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					                                    CHAPTER II

                             LITERATURE REVIEW



       The literature review of the study is discussed in this chapter. It covers the

meaning, the change of meaning, the kinds of meaning, cohesion, references,

translation, the process of translation, the procedure of translation, the criteria of a

good translation, and the definition of novel.



2. 1 Meaning

       Because the title is about cohesive level that has a correlation with

meaning concept, so we have to explore about meaning itself. Many theories of

meaning have been stated by experts. In daily life, the word “meaning” is used in

a lot of fields with their contextual uses. The word “meaning” has the same

meaning as the concept, statement, message, information, idea, content, and

thought (Aminuddin, 1985: 50). Meanwhile, meaning in terms of terminology is

about a network between languages with the outside which has been agreed by

language users (cf. Grice, 1957; Bolinger, 1981: 108; cited in Aminuddin, 1985:

52).

       According to the theory of meaning from Ferdinand de Saussure, meaning

is the “definition” or “concept” that belongs to the linguistic signs (cited in Chaer,

2003: 287). If the identities of linguistic signs are the same as “word” or lexical

items, meaning is a definition or concept which belongs to each word or lexical

items. But, if the identities of linguistic signs are the same as morpheme, it will




                                                                                     11
mean that meaning is a concept belonging to morpheme either basic or affix.

Aristoteles in Aminuddin (1985: 15) states that meaning can emerge because of

two things: 1) meaning which emerges from its word automatically, 2) meaning

which emerges because of grammatical relationship.

       Meaning is an important thing for the translators. Translators can replace

what messages are conveyed in the source language to target language if they

know the whole meaning of the sentences in the source language. That’s why

translators should be semanticist in translating process. (Bell, 1991: 79)

       Larson (1984: 55) states that “bundle” of meaning components can make a

word. Meaning component is the smallest unit in the semantic structure. Meaning

components consist of things, events, attributes, and relations. Meaning

components make group together to form concepts.

THINGS ………………………..nouns, pronouns

EVENTS………………………...verbs

ATTRIBUTES…………………..adjectives, adverbs

RELATIONS……………………conjunctions, prepositions, particles, enclitics, etc.



2.2 The change of meaning

       In short term, meaning of word will be still the same; but in the long term

there is a probability of meaning of the word will change. According to Chaer

(2003: 311) meanings will change caused by following factors:

1. The development in technology and sciences. Because of technology and

   sciences development, a word means A will change to B or C.




                                                                               12
2. The development of socio-culture. It causes a change process in meaning. In

   Indonesian language for example: a word “Sarjana”, a few years ago, it meant

   “the smart person”, but now, it means “person who has graduated from

   university/ institute/ academy”. The person who has not graduated yet from

   university can’t be called “sarjana”.

3. The development of word uses. Every field usually has a number of

   vocabularies related to its field. For example: in farming field, there are some

   vocabularies, such as harvest, cultivate, paddy’s seed, etc. the word

   “membajak” (in Indonesian language means cultivate) can be used for

   “membajak lagu/ membajak pesawat terbang/ membajak buku” and etc.

4. Exchange of five senses, for example: the word sweet for tongue can be used

   to express these following sentences:

   -   Sweet dreams

   -   Sweet memories etc.

5. There is an association process. It means that there is a relationship between

   utterances and other meanings.



2. 3 The kinds of meaning

       Language is very important in daily life. Many activities in society use

language as a tool to communicate something either orally or written. Therefore,

meanings of language transform into various types of meanings. According to

Chaer (2003: 289), there are five kinds of meaning, covering:

   Lexical, grammatical, and contextual meaning




                                                                                13
Lexical meaning is a meaning that belongs to lexical item without any

contexts. For example: a word horse has lexical meaning ‘a kind of animal

which has four legs. In other word, lexical meaning is the true meaning or

meaning that is suitable with the real situation.

Grammatical meaning appears if there is grammatical process, such as

reduplication, affixation, or composition. For example in composition process:

a word girl with word “Sundanese” → sundanese girl. Grammatically, it

means origin of the girl. Contextual meaning is a meaning of word which

becomes a part of single context. We can see the contextual meaning in word

head. Word head has two meanings if the word head is in two different

sentences.

Kucai’s head is bald.

As the headmaster, he has to be a good person.

The word head above has two meanings. In the first sentence, head means a

part of body. In the second sentence, it means a leader.

Referential and non-referential meaning

A word or lexical items can be called referential if there is a reference. It is

hard to find out the meaning if there is no reference.

Denotative and connotative

According to Chaer (2003), denotative meaning is the original meaning or the

true meaning of words without adding feeling. For example: word ‘thin’ in the

sentence ‘the girl is so thin’. Word ‘thin’ in the sentence means ‘condition of

the girl’s body which is smaller than normal weight’. Connotative meaning is




                                                                             14
   another meaning that added to denotative meaning. The readers can feel

   uncommon sense whether positive, negative, or neutral sense. For example:

   the girl is so slim. The word ‘slim’ from the sentence has the same meaning

   as the word ‘thin’, but the word ‘slim’ is connotative meaning, because it has

   positive sense.

   Conceptual and associative meaning

   According to Leech (cited in Chaer, 2003:293), conceptual meaning belongs

   to a lexical item beyond context or even association. Conceptual meaning is

   the same as lexical meaning, denotative meaning, and referential meaning.

   Associative meaning is the one relates to something beyond language. For

   example: a word ‘jasmine’ associates with ‘holiness’. People use associative

   meaning to express other concept which is similar to sign, condition, and

   adjective of original concept.

   Idiom and proverbial meaning

   According to Hornby (2000) a proverb is well-known short saying that states

   the truth or gives advice On the other hand, idioms are utterances whose

   meaning cannot be analyzed lexically or grammatically.



2.4 Cohesion

       There are so many theories defining what cohesion is. Baker (1992: 180),

states, “Cohesion is a connection of lexical, grammatical, and other relations

which provide links between various parts of a text.” Cohesion itself is about

meaning concept. Meaning can come out because of the connection between the




                                                                              15
actual words and their expressions. It can occur not only between a word in a

sentence with a word in another one, but also between a word with another word

within a sentence. English and Indonesian language have the same rule about

cohesion. The purpose of the cohesion itself is to make cohesively-integrated text.

       According to Halliday and Hassan (in Baker, 1992: 180) and Baikoeni

(cited in baikoeni.multiply.com/journal/item/135), cohesion comprises five main

cohesive devices which are reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and

lexical cohesion.

 a. Reference: this mechanism relates one element of the text to another one for

     its interpretation, which can be present or not (endophoric and exophoric

     reference). Reference is a semantic relation.

     e.g.: Joni lives near a river. He often spends his time there.

     The word he above refers to Joni. In brief, reference points out the two

     linguistic elements are related in what they refer to.

 b. Substitution: a linguistic element is not repeated but it replaced by a

     substitution item.

     e.g.: Dian likes strawberry ice-creams. She has one everyday.

     The word one above is as a substitution item to replace the words strawberry

     ice-creams.

 c. Ellipsis: one of the identical linguistic elements is omitted.

     e.g.: All students are given ice-creams. Yuke gets strawberry. Andi gets

     chocolate and Hana too.

     The words ice-creams above are omitted in the following sentence




                                                                                 16
             Like in English, Ellipsis in Indonesian language is the combination

   of two clauses (Alwi et al, 1998: 414). There is an omission of a particular

   element from a sentence. Alwi et al (1998) categorizes ellipsis into three

   kinds of ellipsis:

   a. Textual ellipsis (anaphoric ellipsis and cataphoric ellipsis)

   b.Structural ellipsis

     e.g.: Saya yakin ∆ kamu pasti bisa. (∆= bahwa)

   c. Situational ellipsis.

     e.g.: ∆ senang bertemu denganmu. (∆= aku)

d. Conjunction: particular expressions contribute to create discursive. The

   information using conjunction device can’t be found elsewhere in the

   sentence, yet conjunction indicates that what have been said before have a

   relation with the next statement (Baker, 1992: 190). The following are sort

   of conjunctions which can or typically realize each relation (Baker, 1992:

   191):

       Additive:              and, or, also, in addition, furthermore, besides, similarly,
                              likewise, by contrast, for instance;
       Adversative:           But, yet, however, instead, on the other hand,
                              nevertheless, at any rate, as a matter of fact;
       Causal:                So, consequently, it follows, for, because, under the
                              circumstances, for this reason;
       Temporal:              Then, next, after that, on another occasion, in conclusion,
                              an hour later, finally, at last;
       Continuatives          Now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all.
     (miscellaneous)




                                                                                        17
             Beside the conjunctions of English language, syntactically, there

   are some sorts of Indonesian language conjunctions below (Alwi et al, 1998:

   296-302):

       Coordinative conjunction:     Dan, serta, atau, tetapi, melainkan, padahal,
                                     sedangkan

       Correlative conjunction:      Baik….maupun..
                                     Tidak hanya….., tetapi juga…
                                      Bukan hanya….., melainkan juga…
                                     Demikian….., sehingga…
       Subordinate conjunction:      Sejak,   sewaktu,     setelah,    hingga,   jika,
                                     andaikan, agar, biarpun, measkipun, seakan-
                                     akan,    seperti,   sebagai,     sebab,   karena,
                                     sehingga, dengan, tanpa, sama…..dengan…,
                                     lebih…..dari (pada)…etc.
       Inter sentence conjunction    Biarpun demikian/begitu, Sekalipun
                                     demikian/begitu, Sungguhpun
                                     demikian/begitu, Walaupun
                                     demikian/begitu, Meskipun
                                     demikian/begitu, etc
e. Lexical cohesion is the selection of vocabulary in organizing relations within

   a text. Halliday and Hassan (in Baker, 1992: 203) divide lexical cohesion

   into two main categories: reiteration and collocation. Reiteration involves

   repetition of lexical items. Reiteration includes repetition of an earlier items,

   synonym or near-synonym, a super ordinate or a general word (can be called

   as hyponymy). Furthermore, collocation, as a sub-class of lexical cohesion,

   wraps any case which involves a pair of lexical items linked with each other

   in the language in some way.




                                                                                    18
       Beside the five cohesive devices above, there are still other word classes

which have a particular characteristic. According to Alwi et al (1998), they are

attributive use (modifier), function words (kata tugas), inversion, passive

sentence, apposition, adverbs (e.g.: reciprocal adverb and adverb of manner), and

adjective. These word classes will have a meaning if they are related with other

words or elements either within a sentence or another sentence in a text. It means

that those word classes are cohesive devices. That is because cohesion is a

connection of lexical, grammatical, and other relations linking varieties parts of a

text to make holistically integrated text.

       The following is the details explanation of word classes mentioned by

Alwi (1998):

 1. Attributive use/modifier. It will have a meaning if it is combined with other

     words. It can be combined with noun (read: noun phrase), with preposition

     (read: prepositional phrase), with verb (read: verb phrase), etc. The

     modifiers can be placed before or after the head word. Some examples of

     attributive use which are used in the following phrases:

     a. Verb phrase. The modifiers are lagi, kembali, sedang akan, sudah bisa

         etc

         e.g.: Dia menangis lagi

               Kami harus menulis kembali

               Pasien itu sudah boleh makan

     b. Noun phrase. The modifiers that usually are used are yang, lagi,

         numeration (satu, dua, tiga etc).




                                                                                 19
       e.g.: Penduduk yang bermukim di daerah pedesaan.

   c. Prepositional phrase

       In prepositional phrase, nouns function as the head word. There are

       placed some modifiers in front of the head word such as di, ke, dari,

       dalam, untuk, pada etc.

       e.g.: Di kantor, ke desa, dari markas, pada masa itu, and etc.

2. Function words (kata tugas).

   Kinds of the function word:

     Preposition: di-, ke-, dalam, pada, lewat, per, peri, dengan, buat, bagi, etc.

     Interjection: ayo, mari, aduhai, amboi, hai, halo, bah, cis, cih, idih, etc.

     Article: sang, sri, hang, dang, para, si, yang….. etc.

     Insisting particle: -kah, -lah, -tah, and pun.

3. Inversion: a sentence where the verb written before the subject.

   e.g.: a. Ada pencuri di halaman                    [Inversion form]

        b. Seorang laki-laki berjenggot.              [The antecedent]

4. Passive sentence: a sentence which uses a verb completed with prefix di-.

5. Apposition: a single sentence which broaden by adding some particular

   element to an element in a sentence (usually noun element). The main

   element and additional element should have the same referent. There are

   various apposition such as full apposition, partial apposition, attribute

   apposition and fragment apposition (in this case to give an example).

6. Adverbs (keterangan)

   a. reciprocal adverb




                                                                                    20
      e.g.: satu sama lain, saling.

   b. Adverb of manner: the words which used to explain how someone does

      something or how something happened. It usually uses the word

      se….nya or se……..mungkin.

      e.g.: seenaknya, sekeras-kerasnya, sekeras mungkin etc.

7. Adjective: has a function to point out the degree of quality and various

   comparative degrees. To differ the quality degree, there are some borders

   which are used such as benar, sangat, terlalu, agak, dan makin.

   a. Positive degree: an adjective degree without a border

   b. Intensive degree. It uses the words benar, betul and sungguh as the

      borders.

   c. Elative degree. It uses the words amat, sangat, or sekali as the borders.

      e.g.: Sikapnya sangat angkuh ketika menerima kami.

   d. Excessive degree. It uses the words terlalu, terlampau, and kelewat as

      the borders.

   e. Augmentative degree. It draws the increasing or the decreasing of the

      quality or the intensity degree. The borders are makin or semakin.

   f. Equative degree (equivalent: the same…..as..)

      Equative degree appears if an element in subordinate clause and main

      clause which is compared has the same degree. The pattern of sentences

      of equivalent is that there are words sama….dengan.

   g. Comparative degree




                                                                              21
         Comparative degree in English signed by words more….than, adjective

         followed by –er.......than (e.g.: smaller…than), or less……than. In

         Indonesian language, the form which used to signal comparative relation

         is lebih/kurang……..dari(pada).



2.5 References

   2.5.2 References in English

       As the main theme, the study is about references. Before studying it, the

important thing to do first, is to have a lot of information and knowledge about

reference itself, in the case is English references. There are some experts defining

reference device. First experts are Halliday and Hassan (1976; cited in Baker,

1992:180) who state that reference is a part of cohesive devices. The next expert is

Griffiths (2006: 13), states, “Reference is what speakers or writers do when they

use expressions to pick out their audience particular people (“my sister”) or things

(“The Parthenon temple”) or times (“2007”) or places (“that corner”) or events

(“her birthday”) or ideas (“The plan we were told about”)”. The words in the

bracket are references.

       The other expert is Yule (1996: 17) states, “Reference is as an act in which

a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable listeners, or readers, to identify

something. The linguistic forms can be called “referring expressions” (Yule,

1996: 17). Referring expressions can be proper nouns (e.g.: Leonardo Di Caprio),

noun phrases which are definite (e.g.: the writer, the dancer), or indefinite (e.g.: a

girl, a teacher), and pronouns (e.g.: he, she, they, it, them). The choice of using




                                                                                     22
referring expressions is based on what the speaker supposes the addressees

already know.

         English references are used frequently in text by using pronoun to explain

the things, participants, events, or objects that already mentioned. The use of

pronoun is signaled by omitting the thing that we want to explain, then replaced

by pronoun refers to it in the next sentence. The aim is to avoid repetition, so that

the readers can understand easily what the text is about. (Baker, 1992)

         There are several deictic words, which mean word that, its references can

move from one thing to other things such as she, he, I, you, here, there, now,

tomorrow,      and   later.   According   to   Halliday   and   Hassan    (1976)   at

http://home.eserver.org/danzico/Discourse/hallidaysummary.html, there are two

types of references:


 1.    Exophora (situational)

 2.    Endophora (textual). Endophora consists of anaphora (to preceding text)

       and cataphora (to following text).


The main differences between exophora/exohoric and endophora/endophoric can

be seen in the following examples:

      1. Please, clean the four dolls. Then, put them in my locker.

      2. He was a good teacher. We are proud of him.

In the example [1] we can see endophoric, because the word them is textual

referring back to four dolls. The words four dolls are the initial expressions. Yule

(1996: 23) calls the initial expression antecedent. The readers can find the




                                                                                   23
antecedent about them in the preceding sentence. Halliday and hassan (1976)

mention that without applying contextual reference as can be seen in the sentence

then, put them in my locker [example 1] would not make much sense. Meanwhile,

in example [2] we can see exophoric. Exophoric is implicit from the text itself, but

it is obvious in certain condition. The readers can feel strange what the word he

refers to, but the characters in the text are aware of the he. So the readers can find

the texture in the sentences. Yule (1996: 19) calls exophoric as attributive use. It

is referring expressions which physical referents are unidentifiable. The referents

do not exist, it can be ‘whoever’ or ‘whatsoever’, but the addressees can identify it

clearly.

           Halliday (1994: 313) states about reference in his another book which

entitled An Introduction to Functional Grammar. References consist of exophoric

and endophoric. Exophoric means that the referring expressions outside the text.

Endophoric consists of anaphoric and cataphoric. Anaphoric: that is the initial

expressions (antecedent) have been mentioned in the previous sentence. And the

last is cataphoric. Cataphoric means that the antecedent can be found in the next

sentence. It is difficult to interpret if there is no full noun phrase presented in the

next sentence. Halliday divides reference into three groups:

1. Personal reference

         The structure of personal reference as stated by Halliday (1994):

             Function                         Head                 Deictic
Class                   determinative           Possessive
Singular                He/him, she/her, it     His, hers, its     His, her, its
Plural                  They/them               Theirs             Their




                                                                                    24
   For example: Dude is not at home tonight. Five minutes ago, he sent a

   message “Hi! Tonight, I am going to have a dinner with my relation”.

   In the sentence, I and He refer to Dude as mentioned in the first sentence.

        Larson (1984: 121) categorizes the person/personal references in the

   following table:

                                          Singular                         Plural
  1st person                                 I                                  We
   nd
  2 person                                                   You
   rd
  3 person            Masculine       Feminine               Neuter
                         He                 She                It              They


2. Demonstrative reference.

   This/that, these/those are demonstrative reference. They refer to something as

   being ‘near’ and ‘not near’.

   The structure of demonstrative reference as stated by Halliday (1994):

                Class                      Specific
                                                                           Non-specific
  Function                      Near                    Remote
  Head                  This (singular)           That (singular)     It
                        These (plural)            Those (plural)
  Deictic               This (singular)           This (singular)     The
                        These (plural)            These (plural)
  adjunct               Here (now)                There (then)


   Halliday reveals that “the” has a specifying function; it signals the identity or

   information is known or knowable. The information is available elsewhere. It

   may be in the preceding text (anaphoric).

        Halliday and Hassan (cited in Elam, 2001: 27) classify demonstrative

   references into two categories as mentioned below:




                                                                                          25
   1.) Adverbial demonstrative reference. The reference refers to the place and

       time where the process is going on. The words which belong to this

       references are here, there, now, and then.

   2.) Nominal demonstrative reference. The reference refers to the place where

       the thing is present, person or object involving in the process. The words

       belonging to this reference are this, these, that, those, and the.



3. Comparatives reference.

   Comparatives set up a relation of contrast. In the following table are kind of

   comparative references.

    The structure of comparative references as stated by Halliday (1994):

                     General                                    Particular
    Identity         Similarity Difference      Deictic/Numerative Epithet          adjunct
    Same, equal,     Similar,     Other,       More, fewer, less,       Bigger      Better,
    identical & c.   additional   different    further & c.; so-, as-   & c.; so-   so-, as-,
    Adjunct/         Epithet:     Adjunct:     & c. + numeral           , as-,      equally-
    Submodifier:     Such         Otherwise,                            more-,      , more-
    Identically      Adjunct:     else,                                 less & c.   , less &
                     So,          differently.                          +           c+
                     likewise,                                          adjective   adverb
                     similarly                                                      e.g:
                                                                                    equally
                                                                                    good


       Based on Halliday and Hassan (in Elam, 2001: 29), comparative

references are divided into two categories:

   1.) General comparative references which expresses the likeness among the

       things. Two things may be the same or different.

   2.) Particular comparative references which compares the different of quality

       and quantity among the things.



                                                                                        26
           2.5.2 References in Indonesian language

           Like English, Indonesian language also has references and their rules. The

meaning of reference is the same as English. Alwi, et al (1998: 43) defines

reference as a network between a certain element of a language and it’s the real

form including things, matters in the world. References in Indonesian language

are divided into two terms: endophoric and exophoric. The words in Indonesian

language that are used as reference can be called “pronominal.” According to

Hornby (2000: 1057), pronominal is words that can be used to refer to another

word. The references are movable depending on who interpret it. There are three

types of pronominal (Nugraha, 2008):

1.) Person pronominal. It is used to refer to people.

The following table is the use of person pronominal in Indonesian language in

details:

                                                Meaning
Pronoun                                                     Plural
                      Singular
                                          Neutral             Exclusive      Inclusive
First          Saya, aku, ku-, -ku                           Kami          kita
Second         Engkau, kamu, Anda, Kalian, kamu,
               dikau, kau-, -mu    sekalian, Anda
                                   sekalian
Third          Ia, dia, beliau, -nya   Mereka


2.) Demonstrative pronominal

           There are three types of pronominal in terms of demonstrative, covering:

    General demonstrative: it refers to something which is near with the author or

    speaker, such as ini, itu, and anu.




                                                                                  27
   Demonstrative pronominal to point out place: sini (dekat), situ (agak jauh),

   and sana (jauh). These pronominal are often used with the prepositions of

   place such as di/ke/dari.

   Pronominal pointing out the things: begini (dekat), begitu (jauh)



3.) Pronominal in the form of question: siapa, apa, mana, mengapa, kenapa,

   kapan, bilamana, di mana, ke mana, dari mana, bagaimana.

       Syntactically, in Indonesian language, (Alwi, et al, 1998: 44) endophoric

relation which involves anaphora and cataphora, has some restrictions as follows:

     Article:                  si, yang, sang.
     Demonstrative:            ini, itu, di/ke/dari(sini, situ, sana), begini
                               (dekat), begitu (jauh)
     Pronoun:                  saya, kami, mereka,-ku, -mu, -nya.
     Numeral:                  satu, kedua
     Proper name:              Nanang, Sugiyono
     Person reference:         Bapak, Ibu, Saudara



2. 6 Translation

       Many experts have defined the meaning of translation. Translation,

basically, is the process to change one to another. The aim is to reformulate

various kinds of texts, covering literary text, politics, poem, religious, and etc.

Weber (1984) states translation is the transposition of a text from SL to TL. For

further, the translated version must be absolutely accurate in meaning, contain all

nuances of the original, and must be written in clear, elegant language that can be

easily understood by the reader. Translating skill is a language skill that needs two

languages both source language and target language. In this research, the study



                                                                                  28
also adopts the definition of translation from Newmark (1981:7) who states that

translation is a process of transferring meaning in one source language into target

language in written form.

       In line with Larson (1984:3) who mentions that translation consists of

transferring the meaning of the source language to the receptor language which is

done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second

language by way of semantics structure. In his opinion, basically, translation is a

change of form. Forms of language are actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences,

paragraphs, etc., which are spoken and written. It is in line with Bell (1991), that

translation is the process substitute expressions from source language into target

language by maintaining semantic and stylistic equivalences.

       One thing which is important in translating is the deep structure. Beside

form of languages, Newmark (1988) states that there are many tensions in

translation for example between sound and sense, emphasis (word order) and

naturalness   (grammar),    the   figurative   and    the   literal,   neatness   and

comprehensiveness, concision and accuracy.           Referring to Newmark, the

translators are demanded to understand about the deep structure of a text, so that

they can reformulate it to target language well.



2.7 The process of translation

       The translation process is one step to see how the text is changed into

another language. The translator needs to have sufficient knowledge, capability,

and skill to transfer the text into target language. We can see how a text translated




                                                                                  29
from one language to another language from the following Larson’s display

(1984). Display of translating process:

SOURCE LANGUAGE                                        RECEPTOR LANGUAGE

       Text to be
       translated                                             Translation

            Discover                                      Re-express

            the meaning                                   the meaning



                                          Meaning

       Nida and Taber (1982: 33) have their own description of the translation

process. They figured three –stage system of translation. The three- stage system

of translation can be seen in the following diagram:


        A (source language)                                 B (receptor language)



       (Analysis)                                             (Restructuring)



        X                            (transfer)                   Y




The three-stage systems are: 1) the analysis of surface structure in terms of

grammatical relationship and meanings, 2) the transferring process from the first

step. At this step, the translator transfers to his/her mind what is conveyed in

language A to language B, 3) restructuring process, in which the message can be

accepted in the receptor language fully and completely.




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2.8 The procedure of translation

       Newmark (1988: 81) states that translation procedures are employed when

we will observe the translation focusing on sentences or smaller unit of language.

He mentioned some translation procedures as follows:

a. Transference (emprunt, loan words, transcription)

   Transference is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a

   translation procedure. It includes transliteration, which relates to the

   conversion of different alphabets. For example: Coup de’etat (French) is

   translated as kudeta (Indonesia). According to Catford (1965: 43-48),

   transference means translators do not transfer the meaning. It just borrows the

   formal and contextual meaning of TL. Catford views that each language has

   its own formal and contextual meaning. So, translators just need to look at

   two different formal and contextual meanings between SL and TL.

b. Naturalization

   This procedure relates to adjust the words in the SL to the standard

   pronunciation, and then to the standard morphology.

   For example: Attraction (in English) – Atraksi (in Bahasa)

c. Cultural Equivalent

   This procedure is used when an SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural

   word. It can be used in general publicity, propaganda, brief explanation for

   ignorant reader of SL culture. The main aim of the procedure is to hold up

   another translation procedure in a couplet.

   For example: Baccalaureat (English)       – Sarjana Muda (Bahasa)




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                 Notaire (English)          - Pengacara (Bahasa)

                 Head (English)             - ketua/kepala (Bahasa)

d. Functional Equivalent

   This procedure is appropriate to be used for cultural words. It needs the use of

   a culture-free word, sometimes with a new particular term.

e. Descriptive equivalent

   Description procedure is one of procedures which has to take into

   consideration in opposition to function. Description and function are crucial

   elements in explanation and in translation.

f. Synonymy

   This tries to find out a near TL equivalent to an SL word in a context. It is

   used for an SL word where there is no clear one-to-one equivalent and the

   word is not important in the text, in particular for adjectives or adverbs of

   quality..

g. Through-Translation

   It is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations,

   components of compounds (superman – ubermensch), and phrases, is

   recognized as loan translation. The most obvious examples of through-

   translation are the name of international organizations which consist of

   universal words and their acronyms. E.g.: UNESCO, FAO, ILO and so on.

   Regularly, this procedure of translation should be used only when already

   recognized terms.

h. Sifts or Transposition




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   This involves a change in the grammar from SL to TL. This procedure is

   applied when there is a connection of meaning between SL and TL but the

   translating process needs a change of word classes or syntaxes change. The

   procedure used to reach naturalness of some expressions in TL in the words

   level and its structure. For example: Beautiful girl (in English) – Gadis cantik

   (in Indonesian language)

i. Modulation

   When the meaning of SL cannot be expressed with the same way in TL

   because of the differences of culture and point of view, this procedure is

   applied. SL and TL basically have parallel in expressing a particular meaning

   yet the point of view is different. For example: Tea-bags (in English) – teh

   celup (in bahasa)

j. Recognised Translation

   This procedure requires official or generally accepted translation of any

   institutional term. For example: Rechsstaat (German) is translated as

   Constitutional State (English)

k. Translation Label

   This procedure is impermanent translation which should be made in inverted

   commas. It could be done through literal translation.

l. Compensation

   It occurs when loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in

   one part of a sentence is compensated in another part, or in a nearby sentence.

m. Reduction and Expansion




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   These are rather indefinite translation procedures. For each there is at least one

   shift which you may like to bear in mind, particularly in poorly written text:

   (1) SL adjective of substance plus general noun, TL noun: Science

   linguistique – linguistics.

   (2) Expansion: a not uncommon shift, often neglected, is SL adjective, English

   TL adverb plus past participle, or present participle plus object.

n. Paraphrase

   It is an extension or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text. It is

   used in an ‘anonymous’ text when it is poorly written, or has important

   implications and omissions.

o. Equivalence

   It is a term implying approximate equivalence accounting for the same

   situation in different terms; different ways of rendering the clichés and

   standard aspects of language – notices, familiar alternatives, phrases and

   idioms.

p. Adaptation

   It uses of a recognized equivalent between two situations. This is a matter

   cultural equivalence. For example: Dear Sir (English) is translated as

   monsieur (French)

q. Couplets. It occurs when the translator combines two different procedures.

r. Notes, Additions, Glosses

   Notes: addition information in a translation. There are various forms of notes:




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   within the text, notes at the bottom of the page, notes at the end of chapter, and

   notes or glossary at the end of book



2.9 The criteria of a good translation

         There are some theories about the criteria of a good translation suggested

by some experts. According to Larson (1984:6) the best translation is the one

which:

a. uses the usual language forms of the receptor language

b. communicates the same meaning in Target Language that comprehended by

   the speakers of the source language

c. maintains the dynamics of the original source language text. Maintaining the

   dynamics, here, means that the translation is presented in the same responses

   as the source text.

         Besides Larson, Bell (1991:11) also states about ‘laws’ of a good

translation. He quotes Tytler’s statement that there are three laws of a good

translation, covering:

a. There should be a copy of the ideas of the original text in the translation.

b. The writing style and method should be the same with the original.

c. Translation should have all of the ease of the original text.



2.10 Novel

         Novel is a kind of literary work. It has intrinsic values such as theme, plot,

characters and so on and also extrinsic values. According to the free dictionary at




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http://www.thefreedictionary.com/novel, novel that functions as noun means a

fictional prose which has long story in a bundle of book. The series of events and

also the characters are imaginative. Samekto (1976: 45) states that novel tells

about ordinary people who came from ordinary society in the author’s life. Novel

has a deep relation to condition of society when the novel was made. According to

Hornby (2000), novel is a long story and has the characters and events which are

usually imaginary. In a novel, setting, plot and characters are usually developed in

great detail.




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