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					Regional Environmental Action Plan for Central Asia                            Waste Management


                                         WASTE MANAGEMENT


                                                      PART I

                                    CURRENT STATE OF PROBLEM



I.      Introduction

        Brief Description of Problem at the Regional and National Levels


II.     Detailed Justification of Identified Problems

        2.1    Current State

        2.2    Analysis of Root Causes of Identified Problems

        2.3    Analysis of Major Sources of Mountain Ecosystem Degradation

               2.3.1     Industrial Waste
               2.3.2     Municipal Waste
               2.3.3     Agricultural Runoff
               2.3.4     Radioactive Waste
               2.3.5     Military Waste

        2.4    Evaluation of Transboundary Aspects

III.    Risk Assessment

        3.1    Health Risk

        3.2    Irreversible Changes in the Environment and Assessment of Social and Economic
               Risks


IV.     Existing Solutions to Resolve Problems

        4.1    Legislative

        4.2    Projects/Programs/Research




Attachments
Maps
Information Sources




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                                            I.        Introduction


Some of the most important problems in nature conservation are ecological problems related to
waste generation, storage, utilisation, and recovery. On the one hand, all the spheres of human
activity have these problems inherent in them. On the other hand, they influence all spheres of the
environment – soil, atmosphere, water resources, nature, and life of society as a whole. When
analysing problems arising from waste management in the region, it is recommended to take into
account the following specific features affecting the transboundary aspects of the problem:

1) A significant part of the territory is an alpine ecological system, which is particularly vulnerable
   to natural and anthropogenic impacts;
2) To a great extent, the territory of the region is affected by natural disasters, such as
   earthquakes, landslides, mud flows, floods, lakes with the break risk, rock slides, avalanches,
   underfloods, snow slips;
3) Apart from the ordinary problems of waste generation and utilisation in the region, there is the
   problem of wastes from mining and processing industries “inherited” from the Soviet times. A
   great number of sites for storing waste after treatment of polymetallic and radioactive ores
   (see charts) are found in the region. There is a constant threat of potential ecological
   catastrophe associated with the destruction of storage sites, which are located in regions of
   high seismicity and active landslide processes. The size of the potential ecological
   catastrophes is huge, encompassing the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and
   the Aral Sea Basin.



                                  II.     Detailed Justification of Identified Problems


2.1      Current Condition

The analysis of the present-day waste picture must include general economic changes in the
CARs. Beginning in 1991, the regional Republican economies suffered from a recession, which
ended only in 1995. Structural changes took place with the rapid decline of industrial production
and relative growth of trade and services. It is worth noting that this recession coincided with a
period of continuous population growth (in spite of increasing out-migration), as well as with a
period of growth of the able-bodied population. That is to say that the recession was the
consequence of the transition to a market economy. The analysis brought the following problems
to light:

     no garbage processing plants exist in the region. This is a particularly pressing problem for the
      republics which have little available territory for the creation of new landfills or the expansion
      of existing ones;
     existing domestic waste storage sites (or, dumps, to be exact), fail to meet sanitary
      standards. Garbage trucks are not washed after the garbage is unloaded. There is no daily
      waste pick-up and liquidation, and anti-fire measures are affected;
     there is a lack of special centralised sites for the burial of toxic industrial waste;
     the waste quality composition was not established;
     there is little to no reporting, which is highly irregular;
     practically no waste-free and low waste technologies for waste recovery and recycling are
      applied;
     no measures are taken to eliminate the potential danger of previously-accumulated
      radioactive and metallurgical industry waste storage. There are more than 130 sites with
      mining wastes containing radionucleotides, health-damaging heavy metal salts (cadmium,
      lead, zinc), and toxic substances used as reagents in enriching and treating ores, among them


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      cyanides, acids, silicates, nitrates, sulphates etc. These storage sites occupy a considerable
      area thus affecting the environment even after conservation. Such conservation is often
      neglected or carried out in violation of modern requirements.

Alongside with tailing dumps there are a lot of dumps of mechanically broken rocks and non-
conditioned ores, with different degrees of vulnerability to wind, water and gravitational erosion.
These dumps contain such dangerous contaminants as mercury, antimony, fluorite, lead, prussic
acid, cyanides, heavy metal salts. Many dumps are not recultivated.


2.2      Analysis of Root Causes of Identified Problems

For the CARs, it is possible to identify the following root causes:

1) Ineffective legislative, regulatory, and methodological foundation at the national level and its
   total lack at the regional level.

The countries in the region have not yet adopted a fundamental law governing waste handling.
Due to the lack of regional cooperation in this field, regional legal documents are not available.
Because of the tense economic situation in the region, departmental research institutes with the
competence to draft legal and normative acts (taking into account the specific regional features)
are absent, thus, in fact, forcing the region to borrow regulations from other countries as well as
compiling legal decrees. At present, there exist no norms in relation to wastes as they do exist for
discharges and emissions. Available normative acts reflect the actual state of affairs and fail to
impose any limitations on enterprises for waste handling.

The state bodies’ inspections are insufficient due to the low level of their technical equipment.
There are little to no mobile means to operatively control waste composition.

In waste management (as in other spheres), inefficient economic mechanisms are in force. The
“polluter pays” principle adopted in the region at the moment introduces payments for waste
disposal. However, fines for environmental pollution are very low, which according to official
sources, is explained by the concern to ensure the survival of economic entities. As a result, the
system fails to encourage economic entities’ nature protection (i.e. fails to motivate them to apply
low waste and waste-free technologies). This is because it is economically sound to pay for
pollution rather than to spend money for waste minimisation, construction of treatment structures,
waste recovery plants, and improvement of waste storage facilities.

2) Insufficient Planning and Management

The transition from a rigid administrative and planned system of economic management to a
market economy (which does not incorporate a strict planning system and management) in many
ways gives impetus to spontaneous development. In practice, it is inherent in all industries,
transport, and agriculture. However, some attempts to plan are still undertaken. But plans that are
developed and declared run counter to the actual implementations. For example, the lack of
planning and expectations in industry and agriculture led to a considerable migration of the
Republican population to metropolitan areas. This resulted in a spontaneous arrangement of
individual, private construction plots that contradicted previously-prepared city construction
solutions and violated functionally planned city organisation, which would have taken into account
ecological specificity.

3) Inadequate Financial Base

The inadequate financial base is indicative of the long transition period in economic development.
Lack of financing has led to many negative consequences. Serious nature protection measures


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are inadequately financed or lack financing altogether. Apart from this, the activities of
governmental nature protection agencies have scarce financing as well. Funds are allocated to
support on-going activities only.

4) Insufficient level of environmental education and poor infrastructure.

Certainly, there is a definite awareness among the public and state bodies of the Republics about
the necessity of sustainable development in terms of ecosystem health and stability. As it was
stated above, sustainable development was specified in many program documents approved at
the highest level. However, when a specific action must be chosen, the priority is attached to
economic or social problems. Most likely, such a situation ensues from the absolute lack of
environmental education in the region prior to 1991, and its current insufficient level.

5) Poor or inadequate public involvement

The public is not fully aware of ecological problems because of the following:
1. The commercial independent mass media presents information to elicit maximum interest
   from consumers, meanwhile environmental information is excluded.
2. Non-commercial, independent mass media are unavailable due to lack of stable financing
   sources.
3. State mass media are on a scarce financing scheme, and fail to provide wide access to
   ecological information for the public.

Public involvement in the solution of ecological problems is not sufficient for the reasons
mentioned earlier, and because of the vague stipulation of this form of participation in the Law “On
Environmental Protection”.

6) Population migration and growing unemployment

Population migration from small settlements to larger ones and growing unemployment has
resulted in many ecological problems. The most essential one of them is growing demands on
waste disposal services in bigger cities, whose previous performance was already unsatisfactory.


2.3     Analysis of Major Sources

2.3.1    Industrial Waste

For the last 30 years, the regional industrial economy underwent changes common for all CIS
states. After a gradual upsurge and relative well-being prior to 1991, a sharp recession continued
until 1996. This is demonstrated by a gradual decrease in the numbers of those employed in
industry, in spite of the shorter working day and other disguised forms of employment curtailment.

After 1996, the economic situation became stabilised at a comparatively low level. The recession
was especially grave in the processing industries, apart from being general. The recession
caused essential structural changes in the Republican economies – primarily, the relative growth
of the mining industries as compared against the processing industries. That is to say that, in fact,
the countries deindustrialised. At present, radical changes are unlikely to take place since the
mining industries attract the most investments due to the fewest time risks.

Among other industries, the greatest volume of waste is ash and ash slag waste of the electric
energy sector.




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In 1999 industrial wastes distribution per Republics was the following (million tonnes):

Kazakhstan               92.0
Kyrgyzstan               48.0
Tadjikistan              1.6
Turkmenistan             0.16
Uzbekistan               27.0

Table of Industrial Waste for 1999 (million tonnes)
   100
    90
    80
    70
    60
    50
    40
    30
    20
    10
     0
            Kazakhstan          Kyrgyzstan            Tadjikistan   Turkmenistan   Uzbekistan
It is easy to single out the countries with the developed mining sector. In all countries the
tendency is marked for waste increase which is indicative of insufficient use of industrial wastes
into recycling processes.

Major sources of industrial wastes are given Table 1.




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Table 1: Major Industrial Waste Sources in CAR Countries

              Location                       Production       Waste Quantity          Type of Storage           Type of                Major
                                               Type            Th.t (1999)                                     Treatment             Pollutants
                   1                              2                 3                        4                     5                      6
                                                                        Kyrgyzstan
Khaidarkan (town-type settlement,               IMCP             20477.2               tailings dumps        Not carried out     Mercury, antimony
TTS)                                      Integrated mining                            slime collector
          Batken region                   and concentrating
                                                 plant
            c.Kadamjai                          IMCP             4851.2                tailings dumps        Not carried out          Antimony
          Batken region                                                                slime collector
      Kumtor natural boundary,                  IMCP             14658.1               tailings dumps        Not carried out          Cyanides
         Issyk-Kul region
          TTS Kazarman                          IMCP             4578.3                tailings dumps        Not carried out          Cyanides
           Naryn region
       TTS Ak-Tyuz, Orlovka                 IMCP,       IMP      3314.0                tailings dumps        Not carried out   Heavy metal salts,
          Chuisk region                  (integrated                                                                           Torium      row    of
                                         metallurgical                                                                         elements, cyanides
                                         plant)
             c.Kara-Balta                    Mining plant        36421.7               tailings dumps        Not carried out       Uranium row of
              Chu region                                                                                                              elements
                                                                        Tadjikistan
            Aininsk district                 Anzobsky            11.719                tailings dumps        Not carried out        Antimony,
            Sogdsk region                       IMCP                                                                                 Mercury
             c.Adrasman                     Adrasmansky           217.0                tailings dumps        Not carried out      Lead, zinc, gold
            Sogdsk region                       IMCP
              c.Pedjikent                  JV “Zeravshan”        560.114               tailings dumps        Not carried out          Cyanides
            Sogdsk region                       IMCP
             c.Chkalovsk                                          147.0                tailings dumps        Not carried out   Uranium        row    of
            Sogdsk region                 PA “Vostok-Red-                                                                      elements
                                                Met”                                                                                  Vanadium
            c.Tursunzade                 Aluminium-               152.0               Open site storing      Recycled at the    Fluorite, gas cleaning
                                         producing plant                                                       enterprise          slime, floatation
                                              (TadAZ)                                                                                   tailings




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                                                                          “Kazakhstan” (South-Kazakhstan Region)
             c.Shymkent                    JSC “Shymkent-       7.02               Slime collector        Not carried out       Petroleum products
                                           nefteorgsynthes”
                  -“-                            LLC            1.352               Worked-out pit           Not carried out       Rubber waste
                                          “KazInterkomShin
                                                  a”
                  -“                       JSC “Chimfarm”       2.985               Oil meal dumps           Not carried out     Vegetative raw oil
                                                                                                                                         meal
                 -“-                            JSC            52.633                   Site                 Not carried out     Arsenato-calcium
                                           “YuzhPolimetall”                          Slag dump                                       wastes Ash,
                 -“-                       JSC “Phosphor”      3852.61       Dump, slime collector, burial    Production of    Phosphorite, quartzite,
                                                                                                               pellets and     eletrothermophosphat
                                                                                                             conglomerates      e slag, slurry, Kottrel
                                                                                                                                milk, arsenic waste
              c.Kentau                          JSC           137629.96                 Dump,                Not carried out   Metallurgical clinker,
                                           “Archpolimetall”                          Tailing dump                              Heavy metal salts
                                                                   Uzbekistan**
             Tashkent region             Chemical       and    51184            Slime collectors             Not carried out   Sulfides, oil products,
                                         petrochemical,        805400                                                               Copper, lead,
                                          Ferrous and non-                                                                            cadmium,
                                         ferrous metallurgy                                                                     molybdenum, prussic
                                                                                                                                    acid, cyanides

*       Kazakhstan submitted data for South Kazakhstan region as agreed
**      Uzbekistan submitted data per industries for regions




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Table 2: Municipal Waste Sources of CAR per Cities

        City               Population,          Waste Quantity,        Type of                  Q-ty of      Type of Storing      Major Pollutants
                              Th.                    M3               Treatment               Processed
                                                                                                Waste
                                                                     Uzbekistan*
Regions                                                              Collection and        Not carried out   Special places for   Medical and toxic
Andijan                2222                    318                transportation to the                      Storing (dumps)      waste, danger
Bukhara                1437                    151                   site for storing                                             category 3 and 4
Djizak                 991                     265
Kashkadaryinsk         2213                    228
Navoyi                 791                     455
Namangan               1956                    38
Samarkand              2710                    308
Surkhandaryinsk        1771                    163
Syrdaryinsk            650                     78
Tashkent               2370                    443
Fergana                2696                    564
Khoresm                1348                    65
Karakalpakstan         1528                    201
Tashkent, city         2139                    2458
                                                                     Tadjikistan
Dushanbe, city         562                     213.7
Khudjand               149                     68.9
Isphara                37                      14.1
Kanibadam              45                      17.1               Collection       and     Not carried out   Special places for   Medical waste and
Ura-Tyube              51                      19.4               transportation to the                      storing (dumps)      toxic substances,
Chkalovsk              25                      9.5                site for storing                                                danger category 3
Gafurov                28                      10.6                                                                               and 4
Kurgan-Tyube           60                      23
Kulyab                 78                      29.6
Khorog                 28                      5.3
Tursunzode             39                      14.8
Kafernikhon            44                      16.9




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                                                        Kazakhstan (South Kazakhstan region)
Shymkent               300                     300                   Collection and        no                     Site(dump)            Medical waste and
                                                                  transportation to the                                                 toxic substances,
                                                                          site                                                          danger category 3,4

                                                                   Turkmenistan*
Ashkhabad, city        No data available       1474                  Collection and        Not carried out        Special places for    Medical wastes and
Regions:                                                          transportation to the                           storing (dumps)       toxic substances,
Akhal                                          293033                site for storing                                                   Danger category 3
Balkhans                                       251176                                                                                   and 4
Dashoguz                                       7385
Mary                                           558791
Lebap                                          12023
                                                                     Kyrgyzstan
Bishkek                780.8                   940                   Collection and             Not carried out    Special places for   Medical wastes and
Kara-Balta             45.1                    53.2               transportation to the                             storing (dumps)      toxic substances,
Tokmok                 57.5                    67                    site for storage                                                   danger category 3
Kant                   22                      26                                                                                               and 4
Osh                    218.1                   261
Uzgen                  43.0                    51.6
Djalal-Abad            75.1                    87.2
Karakul                20.6                    24.7
Mailuu-Suu             20.3                    22.3
Karakol                64.9                    74
Balykchi               41.5                    47
Naryn                  41.4                    49
Kyzyk-Kyia             32.8                    37
Sulyukta               13.8                    16
Talas                  34.1                    41


       Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan submitted data per regions




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Table 3: Major Landfills/Waste Storages in CAR

Name and               Type            Waste Type                              Risk Assessment                  Investment   Tranbounda      Capital
Location                                                                                                           type      ry aspects      Investment
                                                                      health   ecology   econo      Impor
                                                                                         my         tance
                                                                          Kyrgyzstan
Chu region      Tailing dumps          Floatation waste of            3        4         4          4                        River Chu
c.Kara- Balta   Ash dumps, TES         polymetallic and torium ores                                                          pollution and
TTS Ak-Tyuz     Domestic waste sites   Ash, slag                                                                             adjacent
TTS Orlovka                            Municipal waste                2        2         2          2                        territory

                                                                      2        2         2          2

Bishkek         Ash dumps, TES         Ash, slag                      1        2         1          2                        River Chu
                Domestic waste site    Municipal waste                                                                       Pollution
                                                                      2        3         1          3
Issyk-kul       Tailing dumps          Radioactive ores               2        4         2          3
region          Dumps of non-          concentration waste
TTS Kadjisai    conditioned and        Radioactive and coal-
c.Karakol,      Overburden rock in     impured overburdern rocks      1        2         2          2
Balykchi,       coal mining
Cholpon-Ata     Domestic waste sites   Municipal waste
                                                                      2        3         2          2

Naryn region    Tailing dumps          Radioactive ores               2        4         3          3                        River Syr-
TTS Min-Kush    Dumps of non-          concentration waste                                                                   Darya basin
                conditioned and                                                                                              pollution
c.Naryn         overburden rocks in    Radioactive and coal-impure    2        3         3          3
                coal mining            overburden rocks
                Domestic waste site
                                       Municipal wastes
                                                                      1        2         2          2
c.Talas         Domestic waste site    Municipal waste                1        1         1          1                        River Talas
                                                                                                                             Pollution
Djalabad        Tailings dumps         Radioactive ores               4        4         4          4
region                                 concentration waste                                                                   Pollution of
c.Mailuu-Suu    Dumps of non-                                                                                                transboundary
                conditioned and        Coal impure overburden                                                                waterways and
                overburden rocks in    rocks                          2        3         3          3                        adjacent area
c.Djalal-Abad   coal mining


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                                        Municipal waste
                Domestic waste site
                                                                     2        2         2          2
Osh region      Ash dumps TES          Ash                           2        2         2          2
                Domestic waste         Municipal waste               3        3         3          3
c.Osh           site
Batken region   Tailings dumps         Non-ferrous metallurgy        4        4         3          3
c.c.Khaidarka   Slime collectors       concentration waste
n               Dumps of                                                                                            Pollution of
Kadamjai,       nonconditioned and     overburden coal impure        3        4         3          3                Transboundary
Sulyukta        overburden rocks in    rocks                                                                        waterways
Kyzyl-Kiya      coal mining                                                                                         And adjacent
                Domestic waste sites                                 2        2         2          2                territory
                                       municipal waste
                                                                          Tadjikistan
Takobsky        Tailing dumps          Floatation tailings with      2        3         2          2       Absent
IMCP                                   fluorides content
Anzobsky        Tailings dumps         Floatation tailings with      3        4         4          3                River
IMCP                                   mercury and antimony                                                         Zeravshan
                                                                                                                    pollution
Adrasman        Tailing dumps          Floatation dumps with lead,   1        3         4          3                Syr-Darya
Sky                                    zinc, gold                                                                   Pollution
IMCP
“Zeravhan” JV   Tailing dumps          Coal in alkaline with         2        2         3          2
                                       cyanides content
Leninabad       Tailing dumps          Floatation tailings with      1        3         3          2                R.Syr-Darya
Rare Metals                            polimetallic content                                                         Basin pollution
Integrated
Plant
PA “Vostok      Tailing dumps          Radioactive floatation        4        4         4          4                R.Syr-Darya
RedMet”                                tailings                                                                     Pollution
Isfarinsky      collectors             Vanadium production           2        2         2          2
Hydrometallur                          Cakes, Glauber’s salt
gical plant                            solution
                                                                         Uzbekistan *
Karakalpaksta   Industrial              solid                        1        1         1          1
n Republic      municipal
                                                                         Turkmenistan
Karipata        burial                 Pesticides                    3        3         2          3
Zerger          burial                 Pesticides                    3        3         2          3
Tagta           burial                 Pesticides                    3        3         2          3



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2.3.2   Municipal Waste

At present, municipal waste is collected and removed after submission of a written application for
removal. As it was earlier, the clean-up of most waste-accumulating zones is carried out during
specially designated months for improving the city area, with the participation of the labour force
and facilities of all enterprises as well as the public.

In spite of the growth of the population and the number of small and medium-size enterprises, the
volumes of disposed wastes have been reduced during the latest years.

A similar picture is characteristic for snow disposal, sweeping streets, etc., which reflects the
deterioration of the functioning of the waste collection system rather than an actual waste volume
reduction.

Volumes of municipal waste in the Republics in 1999 (mln.t):

Kazakhstan               4.63
Kyrgyzstan               2.637
Tadjikistan              3.0
Turkmenistan             1.1
Uzbekistan               1.9


Table of Domestic Wastes for 1999 (mln.t)

   5

   4

   3

   2

   1

   0
         Kazakhstan          Kyrgyzstan           Tadjikistan   Turkmenistan    Uzbekistan

A marked difference in waste volumes between the Republics can be explained by different
systems of accounting, or by the lack of accounting, and use of expert evaluations instead. As a
whole, the tendency may be noted for the Republics of municipal waste increase against
reduction of their disposal volumes.

Table 2 contains information about municipal wastes for cities in the region.

The growth of domestic waste quantity and its complicated chemical nature makes it more
dangerous for people’s health and environment. Such methods as the arrangement of safe
dumps and waste burning are customarily used for waste problems. However, though being very
popular, these methods fail to satisfy the requirements of today. Existing methods to fight waste
fail to maintain environmental safety.

Basic shortcomings and difficulties in collecting and transporting municipal waste are as follows:
- obsolete special vehicles that remove the garbage;
- insufficient provision of waste dumpsters;

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-   certain cases of non-sanctioned waste dumping and disposal by enterprises and private
    individuals on territory not specifically designated for this purpose;
-   due to the considerable growth of the urban population, rates of domestic waste disposal are
    inadequate
-   taxes (fees) for waste removal are less than the actual cost of removal. This fails to allow for
    the periodic replacement of technical vehicles and the promotion of high quality work;
-   spontaneous dumping occurs on the territory of settlements. Great expense is required to
    remove this waste.

Basic problems of domestic waste storage:
- operating areas of most sites are in operation for a longer time-period than their design
   permits;
- most sites were built without observing technical and sanitary safety rules;
- there is insufficient and obsolete machinery on the sites;
- lack of financing for waste burial and scarce budgets for the sites hardly allows for maintaining
   the disposal and packing of removed waste. Interlayer isolation of wastes is not fulfilled, nor is
   the eradication of insects and rodents. Outsiders are allowed to sort out garbage.

2.3.3    Agricultural Runoff

For the last 10 years agriculture underwent changes common for regional economies. However,
the agricultural recession was not as significant as it was for industry. Lately there has been a
stable growth of the agricultural sector with an ensuing growth of the volume of agricultural waste.

Agricultural waste differs from other wastes because it does not present a problem for the
Republic, and it is completely recovered in agriculture itself as fodder to cattle or organic fertilisers
necessary for humus-deficient soils in the region.

Volumes of agricultural runoff in 1999 (mln.t):

Kazakhstan               77.0
Kyrgyzstan               12.0
Tadjikistan              10.0
Turkmenistan             no data
Uzbekistan               no data

Table of Agricultural Runoff for 1999 (mln.t):
    90
    80
    70
    60
    50
    40
    30
    20
    10
     0
          Kazakhstan           Kyrgyzstan         Tadjikistan   Turkmenistan        Uzbekistan
Lack of a single system for the accounting of agricultural waste resulted in the use of volume
assessment for some Republics.


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2.3.4   Radioactive Wastes

The accumulation of considerable radioactive waste on the Republican territory is due to mining
activities and the uranium processing industry since the 1940s. Landfills of radioactive waste,
basically, of stored sources of ionising radiation have not yet exhausted their power.

2.3.5    Military Waste

According to official data of the Ministry of Defence, there is no specific military waste on the
territory of the Republics. Existing waste can be categorised in the same manner as the
population’s domestic waste and handled accordingly.


2.4     Assessment of Transboundary Aspects

Mainly, the danger of transboundary pollution with wastes refers to non-ferrous metallurgical
waste sites and radioactive landfills in the Syr-Darya, Zeravshan and Chu River basins.




                                          III.        Risk Assessment


3.1     Health Risk

The effect of wastes on human health is indirect, through the distribution of harmful substances
from soil, water, and air, as well as from the accumulation of toxins in food. The impact of waste
on human health is not in doubt. However, it has always been difficult to identify the influence of
environmental contaminants against the influence of many other factors, for example, socio-
economic factors, on human health.

In this context, the waste sites from mining and chemical industries cause anxiety. As the local
medical community reported long ago, the incidence of cancer is very high in the areas adjacent
to waste sites. More infants are born with birth defects. Genetic mutations are likely to develop in
the residents of nearby settlements that will show themselves in future generations. Unfortunately,
precise information about the risks to human health is lacking due to insufficient pollution data and
the lack of an exact number of specific diseases related to uranium-producing and processing
industries.

3.2     Irreversible Changes in the Environment and the Assessment of Social and
        Economic Risks

Mountain ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. At times, human
activity may result in irreversible consequences.

The size (in terms of square meters) of both closed and operating sites of industrial waste in
mountain areas is insignificant. Despite this, the impact of these territories should not be excluded
from consideration of the economies of the region. Often, these sites are located in the ravines in
close proximity to mountain rivers which are attractive for both human settlement and developing
economic activity. The resistance of adjacent slopes to landslides often changes, and surface and
underground water conditions are disturbed during the construction of waste sites. A particular
landscape of unique value may degenerate. Waste site placement may result in the total
destruction of biodiversity.


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If no proper barrier against ground-water pollution is guaranteed in locating waste sites (as was
the case in the past), ground water can become contaminated for dozens of years. The local
population would have to use water from distant sources delivered at heavy costs. Waste sites
themselves need to be under permanent control and undergo regular maintenance and repair to
strengthen dams, restore bypass canals etc. This maintenance undermines local budgets.

Since a considerable part of the regional territory endures the risk of natural calamities, the local
population in the waste-site areas suffers from definite anxieties. They live in anticipation of the
possibility of various types of destruction and damage, as well as the ensuing ecological
consequences. This anxiety stimulates internal migration.

Major waste landfills/sites are given in the charts and Table 3.




                           IV.      Existing Solutions to Resolve Problems


4.1     Legislative

Basically, nature protection legislation in force in the region with regard to handling wastes
incorporates a legal foundation from prior to 1990. During recent years, however, steps have been
taken towards its improvement, in accordance with the transition to a market economy in the
Republics.

The legislation in force provides a legal foundation for the prohibition and restriction of production,
use, and import of products and materials containing dangerous chemical substances (when post-
production waste can not be recovered in any ecologically reasonable way).

The base Law “On the Production and Consumption of Waste”, which must stipulate all aspects of
waste management, has not been approved yet in all CARs.

The policy of "voluntary compliance" with the existing legislation is the principal negative factor in
the present-day state of affairs in the legal area. Many enterprises have privileges and
exemptions that place them outside the realm of environmental requirements. Due to extremely
low payments for waste-disposal, economic mechanisms regulating the use of nature fail to
encourage enterprises to strive for waste reduction. For example, the waste-disposal payments in
the CARs are a dozen times lower than in Eastern European countries.


4.2     Projects/Programs/Research

Many documents approved at a rather high level dwell in detail on the strategy and tactics of
environmental actions in the Kyrgyz Republic.

National Plans on Environmental Protections have been prepared in which fundamental
environmental problems and priorities have been determined.

Similar plans have been prepared step by step to expressly identify basic ecological objectives
and priority measures for their achievement. Unfortunately, the situation in nature protection
remains practically the same due to the lack of internal financing sources while funds from
different international organisations come on an irregular and inefficient basis.



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                                                      PART II

                                             PLAN OF ACTION


                             I.       Proposed Actions to Resolve Problems


General Information

Actions in the area of waste management might be of two types: actions taken by economic
entities themselves, and actions from outside (that is, actions on the part of the Government
under either governmental or foreign financing).

Measures are necessary to make it more attractive for funds to be invested into processing
industries as opposed to mining industries, as well as to reconsider appropriate pay rates for
waste disposal and other economic incentives.

Short-term measures (2002-2003):

   Completion of joining and ratification of the Basel Convention in the region;
   Preparation of a regional waste management program to formulate the policy, legal regulation,
    regulatory and methodological coverage; statistical reporting etc.
   Creation of a regional network and support for Cleaner Production (Technologies) Centres
    activities;
   Inventory of those existing production and consumption waste disposal sites with a
    transboundary impact;
   Creation of the conditions for public involvement in decision-making and the public's broad
    awareness of waste handling;

Long-term measures: (2003-2010):

   Introduction of low waste and waste-free technologies into the production process;
   Expansion of mining and power production waste recycling methods ;
   Organisation of a separate collection system of solid domestic waste and its treatment;
   Development and introduction of technologies for toxic waste detoxification and processing;
   Creation of central sites for land-filling non-recovered waste;
   Rehabilitation of areas with disposed radioactive and other dangerous waste;
   Maintaining a regional register of waste movement.



                     II.      Determination of National and Regional Priorities

National priorities should be among the following: actions aimed at preventing waste formation,
creating capacities for waste secondary processing and maximum recycling, adopting measures
on environmental safety of earlier built waste sites, operating existing waste sites in compliance
with up-to-date requirements, liquidation of unsanctioned storage sites at the expense of the
offenders, introduction of ecologically safe and economically reasonable ways of sorting and
recovering domestic waste.

Local priorities should be among the following: the reduction of contamination of border and
transboundary territories, the exchange of experience in waste handling and harmonisation of the
regulatory and methodical foundation.



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2.1     Possibilities for fulfilment

A great number of national highly professional specialists will be of significant support in the
solution of these problems. The lack of the states' own funds due to temporary economic
hardships is a basic obstacle, which makes it obligatory to appeal to international financing
organisations for help.

2.2     Evaluation of costs versus benefits

The improvement of the ecological situation and of the health of the population, which would
occur as a result of implementing these actions, is hard to compare with the required expenditure,
which, however, can be expressed in monetary terms.

2.3     Criteria for establishing the priority of the actions

At the national level:
 Reduction of power and the consumption of resources per unit of production;
 Reduction of the volume of waste formation;
 Ensuring ecological safety for waste-disposal sites, and past waste-sites;
 Consistency of actions with the state priorities;
 Assistance of international financing organisations;
 Support of the public (local communities);
 Minimum costs and terms;
 Possibility of nation-wide replication;

At the regional level (including national):
 Support of actions by all states in the region;
 Regional impact of waste storage sites on ecological situation;
 Possibility of region-wide replication.



                      III.    Necessary Instruments for Fulfilment of Actions


3.1     Legislation

Actions must be based on intergovernmental agreements of the countries in the region. A joint
approach must be developed to handle the legislative and regulatory and methodical foundation
and the monitoring of waste handling.

3.2     Financial

Due to lack of adequate governmental resources, an orientation should be developed towards the
use of polluting enterprises’ own funds, and this requires a radical revision of the existing payment
mechanism for waste disposal and the attraction of international finances.

3.3     Administrative

Waste handling must incorporate diverse aspects in order to become the basis of the activities of
different regional ministries and departments. One of the solutions is to create a regional network
of Cleaner Production (technologies) Centres, which must be run by a coordination council with all
regional participants.



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3.4     Public involvement

It is necessary to expand and specify the type of public involvement stipulated in the legislation as
to its participation in decision-making on waste handling with the use of an EIA procedure. The
public must be fully informed in terms of the provisions of the Orhus Convention, using REC on a
larger scale.



                                IV.      Fulfilment of Proposed Actions

Management of the implementation of the proposed actions must be carried out by the Interstate
Commission on Sustainable Development. For the period of the Regional Environmental Action
Plan (REAP) implementation it is necessary to maintain an expert working group for monitoring
the preparation of REAP by transforming it into the Advisory Board and Scientific and Information
Centre.




                          V.      Proposed Package of Investment Projects


1.     Development of the regional programme “Waste Management”

2.     Ensuring ecological safety of the Rivers Syr-Darya, Amu-Darya, Zeravshan, Chu
       basins in transboundary impact of tailing dumps and mountain rocks dumps.
       1.1. Assessment of the condition of tailing dumps, mountain rock dumps and their
            environmental impact.
       1.2. Drafting and harmonizing of the legislative and regulatory base that governs waste
            management.
       1.3. Preparation of the regional plan of actions on ecological safety of transboundary
            rivers basins.
3.     Creation and expansion of capacities for recovery of solid industrial wastes in the
       transboundary river basins.
4.     Development of the regional network of Cleaner Production (Technologies)
       Centres (CPC)




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Information Sources

   The Concept of Ecological Safety of the Kyrgyz Republic.1998. Ministry of Environmental
    Protection.
   National Report on the Environmental Condition in the Kyrgyz Republic for 1999-2000.
    Ministry of Environmental Protection.
   National Plan of Actions on Environmental Protection of the Kyrgyz Republic. 1995. Ministry of
    Environmental Protection.
   State Plan of Action on Environmental Hygiene. 1999. Ministry of Health Protection.
   State Statistical Reporting. 2T Toxic Wastes. National Statistical Committee.
   Environmental Condition in the Republic of Tadjikistan (National Report) – 1991-1998.
    Ministry of Nature protection of the Republic of Tadjikistan. Dushanbe.
   Integrated Programme of Secondary Resources Utilisation for the XII Five Year Plan and until
    2000 for, the Tadjik SSR approved by the decision of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers
    of the Tadjik SSR of 30.01.1986, #2.
   Act of Joint Inspection with the Bodies of ES, SES and Environmental Protection about
    Radiation Condition in Taboshar and Andrasman cities of 15.07.2000.
   Report on Human Development in Tadjikistan, 2001. UNDP
   Information Ecology Bulletin of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Final for 1999. Almaty: Ministry of
    Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the RK, 2000.
   Materials of the workshop “Economic and Ecological Impact of the Programme on Production
    Waste Minimisation in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan”- Almaty: USAID, 1997.
   Materials of the Kazakhstan Round Table on Cleaner Production.- Almaty: National Ecological
    Centre RK,1999.
   Materials of the Meeting on Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection Management at
    Enterprises in CIS - Baku: OECD, 2000.
   Official Information from Regional and City Environmental Protection Departments at the
    Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection RK.
   Cherp O.M., Vinchenko V.N. Problem of Solid Domestic Wastes: Integrated Approach.:
    Ecoline-ECOLOGIA,1996.




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