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					Introduction
This document contains guidelines which should be used when localizing Microsoft products into Yoruba.


Recommended Reference Materials

Normative references

1.      Bamgboêe, Ayò (ed.) (1984) Yorubá Metalanguage Vol. 1, Lagos NERDC
2.      Awobuluyi, O. (ed.) (1989) Yorubá Metalanguage Vol. II, Lagos NERDC
3.      Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) (1991), Quadrilingual Glossary


Informative references
These sources are meant to provide supplementary information, background, comparison, etc.

1.      U.P.L. (19979), A Dictionary of the Yoruba Language. Ibadan U.P.L.




                                                -1-
General Language Guidelines
The following guidelines provide information on the language parts where more than one correct solution
exists but one solution needs to be applied consistently in all instances.



Tone

Yorubá is a tone language. In orthography, we have three straight tones and we indicate them appropriately.
The three tones are high, mid and low. For each of the three, we have the following accent:
                   high      m           /
                   Mid       r           -
                   Low       d           \
Mid tone is not always indicated except on syllabic nasal n or m. Example       m   , p nl , páńpé. Here we can
also say it is only vowel sounds that we always accented i.e. we do not put accent on consonant sounds except
the syllabic nasals as appeared in the examples. The tone should be formal.

Voice
In SW localization, forms of you singular should be preferred since the
computer relates informally to users.

You: o, ìwo, èyin, e.
O:   as pronoun can be used as second person singular subject. This can manifest in sentences like:
       O ti jeun (You have eaten).           Ò ń kojá àyè re (You are overstepping your bound).


You as an English word can also mean èyin when being used in honorific expression for an individual who is
older th n the spe ker or who might e the spe ker’s oss. In su ject form, the honorific pronoun will be è
e.g.   ti jeun   ou h ve e ten .      ń s n (You are sleeping.
Also in subject form, You as honorific word in Yorubá will be      yin when used in a topicalised sentence. E.g.
                     yin ni mo fé (You are the one 1 need)
                    yin ni e fà á     (You are the cause)
If it is in object form, yin will become yín.
                     o fe yín níbè (I want you there
Apart from being used as honorific expression, You can be a pronominal iwo in Yorubá. It is a second person
singular pronominal which can either be in subject or object position especially in an emphatic situation.
Example:         Ìwo ni mo fe
                   You I want
                   It is you I want
                   Mo fé kí ìwo lo jeun
                   I want you in particular to go and eat

Example:


English                   Translation
You are now
connected to the          O ti wo íntánéètì báyìí
Internet.




                                                        -2-
Spelling Variations

Though there are few words in which some individuals are using their discretion to write down the way
they feel, there is a conventional and standard ways of writing Yorubá words. For example:


                          Old                             Standard
                          aiya                               aya
                          aiye                               aye:
                          eiye                               eye
                          mò ó                               mò ón
                          mú u                               mú un
                          mì í                               mì       ín
                          Ng ó lo                            N ó lo
                          nwón                               wón
                          nyín                               yín
                          enyin                               yin
                          òttà                               òtà
                          Oshogbo                            Òsogbo
                          Õrun                               òórùn
                          Õrun                               oorun
                          alaanu                             aláàánú
                          alaaru                             aláàárú
                          gboorun                            gbóòórún
                          kònkò                              kònkò
                          dánkú                              dáńkú
                          kíké                               kíké
                          níse                               níí se
                          enia                               ènìyàn
                          tani                               ta ni
                          kíni                               kí ni
                          èwoni                              èwo ni
                          jékí                               jé kí
                          wípé                               wí pé
                          g g     í                          gégé bí
                          enití                              eni tí
                          ibití                              ibi tí
                          nítorína                           nítorí náà
                          nítorítí                           nítorí tí
                          nígbàtí                            nígbà tí
                          nígbàna                            nígbà náà
                          lehinna                            léyìn náà
                          bíótil jépé                        bí ó til j pé
                          nígbagbogbo                        nígbà gbogbo
                          níwònigbatí                        níwòn ìgbà tí
                          ó ní òn k                          ó ní òun k




                                                -3-
Prepositions
In Yorùbá language, when it comes to the use of prepositions, we do not change the word order. We
make use of appropriate prepositions like ní, sí, ní etc/




                                               -4-
Capitalization
Same as in English


Punctuation
Same as in English.

                             Punctuation                     Name
                                     .                       àmì ìdánudúró púpò
                                     :                       kólònù
                                     ¡
                                     ?                       àmì   ìbéèrè
                                     !                       àmì ìyanu
                                     ˝                       komá àyolò - oníbejì
                                     _                       dáàsì
                                     -                       asòròpò

Abbreviations

List of common abbreviations:


        ENGLISH                            YORÙBÁ                   ABBREVIATIONS

        Adverbial Phrase                   Àpólà Àp nlé                     APAP
        Prepositional Phrase               Àpólà At k n                     APAT
        Qualifier Phrase                   Àpólà    yán
        Verb Phrase                        Àpólà ìse                        APIS
        Noun Phrase                        Àpólà orúko                      APOR
        Pronoun                            Ar pò orúko                      AR
        Demonstratives                      sàfihàn                         AF
        Auxilliary                          s rànw òrò-ìse
        et al                              àti àwon yòókù                   a.y.
        And so on (etc)                    àti bé bé lo                     abbl
        For example (e.g.)                 bí àpeere                        b.a.
        Adverb                              p n
        Sentence qualifier                  p n gbólóhùn
        Qualifier                           yán
        Vowel                              Fáw lì                           F
        cf.                                fi wé                            F.W.
        Sentence                           Gbólóhùn                         GB
        ibid                               Ibìkan náà                       i.n.
        op cit                             ìwé tí a ti ménubà               i.t.m.
        that is (i.e.)                     ìyen ni pé                       i.n.p.
        Predicate                          kókó gbólóhùn                    KGB
        Consonant                          k ńs nántì                       K
        High tone                          ohùn òkè                         O
        Mid tone                           Ohùn ààrín                       $
        Low tone                           Ohùn ìsàl                        I
        Assimilated low tone               Ohùn ìsalè amòòkùn               AM
        Rising tone                        Ohùn eléyò ròkè                  KE
        Falling tone                       Ohùn eléyò rodò                  DO




                                                  -5-
          Page (p)                           Ojú ìwé                            o.i.
          Adjective                          Òrò àpèjúwe                        AJ
          Adverb                             Òrò àp nlé                         AP
          Conjuction                         Òrò àsopò                          AS




                 ENGLISH                     YORÙBÁ                      ABBREVIATIONS
        Preposition                 Òrò At k n                           AT
        Verb                        Òrò se                               ɪS
        Noun                        Òrò   r ko
        Please turn over (P.T.O.)                                        OR
        N.B.                        Wo òdì kejì                          w.o.k.
                                    Wo ó o re                            w.o.r.



Acronyms
Not applicable in Yoruba

When confronted with acronyms in the US text, appropriate nouns, verbs or abbreviations are used. For
example: AIDS, as translated Éèdì, in line with the pronunciation; WHO is similarly pronounced but
explained descriptively after. In other words, most of the common acronyms are known to Yorùbá
Literates, who of course will use the computer.
Trademarks (® and ™)

Trademarked names and the name Microsoft Corporation shouldn’t be localized. A list of Microsoft
trademarks is available for your reference at the following locations:

         http://www.microsoft.com/trademarks/t-mark/names.htm



Copyrights
Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of
expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.



Main GUI Components
This refers to all menus, menu items, commands, buttons, check boxes, etc. , which should be
consistently translated in the localized product.




Main Menus
         Main menus are the menus that appear at the top of the user interface. Main menus typically
          include File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Table, Window, Help.




         Typically, main menus should be in Yorùbá language, the expression of precise
          lexical items describing actions and ideas or things fall directly on Nouns and
          Verbs. For instances, in thes examples, w                                       ìt
                                  .



                                                 -6-
       English                Translation
       View                        Wò
       Edit                        Y wò
       Insert                      Fi bò
       Format                      Ìtò

       Tools                       Irinsé




Menu Items and Commands
   Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, Pronoun and Pronominal.




       Similarly,the parts of speech that are relevant nouns and verbs. However, they could be
       borrowed when basic words will not bring out the precise sense.

       Examples:


       English               Translation

       Save As…                Pam bí
       Print…                  T
       Select All              Yàntán




Static text




“Print more than one copy” = T ju òkan lo



                                              -7-
Dialog Boxes
Dialog boxes should be translated consistently, and wherever (in different applications)
identical dialog boxes occur, they should have identical translation.



Dialog Box Titles




            Find and Replace = Wá sì fi r pò
            Find    =        Wá
            Replace =        r pò
            Go To   =        lo sí

Examples: Noun: e.g. ìr pò ‘replacement’; verb: e.g.t ‘print’

            Additionally, just as it obtains in English, verb phrases are used in some expressions such as we
            have here.


            UI Category              English               Translation

            Menu Item                Split cells            Sé lì elélà

            Dialog Title             Split cells            Sé lì elélà




Group Box Titles




Print = T
Background printing = tít   lág   éséyìn



                                                    -8-
Printing options = yàn tít
Print ost cript over text te letà òkè
Draft output = àbájáde ìpàìùbà
Reverse print order = yí    ètò tit dà
Updates fields = pápá ìtúnse
Update links = Ìbátan ìtúnse
Allow A4/Letter paper resizing = Gba A4/àpòòwé wolé

Noun phrases.
As exemplified here also, noun phrases in English are expressed by Yorùbá

    Typically, group box titles should be verb

         Examples:


         English                  Translation
         Include with
         document                 Fi kún àkosíl

         Printing Options         Yíyan tít




Check boxes




         We can safely conclude that verbals, i.e. verbs and verb phrases; and nominals i.e. nouns and noun
         phrases express commands and precise instruction in Yorùbá language.

         Typically, check boxes should be verbs
         Examples:


         English                  Translation

         Enable reminder          Tan Olùrántí

         Don't show me this       Má fi òrò yìí hàn mí
         dialog again.            m
         Always ask me first      Má k k         i mí ná




                                                       -9-
Buttons




Typically, buttons should be verbs

         Examples:


         English                     Translation
         Add                          Fi kún
         Cancel                       Pare
         Continue ->                  t síwájú


Dialog Box Tabs




Close                =       yàn                           View   =   wò

See comments above.

        Typically, dialog box tabs should be verbs
         Examples:


         English                     Translation

         Print                         T
         Changes                        Ìyípadà
         Format                         Ìtò




Lists Boxes/Tables




Of course, in these instances are translated into Yorùbá
sentences expectedly.




                                                    - 10 -
Instruction Text In Dialog Boxes




Outlook Data Files

Select a data file in the list, then click settings for more details or click Open Folder to display the folder
that contains the data file. To move or copy these files, you must first shut down Outlook


When a user is expected to take action on a page or in a section, actions are expressed in
Yorùbá by verbs and verb phrases.

          Examples:


          English                  Translation
          Change settings for    Yí ètò í ìlò Afidétáráns
          the files Outlook uses
          to store e-mail        láti tójú èro àti àkosílè
          messages and           e-mail
          documents.




Access Keys (also called Hot Keys)
        Access keys or hot keys are a combination of keys such as ALT+F, Ctrl+S, that move the focus to
         a menu, command, or control, without using the mouse.



         Kókóró   ìsèbùrú




                                                    - 11 -
                                       Usage: is it allowed?
Hot key special options                                        Notes

"Slim characters", such as i, l, t,
r, f can be used as hot key                     Yes
Example: Option
Characters with downstrokes,
such as g, j, y, p and q can be
used as hotkeys
                                                Yes
Note that it can be difficult to see
the hotkey underline for these
characters
Example: Option
Extended characters can be used
as hotkeys                                      Yes
Example: Optión
An additional letter, appearing
(between brackets or not) after
item name, can be used as                       Yes
hotkeys
Example: Option w / Option (w)
A number, appearing (between
brackets or not) after item name,
                                                Yes
can be used as hotkey
Example: Option 3 / Option (3)
A punctuation sign, appearing
(between brackets or not) after
item name, can be used as                       Yes
hotkey
Example: Option > / Option (>)
Additional notes:




List of characters suitable as hotkeys

    a   -          highlight
    b   -          bold
    f   -          to find
    g   -          go to
    i -            to italicize
    k   -          to copy
    p   -          to print
    s   -          to save
    s   -          to cut
    u   -          to underline
    w   -          to paste
    y   -          to undo

Incidentally, both prefered characters and allowed characters are the same. Due cognisance has been
taken in ensuring that only available Yorùbá letters are used.




                                                      - 12 -
Text Strings With Hot keys
These strings are easily recognizable because they have hot keys. They often show up as names of
buttons, commands, etc. and should be translated according to rules for main GUI components.

They are important because those actual translation bring out the precise sense of the actions performed
by the hot keys. They are available in the Yorùbá language and speakers understand them as such.




Tool Tips
Not applicable




                                                - 13 -
InfoTips

InfoTips are short sentences or sentence fragments that describe what an item does or how it can be
used.




        For items that describe what the user can do with the item (one that users can manipulate upon
         opening), use verbs and verb phrases his is the most common type of InfoTip.


         Examples: túntò    ‘analyse’

         English                     Translation

         Analyze items with a        Fi àkànse àte
         spreadsheet application.    şe àtúntò àwon wúnrèn



        For items that have an automatic action (one that requires no user manipulation) upon opening,
         use verbs and verb phrases.

         Examples: şí ‘open’
         English                Translation

         Opens the calendar.    Sí kàléńdà    náà




                                                - 14 -
Status Bar Messages

What Is A Status Bar Message?
A status bar message is information about the active document, a selected command or any active
selected interface item. The messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window when the
user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. Some status bar
messages refer to actions being performed or already completed (for example in Microsoft Internet
Explorer).


Status Bar Messages Language Style
In English, the status bar messages have different forms dependent on the information they must convey.
In Yoruba, menu and commands status bar messages should follow the format below.



Examples:
Name                    Category   English Status Bar message       Yorùbá status bar message

Edit       Y wò         Menu       Contains editing commands        Ó ní àwon àse ày wò

Copy to d                          Copies the selected items to a   Oń   àdà àsàyàn wúnrè sí
                        Menu
Folder... àpótí fáìlì              new location                     ibùdó tun

New         tun         command Creates a new document              ó ń şe àkosílè   òtun

                                   Make object visible?             Kí nnkan sôe é r‰
                                   Word is converting the document. Word nَ yí àkosíl dà.
                                   Press Esc to stop.               Te ESC láti dúró
                                   Datasheet View                   ìwò Atedétà

                                   Done                             Setán


Standardize!
In the US product you can often find messages that are phrased differently even though they have the
same meaning. Try to avoid this in the localized Yorùbá version. Use one standard translation as in
example below:

Press F1 to get Help.
If you want Help press F1.
To get Help press F1.



Te F1 fún ìrànwó

Error Messages

What Is An Error Message?
Error messages are messages sent by the system or a program, informing the user that there is an error
that must be corrected in order for the program to keep running. The messages can e.g. prompt the user
to insert a disk in the disk drive, or inform of an error that requires rebooting the computer.


Error Messages Language Style

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not
just translate as they appear in the US product.




                                                    - 15 -
Error Messages Containing Placeholders
When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder.
This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a
word or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples
below:
          %d, %ld, %u, and %lu means <number>
          %c means <letter>
          %s means <string>


Examples of an error messages:
       “Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!” means “Checking Web <number> of <number>”.
       “INI file "%1!-.200s!" section” means “INI file "<string>" section”.


 This is same as English

Standard Phrases In Error Messages
When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to
express the same thing.

Examples:
English                Translation             Example                     Comment
Cannot ..                                                                  Understandably excellent
                              Kò lè……          same
Could not ..                                                               sense representation.
Failed to ..
Failure of ..               Kùnà láti…..        Same                       Same

Cannot find ..
Could not find ..
                             Kò lè ri …….      Same                        Same
Unable to find ..
Unable to locate ..
Not enough memory
Insufficient memory
There is not enough
                          Kò ní    ìrántí tó    Same                       Same
memory
There is not enough
memory available
.. is not available
                                  Kò sí         same                       Same
.. is unavailable




                                                 - 16 -
Appendix 1: Other optional topics for the Style Guide


Appendix 1

Forms of Respect for different levels of people

Honorific pronouns are used for elder people or someone’s boss. These pronouns are
a, e, yin, èyin, wón, àwon etc. Under normal circumstances each of these pronouns
normally refer to more than one person. However, as said earlier, if one of them is
being used to refer to a single person, the person must be a respectable person and
this can be an elderly person or someone’ boss. Hence, we call them honorific
pronouns.

Rules for proper names

The guiding rule for writing proper names is first letter to be a capital letter or upper
case. In most cases, if it is one’s last name at official environment, the title of that
person like Mr. Ms, Dr, Chief, etc. must be added. People of the same age group
may call themselves by first names even nicknames. But younger person can not
just call an elderly one by his first name; it will sound rude.


Guidelines for transliteration of foreign Words

     1.      This letter Gb, gb is a single letter but not two
     2.      All appropriate available letters in Yorùbá must be used to replace letters that
             are foreign or alien to Yorùbá language. For instance Sô, is used to replace ch, s can
             to replace ch, s can replace z, k can replace c in English language.
     3.      Break of Consonant Clusters by insertion of Vowel or deletion of one consonant e.g

             Bread >   búrédì
             Station > tésàn

4.
                  Card > káàdì
          Also the last consonant of a consonant final word can be deleted e.g
                  Moses > Mósè
5         Sequence of cons n nt in t      n            t in     n       n n nt
          case, the nasal consonant (s) must be a syllable




                                             - 17 -