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Disease Congential Heart Disease

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Disease Congential Heart Disease Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                               Blood, Cardiovascular system


          Disease              Incidence/Host                  Transmission                     Pathogenesis                  Clinical signs             Diagnosis/Treatment
Anaplasmosis             -Infectious ,non contagious    Blood sucking insects and       -1-5 mo. no signs              -fever 105-106                Dx
Anaplasma marginale      -Reclassified as rickettsia    arthropods                      -5-10 mo. symptoms non         -anorexia, slow gate          -clinical signs
Anaplasma caudatum       -Round or oval shaped          -Horse flies, stable flies.     fatal                          -thin watery blood. Clear     -complement fixation test
-icterus but no          basophilic bodies in stroma    Mosquitoes, derr flies          -12 mo. 15 mortality           anemia                        (carrriers)
hemoglobinuria (also I   of RBC                         -Mechanical transmission:       -15mo. 12% mortality           -rapid pounding pulse         -capillary tube agglutination
babesiosis)              -Tropical regions, south       dehorning, castration,          -18-24 mo. 20% moratlity       -abortions                    test
                         and western states             surgery                         ->24 mo. Greates risk                                        -card agglutination test
                         -Cattle, black tail                                            -no sex predilection                                         Tx
                         deer,sheep experimentally                                      -more popular in seasons                                     1-blood transfusion,
                                                                                        of vectors.                                                  antibiotics, vit
                                                                                        -Presence of organisms in                                    2-treat infected as in 1 and
                                                                                        the blood                                                    non ill with 2grams
                                                                                        -Removal of infected blood                                   tetracyclinr/animal each 28
                                                                                        cell = anemia = major                                        days
                                                                                        clinical signs
                                                                                        -Incubation: until 1% of
                                                                                        cells are infected. 3-8
                                                                                        weeks, no signs, ends with
                                                                                        rise in temp.
                                                                                        -Development: 4-9 days,
                                                                                        see most of the signs
                                                                                        -Convalescence: 30-60
                                                                                        days
                                                                                        -Carrier
Babesiosis               -eradicated from US            -ticks are natural vectors:     -hemolysis after 7-20 days     -acute onset of fever         Dx
B. bigemina              -occurs in South America,      Boophilus microplus             post infection                 -extreme pallor and jundice   -blood smears to detect
B. argentina             Caribbean, Australia, Africa                                   -surviving animals become      -urine is dark red to brown   organisms
B. bovis                                                                                carriers and resist            in color b/c of hemoglobin    Tx
-icterus but no                                                                         reinfection for about a year   -abortions                    -eradication of vector
hemoglobinuria like in
anaplasma
Theilerasis              -East coast fever
T. parva
Anthrax                  -acute contagious fatal        -spore ingestion, inhalation,                                  -sudden death                 Dx
Bacillus anthrasis       septicemia                     or cutaneous penetration                                       -non autolyzed carcasses      -precaution when necropsy
                                                                                                                       exude bloody discharge        due to sporulation of
                                                                                                                       from body orifices            organism when exposed to
                                                                                                                                                     air
                                                                                                                                                     Tx
                                                                                                                                                     -prevention by vaccination
                                                                                                                                                     w/ Stern-strain in endemic
                                                                                                                                                     areas.
Lyme disease             -not well defined in cattle                                                                                                 Tx
                                                                                                                                                     -tetracycline




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                                                                                                                                Blood, Cardiovascular system



          Disease                  Incidence/Host                  Transmission                    Pathogenesis                 Clinical signs            Diagnosis/Treatment
Bovine Leukemia Virus       -infection is innaparent and   -cattle are natural reservoir   -infection causes Adult      Enzootic adult                Dx
(BLV)                       evokes an antibody             of infection                    Lymphosarcoma (AL), the      lymphosarcoma                 -necropsy findings
-oncogenic RNA virus from   response                       -after infection need two       most common malignant        -multicentric (Heart,         -clin path
retrovirus fam                                             week for it to be evident.      neoplasm of adult dairy      Abomasum and Uterus           -BLV antibody presence
                                                           -contact transmission is        cattle and Persistent        *Board ?)                     15-90% in infected herds.
                                                           likely, horizontal more         Lymphocytosis (PL)           -in cattle above 3yrs         -Radioimmunoassay,
                                                           common, vertical                                             -enlarged superficial lymph   AGID: less expensive,
                                                           demostrated.                                                 nodes                         detects atibodies in the
                                                           -lymphocyte transmission                                     Persistent lymphocytosis      outside of cells can ID
                                                           neede (palpation sleeves),                                   -not commonly associated      previous exposure, P-24
                                                           blood trans, needles                                         w/ clinical signs             can detect antibodies to
                                                                                                                                                      internal virus proteins more
                                                                                                                                                      likely to develop clinical
                                                                                                                                                      signs.
                                                                                                                                                      Tx
                                                                                                                                                      -none
                                                                                                                                                      -prevent ransmission from
                                                                                                                                                      one animal to another
                                                                                                                                                      through needles, sleeves
                                                                                                                                                      etc.
                                                                                    Anemias
        Disease                   Incidence/Host                  Transmission                   Pathogenesis                  Clinical signs            Diagnosis/Treatment
Copper deficiency           -second most common                                                                         -coat color changes           Tx
                            trace mineral deficiency in                                                                 -diarrhea: seen in            -soil and foliar application
                            US (first is PO)                                                                            molybdenum excess             of Cu
                            -common in coastal areas                                                                    -microcytic, hypochromic      -parenteral injection of
                            -can occur secondary to                                                                     anemia                        copper
                            molybdenum excess                                                                                                         -oral supplementation
Water intoxication          -may occur in calves when                                      -massive water intake that
                            introduced to water                                            produces hypotonicity of
                                                                                           body fluids and leads to
                                                                                           intravascular hemolysis
Post parturient             -seen in producing dairy                                       -caused by                   -hemoglobinuria and           TX
hemoglobinuria              cattle                                                         hypophosphatemia             anemia                        -blood trans
-tetracycline can cause                                                                    -intravascular hemolysis                                   -Phosphate: sodium acid
hemoglobinuria                                                                                                                                        phosphate IV followed by
                                                                                                                                                      oral supplement
Congenital porphyria        - RARE                                                                                      -pink teeth and
                                                                                                                        photosensitivity
                                                                                                                        -anemia
                                                                                                                        -urine is brown due to
                                                                                                                        uroporphyrin




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                                                                                                                                   Blood, Cardiovascular system



           Disease                       Incidence/Host                 Transmission                   Pathogenesis               Clinical signs            Diagnosis/Treatment
Anemia of depression
Nutritional: iron def (veal calf),cooper def, Cobalt def: Ostertagia Tx w/ cyanocobalamine, vit B12 def, Folic acid def
Anemia of inflammation: chronic infections, chronic inflammation, fractures or sever trauma, neoplasia.
Anemia secondary to organ dysfunction: chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, chronic gastrointestinal disease, prasitism
Bone marrow damage or dysplasia: aplastic anemia, bracken fern poisoning, TCE extracted soybean meal toxicity, myelophthistic disorders
                                                                           Congenital Cardiovascular Diseases
           Disease                       Incidence/Host                 Transmission                   Pathogenesis               Clinical signs            Diagnosis/Treatment
Ventricular septal defects        -most common congenital                                                                 -hars holosystolic murmur
                                  defect in cattle                                                                        -poor growth, lethargy,
                                                                                                                          excersice intolerance
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion -common in Holstein breed                                                                       -look like failure of passive
Deficiency (BLAD)                 -tests to identify gene                                                                 transport or
                                                                                                                          cryptosporidium
                                                                                Cardiovascular Diseases
           Disease                       Incidence/Host                 Transmission                   Pathogenesis               Clinical signs             Diagnosis/Treatment
Valvular heart disease            -mostly acquired after                                                                  -holosystolic or                Tx
                                  infections (vegetative                                                                  holodiastolic murmurs           -antibiotics
                                  endocarditis)                                                                           -tachycardia, jugular           -poor prognosis
                                                                                                                          venous distention, ascites,
                                                                                                                          SC edema
                                                                                                                          -fever associated w/
                                                                                                                          endocarditis
                                                                                                                          -neutrophilia w/ left shift
                                                                                                                          -positive blood cultures w/
                                                                                                                          episodes of fever
Brisket disease Syn:                                                                           -chronic pulmonary disease -right sided heart failure
pulmonary hypertension,                                                                        or lungworm can cause cor  -subcutaneous edema of
high altitude disease, cor                                                                     pulmonale                  the brisket, ventral thorax,
pulmonale                                                                                                                 submandibular area
                                                                                                                          -jugular venous distension
                                                                                                                          -tachycardia
Myocarditis                                                                                    -bacterial infections      -fever
                                                                                               -viral infections          -tachycardia, gallop rhythm
                                                                                               -parasitic infections      -jugular vein distension and
                                                                                                                          signs of heart failure
Cardiomyopathy                    -may be congenital                                           -ingestion of toxins:      -cardiac failure
                                                                                               monensin, Cassia,          -abnormal rythms or
                                                                                               Phalaris, gossypol,        murmurs
                                                                                               lasalocid                  -sudden death
                                                                                               -deficiencies: vit E,
                                                                                               selenium, copper, sulfates
                                                                                               -neoplasia: lymphosarcoma




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                                                                                                                    Blood, Cardiovascular system



          Disease                    Incidence/Host           Transmission          Pathogenesis                   Clinical signs             Diagnosis/Treatment
Pericarditis                                                                 -often trauma from             -fever anorexia,               Tx
                                                                             penetration of the reticulum   depression, weight loss        -salvage surgical procedure
                                                                             with a foreign body            -peripheral edema, jugular     at the 5 rib
                                                                                                            vein distension, tachypnea,
                                                                                                            dyspnea
                                                                                                            -pain, abduction of the
                                                                                                            elbows, expiratory grunt
                                                                                                            (remember Dr. Wallace)
                                                                                                            -muffled heart sounds,
                                                                                                            splashing heart sounds=
                                                                                                            fluid and gas in pericardium

Atrial fibrilation                                                           -associated w/
                                                                             gastrointetinal disease
                                                                             -may spontaneously correct
Vascular disease
Thrombosis: local pain, thickening of involved veins
Embolism                       -occurs more common w/                                                       -acute episode of pain
                               bacterial endocarditis,                                                      -fever
                               thrombophlebitis,                                                            -change in skin
                               omphalitis                                                                   temperature
                                                                                                            -abnormal pulsation in a
                                                                                                            vessel
Omphalitis                     -infection of the umbilicus                                                  -enlargment of the             Dx
-umbilical cord: 1-umbilical   soon after birth                                                             umbilicus                      -clinical signs
vein, 2-umbilical arteries     -bacterial inf.                                                              -heat, pain, fever             -neutrophilic leukocytosis
that become lateral            -Bos indicus breeds                                                          -umbilical abscess or          -aspiration of contents
ligaments and 1-urachus        develop patent infection in                                                  urachal infection              -ultrasonography
                               the urachus, signs are                                                                                      Tx
                               depressed, WBC’s w/ left                                                                                   -antibiotics
                               shift, disuria (small volume                                                                                -surgical drainage
                               more frequent)                                                                                              surgical removal
                                                                                                                                           Prevention:
                                                                                                                                           -dip navel
                                                                                                                                           -do not use umbilical
                                                                                                                                           clamps




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