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									Priyarakkhit sraman (ID. 5201201082)
             Computer & IT - Dr. Montra Leoseng
 Its Nature
 History
 Halkhata or New Book of Accounts
 Festivals in the past
 Festivals at present:
         Stage shows
         Traditional breakfast, clothes
         Usual activities for Pahela Baishakh
         Cultural Shows
 Conclusion
Its Nature
Called as Pahela Baishakh – First Day of the Bengali
 Year. Pahela = 1st , Baishakh = Name of the First Month
 of the Bengali Year.
Celebrated in both Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Falls on the 14th or 15th of April.
Pahela Baishakh is indeed a momentous occasion in
 the life of each and every Bengalee. It is the first day of
 Bangla calendar year. To every Bengalee, young and
 old, rich and poor, wise and ignorant, it is a time of
 gaiety to be celebrated with great merry-making.
 Origin –
 The Hijri lunar calendar was followed by the past
  landlords for taking the taxes from the people. It,
  however, made things very hard for the people to pay
  taxes as they had to pay it before the seasonal output
  of the crops.
 Fatehulla Shirazi with the reformist appeal of the
  Mughal Emperor Akbar formulated the Bangla Year on
  the basis of the lunar Hijri and Bengali solar calendars,
  in order for the farmers’ seasonal income to comply
  with their payback of taxes to their landlords.
History (continued)
 This is called the Fasli San (agricultural year). Later
  known as Bangabda or Bengali New Year.It was dated
  to the year 1556, the year of Akbar’s ascension to the
  throne. It was introduced on the 10/11th March of 1584.
 It was customary to clear up all dues on the last day of
  Chaitra. On the next day, or the first day of the New
  Year, landlords would entertain their tenants with
  sweets. On this occasion there used to be fairs and
  other festivities. In due course the occasion became
  part of domestic and social life, and turned into a day
  of merriment.
Halkhata or New Book of Accounts
  The main event of the day was to open a halkhata or
  new book of accounts. This was wholly a financial
  affair. In villages, towns and cities, traders and
  businessmen closed their old account books and
  opened new ones. They used to invite their customers
  to share sweets and renew their business relationship
  with them. This tradition is still practised, especially
  by jewellers.
Festivals in the past
 (in some parts of the country)Kite flying , bull racing,
 horse races, bullfights, cockfights, flying pigeons, boat
 racing were very popular earlier but now they are not
 enjoyed anymore. Still however in some other parts,
 some of these games/sports are continued.
Festivals at present
 Stage shows: jatra, pala gan, kavigan, jarigan, gambhira gan,
  gazir gan and alkap gan, folk songs as well as baul, marfati,
  murshidi and bhatiali songs, narrative plays like laily-majnu,
  yusuf-zulekha and Radha-Krishna, puppet shows and merry-
 Traditional breakfast & clothes: Many townspeople, start the
  day with the traditional breakfast of panta bhat (cooked rice
  soaked with water), green chillies, onion, and fried hilsa fish.
  White sarees with red borders and adornment with bangles,
  flowers, and tips for women and white pyjamas or dhoti and
  kurta for the men.
Figure 1: Panta Bhat (cooked rice soaked with water), green chillies, onion,
and fried hilsa fish.
Festivals at Present: The Usual activities for
Pahela Baishakh

    Usually on the day everything is scrubbed and cleaned.
    People bathe early in the morning and dress in fine
    clothes and then go to visit relatives, friends and
    neighbours. Special foods are prepared to entertain
    guests. Baishakhi fairs are arranged in many parts of
    the country. Various agricultural products, traditional
    handicrafts, toys, cosmetics as well as various kinds of
    food and sweets are sold at these fairs. Early in the
    morning people gather under a big tree or on the bank
    of a lake to witness the sunrise. Artistes present songs
    to welcome the new year.
Festivals at Present: Cultural Shows
   The great Nobel Prize winning Bengali writer named
    Rabindranath Tagore wrote a nice poem for the Pahela
    Baishakh. Artistes sing that famous song, Eso he
    Baishakh eso eso (Come O Baishakh, come),
    welcoming Baishakh. Many groups of people approach
    them to listen and join the party welcoming Baishakh
    on this day.
   There are many processions and cultural shows and
    parades by teachers, students and social organizations
    celebrating on this day near institutions, campuses,
    universities and also on big grounds and roads.
Figure 2: Cultural show attended by large amount of people.
Figure 3 & 4: Various kinds of decorations made to celebrate the Pahela Baishakh.
 The Pahela Baishakh shows the culture and tradition
 of the Bangladeshi peoples through the various kinds
 celebrations, sports, merriments and traditional
 practices seen on this day throughout the country. It
 gives pleasant feeling to those taking part in such
 activities and also to those who observe as audience.
 Without the discrimination of any sort among the
 people it looks like they are members of one family! It
 is really marvelous to be a part of such celebration!

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