the sown man.

  1314-15 But now I, great Kadmos, who sowed and reaped [1315] a most
  glorious crop, the Theban people, will be banished from the house without

Still it is foretold that I shall bring into Hellas a motley barbarian army. Leading
       their spears, I, having the fierce nature of a serpent, will bring my wife
 Harmonia, daughter of Ares, to the altars and tombs of Hellas. [1360] I will
 neither rest from my troubles in my misery, nor will I sail over the downward
                            flowing Acheron and be at peace.
                                  [680] I saw three
                                 companies of dancing
                                 women, one of which
                                 Autonoe led, the second
                                 your mother Agave, and the
                                 third Ino.

                                 1291 Where formerly dogs
                                 divided Actaeon among

 You see the wretched fate of
Actaeon, who was torn apart in
  the meadows by the blood-
 thirsty hounds he had raised,
 [340] having boasted that he
   was superior in the hunt to

     [255] You persuaded him to this, Teiresias. Do you wish, by introducing
another new god to men, to examine birds and receive rewards for sacrifices?
 If your gray old age did not defend you, you would sit in chains in the midst of
                 the Bacchae, [260] for introducing wicked rites.

                           auspices - aves specio

For two things, young man, [275] are first among men: the goddess Demeter
— she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals
     with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele,
discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it [280]
              to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief.

 Dionysus will not compel women [315] to be modest in regard to Aphrodite,
 but in nature [modesty dwells always] you must look for that. For she who is
                modest will not be corrupted in Bacchic revelry.
                 508 You are well-suited to be miserable in your name.

   What rage, what rage does the earth-born race show, and Pentheus, [540] once
descended from a serpent — Pentheus, whom earth-born Echion bore, a fierce monster,
            not a mortal man, but like a bloody giant, hostile to the gods.

O grief (penthos) beyond measuring, one which I cannot stand to see, [1245] that you
                    have performed murder with miserable hands.

I hear that mixing-bowls stand full in the midst of their assemblies, and that they each
creep off different ways into secrecy to serve the beds of men, on the pretext that they
    are Maenads worshipping; [225] but they consider Aphrodite before Bacchus.

  And they say that some stranger has come, a sorcerer, a conjuror from the Lydian
land, [235] fragrant in hair with golden curls, having in his eyes the wine-dark graces of
   Aphrodite. He is with the young girls day and night, alluring them with joyful rites.

  But your body is not ill-formed, stranger, for women's purposes, for which reason you
have come to Thebes. [455] For your hair is long, not through wrestling, scattered over
 your cheeks, full of desire; and you have a white skin from careful preparation, hunting
after Aphrodite by your beauty not exposed to strokes of the sun, but beneath the shade.
[460] First then tell me who your family is.

[465] Why do you bring these rites to Hellas?
Dionysus Dionysus, the child of Zeus, sent me.
Pentheus Is there a Zeus who breeds new gods there?

[470] Seeing me just as I saw him, he gave me sacred rites.

Dionysus [492] Tell me what I must suffer; what harm will you do to me?

Dionysus [500] Even now he see my sufferings from close by.
Pentheus Where is he? He is not visible to my eyes.
Dionysus Near me; but you, being impious, do not see him.

[516] Dionysus, who you claim does not exist, will pursue you for these insults.
For in injuring us, you put him in bonds.
592 Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries
out in victory indoors.

 I have suffered terrible things; the stranger, who was recently constrained in
bonds, has escaped me. Ah! [645] Here is the man. What is this? How do
you appear in front of my house, having come out?
We fled and escaped [735] from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they,
with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might
  see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows.
 [740] You would see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in
   the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and
   showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground, [745] dragged
  down by countless young hands. The garment of flesh was torn apart faster
                      then you could blink your royal eyes.

  [822] What is this? Shall I then, instead of a man, be reckoned among the

Women, the man is caught in our net. He will go to the Bacchae, where he will
pay the penalty with his death. Dionysus, now it is your job; for you are not far
 off. [850] Let us punish him. First drive him out of his wits, send upon him a
  dizzying madness, since if he is of sound mind he will not consent to wear
women's clothing, but driven out of his senses he will put it on. I want him to be
  a source of laughter to the Thebans, led through the city in [855] women's
 guise after making such terrible threats in the past. . . . He will recognize the
 son of Zeus, [860] Dionysus, who has been born in station most terrible and
                            yet is most mild to men.
Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes, the seven-gated
city. [920] And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns
 seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast?
             For you have certainly now become a bull.

You alone bear the burden for this city, you alone. Therefore the
 labors which are proper await you. [965] Follow me. I am your
      saving guide: another will lead you down from there.

[972-3] You are terrible, terrible, and you go to terrible sufferings,
        so that you will find a renown reaching to heaven.

   [1330] . . . changing your form, you will become a dragon, and your wife,
 Harmonia, Ares' daughter, whom you though mortal held in marriage, will be
turned into a beast, and will receive in exchange the form of a serpent. And as
the oracle of Zeus says, you will drive along with your wife a chariot of heifers,
    ruling over barbarians. [1335] You will sack many cities with a force of
countless numbers. And when they plunder the oracle of Apollo, they will have
a miserable return, but Ares will protect you and Harmonia and will settle your
                         life in the land of the blessed.

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