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					                                                                     Technical Bulletin
                                                                             Ref. Orlando: 01/06/08




                                                               ORLANDO
                                 F1 Hybrid Intermediate Brown Day Onion


OUTSTANDING QUALITIES

♦     MEDIUM TO LATE MATURING
♦     EXCELLENT STORAGE ABILITY
♦     A HIGH PERCENTAGE FIRST GRADE BULBS
♦     MULTIPLE ATTRACTIVE TOUGH STRAW BROWN
      OUTER SCALES

Orlando is a medium to late maturing intermediate day length
F1 hybrid brown onion with excellent export potential. Orlando
has a very high yield potential and is around 2 weeks earlier
than Caledon Globe. Bulbs are uniform, very firm and of
excellent quality with excellent storage ability. Bulbs are globe shaped, very attractive and have many
straw brown scales. A big advantage of this variety is the high percentage of medium sized first grade
bulbs. Orlando is ideally suited for the export market where excellent results have been achieved.

SPECIAL VARIETAL REQUIREMENTS
•  Orlando is well adapted for direct sowing as well as growing from transplants in traditional
   intermediate day length areas
•  Contact area representative for sowing guide

  CHARACTERISTIC*                                              ORLANDO
  KIND                                                         F1 hybrid onion (Allium cepa L.)
  TYPE                                                         Intermediate day brown onion
  MATURITY                                                     Medium to late
  BULB SHAPE                                                   Globe
  BULB SIZE                                                    Medium to large (Influenced by plant population)
  BULB UNIFORMITY                                              Very good
  NECK SIZE                                                    Very thin
  FIRMNESS                                                     Very firm
  BULB COLOUR                                                  Straw brown
  FLESH COLOUR                                                 White
  SCALE RETENTION                                              Excellent
  FLAVOUR                                                      Pungent
  LEAF GROWTH HABIT                                            Upright
  LEAF COLOUR                                                  Medium dark green
  BOLTING REACTION                                             Very slow (with due regard to planting date)
  DISEASE REACTION                                             -
  AVERAGE SEED COUNT                                           250 - 350 seeds per gram
  POPULATION GUIDE                                             Final stand of 650 000 – 850 000 plants per ha
  SEED REQUIREMENT                                             Direct sowing: 3.0 – 3.5 kg seed per ha
                                                               Transplanting: 5.0 – 5.5 kg seed per ha
  STORAGE                                                      Excellent
  MARKETS / END USE                                            Export and fresh market
  SPECIAL FEATURES                                             High quality, excellent storage ability
* Characteristics given are affected by production methods such as soil type, nutrition, plant population, planting date and climatic conditions.
   Please read disclaimer.

      WARNING: VARIETY PROTECTED UNDER PLANT BREEDERS RIGHTS. UNAUTHORIZED MULTIPLICATION AND/OR MARKETING OF SEED
      PROHIBITED.


Disclaimer: This information is based on our observations and/or information from other sources. As crop performance depends on the interaction between the genetic potential
of the seed, its physiological characteristics, and the environment, including management, we give no warranty express or implied, for the performance of crops relative to the
information given nor do we accept any liability for any loss, direct or consequential, that may arise from whatsoever cause. Please read the Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty)
Ltd Conditions of Sale before ordering seed.
Resistance: is the ability of a plant variety to restrict the growth and development of a specified pest or pathogen and/or the damage they cause when compared to susceptible
plant varieties under similar environmental conditions and pest or pathogen pressure. Resistant varieties may exhibit some disease symptoms or damage under heavy pest or
pathogen pressure (HR = High resistance, IR = Intermediate resistance).
Recent version: Kindly contact Sakata or Area Representative for the most recent version of this Technical Bulletin.

Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd.                             Copyright: (not to be reproduced)                                Email. info.saf@sakata-eu.com
Tel. +27 11 548 2800                                                   Fax. +27 11 548 2820                                            Website. www.sakata.com
                                                                     Technical Bulletin
                                                                             Ref. Orlando: 01/06/08




         GENERAL TIPS FOR INTERMEDIATE DAY ONION PRODUCTION
Day length                                                                                   necks in onions is not only an indication of
All intermediate day onion varieties require an                                              excess Nitrogen, it is more likely an imbalance
optimal day length of 12 - 14 hours for bulb                                                 between the Nitrogen and the Potassium. All
initiation. If a variety is exposed to less than                                             the Phosphorus (P) and most of the Potassium
the required day length, there will be a high                                                should be broadcasted before planting. The
percentage non-bulbing plants with thick                                                     Nitrogen component of the fertiliser program
necks. If a variety is exposed to a longer                                                   should contain a 45 – 50 % Ammonium
photo period than is required, even a few                                                    Nitrate (N-NH4), which should be applied in
days, the young plants will prematurely bulb,                                                the beginning of the growth phase. Only
leading to reduced bulb size and yield.                                                      Nitrate Nitrogen (N-N03) should be applied in
                                                                                             the final growth stage to prevent “green
Temperature                                                                                  shouldering”    on     onions   and    maintain
Day length is the primary factor in bulb                                                     continued growth in the cooler season. On
initiation, but is influenced by temperature.                                                alkaline soils Ammonium sulphate nitrate
Onions need soil temperatures between                                                        (ASN) should be used. Onions have a very
15 – 25 °C to germinate properly. Vegetative                                                 limited root system, therefore it is important
growth is acceptable at 18 – 22 °C, but                                                      to apply nitrogen on a regular basis before
bulbing will be slower. Faster and proper                                                    the bulbing starts.
bulbing     requires   temperatures       between                                            Sulphur, Boron, Zinc, Magnesium and
25 - 28°C. Temperatures below 10°C are                                                       Potassium should always be available in
detrimental and cold damage will occur,                                                      sufficient quantities. Onions are sensitive to
especially if the Nitrogen availability in the soil                                          high levels of Chloride.
is low. When temperatures are below                                                          As soon as onions tops start to “fall
8 – 13 °C near the bulbing stage, the growth                                                 over”, all fertiliser applications should be
is retarded and the plants will bolt.                                                        stopped.

Plant population                                                                             Onion curing
Plant population influences the bulb size and                                                Adequate curing may require 2 - 4 weeks,
therefore the final yield.     The consumer                                                  depending on the weather. The best skin
generally prefers a medium sized bulb                                                        develops at 24 - 32 °C. Curing can also be
(50 – 70 mm). The optimum plant population                                                   done by forced ventilation in the storage by
depends on the cost of the planting material,                                                blowing heated air through the bottom of the
labour, climate, soil and planting date. The                                                 onion pile to the top, at 9 - 15 cubic metres
optimum plant population should be between                                                   per minute per ton. Initial heating (1 day)
650 000 – 850 000 plants/ha.                                                                 can be as high as 40 °C to heal wounds and
Direct sowing:    The suggestion is to sow                                                   kill off pathogens and then reduce to
approximately 3.0 - 3.5 kg seed/ha,                                                          approximately 32 °C.
depending on the seed size and germination.
Transplanting and sets: The suggestion is to                                                 Onions are considered cured when the neck is
sow approximately 5.0 kg seed for 1 ha                                                       tight and the outer scales are dry and make a
seedlings, depending of the seed quality.                                                    rustling sound when handled. This condition
                                                                                             is reached when onions have lost 3 - 5 % of
Nutrition                                                                                    their weight. If not adequately cured, onions
Onions need well drained soils of 20 cm deep.                                                are likely to decay in storage.
Onions are sensitive to water-logging. Onions
need a pH of 5.5 - 6.5. It lowers the risk of                                                Onion storage
Aluminum toxicity and/or Boron deficiency is                                                 Storage of onions in South Africa occurs mostly
high. Low soil pH also increases the                                                         in open sheds with good ventilation without
occurrence of certain disease such as                                                        any cooling facilities.   Onions can also be
Sclerotium cepivorum (White rot).                                                            stored for shorter periods at high temperatures
                                                                                             of          29 °C - 35 °C before marketing or
The ratio between Nitrogen (N) and Potash
                                                                                             before processing.       Sprouting occurs at
(K) is very important. Potassium and sulphur
                                                                                             temperatures     of   approximately    20   °C;
play an important role in the keeping ability
                                                                                             therefore storage of extended periods at
(storage and shelf life) and health of onions.
                                                                                             temperatures of 20 °C and high humidity
It is important to keep the ratio between the
                                                                                             should be avoided.
Nitrogen and the Potassium at 1 : 1.5. Thick


Disclaimer: This information is based on our observations and/or information from other sources. As crop performance depends on the interaction between the genetic potential
of the seed, its physiological characteristics, and the environment, including management, we give no warranty express or implied, for the performance of crops relative to the
information given nor do we accept any liability for any loss, direct or consequential, that may arise from whatsoever cause. Please read the Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty)
Ltd Conditions of Sale before ordering seed.
Resistance: is the ability of a plant variety to restrict the growth and development of a specified pest or pathogen and/or the damage they cause when compared to susceptible
plant varieties under similar environmental conditions and pest or pathogen pressure. Resistant varieties may exhibit some disease symptoms or damage under heavy pest or
pathogen pressure (HR = High resistance, IR = Intermediate resistance).
Recent version: Kindly contact Sakata or Area Representative for the most recent version of this Technical Bulletin.

Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd.                             Copyright: (not to be reproduced)                                Email. info.saf@sakata-eu.com
Tel. +27 11 548 2800                                                   Fax. +27 11 548 2820                                            Website. www.sakata.com

				
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