The literature review of the study is discussed in this chapter. It covers the
meaning, the change of meaning, the kinds of meaning, cohesion, references,
translation, the process of translation, the procedure of translation, the criteria of a
good translation, and the definition of novel.
2. 1 Meaning
Because the title is about cohesive level that has a correlation with
meaning concept, so we have to explore about meaning itself. Many theories of
meaning have been stated by experts. In daily life, the word “meaning” is used in
a lot of fields with their contextual uses. The word “meaning” has the same
meaning as the concept, statement, message, information, idea, content, and
thought (Aminuddin, 1985: 50). Meanwhile, meaning in terms of terminology is
about a network between languages with the outside which has been agreed by
language users (cf. Grice, 1957; Bolinger, 1981: 108; cited in Aminuddin, 1985:
According to the theory of meaning from Ferdinand de Saussure, meaning
is the “definition” or “concept” that belongs to the linguistic signs (cited in Chaer,
2003: 287). If the identities of linguistic signs are the same as “word” or lexical
items, meaning is a definition or concept which belongs to each word or lexical
items. But, if the identities of linguistic signs are the same as morpheme, it will
mean that meaning is a concept belonging to morpheme either basic or affix.
Aristoteles in Aminuddin (1985: 15) states that meaning can emerge because of
two things: 1) meaning which emerges from its word automatically, 2) meaning
which emerges because of grammatical relationship.
Meaning is an important thing for the translators. Translators can replace
what messages are conveyed in the source language to target language if they
know the whole meaning of the sentences in the source language. That’s why
translators should be semanticist in translating process. (Bell, 1991: 79)
Larson (1984: 55) states that “bundle” of meaning components can make a
word. Meaning component is the smallest unit in the semantic structure. Meaning
components consist of things, events, attributes, and relations. Meaning
components make group together to form concepts.
THINGS ………………………..nouns, pronouns
RELATIONS……………………conjunctions, prepositions, particles, enclitics, etc.
2.2 The change of meaning
In short term, meaning of word will be still the same; but in the long term
there is a probability of meaning of the word will change. According to Chaer
(2003: 311) meanings will change caused by following factors:
1. The development in technology and sciences. Because of technology and
sciences development, a word means A will change to B or C.
2. The development of socio-culture. It causes a change process in meaning. In
Indonesian language for example: a word “Sarjana”, a few years ago, it meant
“the smart person”, but now, it means “person who has graduated from
university/ institute/ academy”. The person who has not graduated yet from
university can’t be called “sarjana”.
3. The development of word uses. Every field usually has a number of
vocabularies related to its field. For example: in farming field, there are some
vocabularies, such as harvest, cultivate, paddy’s seed, etc. the word
“membajak” (in Indonesian language means cultivate) can be used for
“membajak lagu/ membajak pesawat terbang/ membajak buku” and etc.
4. Exchange of five senses, for example: the word sweet for tongue can be used
to express these following sentences:
- Sweet dreams
- Sweet memories etc.
5. There is an association process. It means that there is a relationship between
utterances and other meanings.
2. 3 The kinds of meaning
Language is very important in daily life. Many activities in society use
language as a tool to communicate something either orally or written. Therefore,
meanings of language transform into various types of meanings. According to
Chaer (2003: 289), there are five kinds of meaning, covering:
Lexical, grammatical, and contextual meaning
Lexical meaning is a meaning that belongs to lexical item without any
contexts. For example: a word horse has lexical meaning ‘a kind of animal
which has four legs. In other word, lexical meaning is the true meaning or
meaning that is suitable with the real situation.
Grammatical meaning appears if there is grammatical process, such as
reduplication, affixation, or composition. For example in composition process:
a word girl with word “Sundanese” → sundanese girl. Grammatically, it
means origin of the girl. Contextual meaning is a meaning of word which
becomes a part of single context. We can see the contextual meaning in word
head. Word head has two meanings if the word head is in two different
Kucai’s head is bald.
As the headmaster, he has to be a good person.
The word head above has two meanings. In the first sentence, head means a
part of body. In the second sentence, it means a leader.
Referential and non-referential meaning
A word or lexical items can be called referential if there is a reference. It is
hard to find out the meaning if there is no reference.
Denotative and connotative
According to Chaer (2003), denotative meaning is the original meaning or the
true meaning of words without adding feeling. For example: word ‘thin’ in the
sentence ‘the girl is so thin’. Word ‘thin’ in the sentence means ‘condition of
the girl’s body which is smaller than normal weight’. Connotative meaning is
another meaning that added to denotative meaning. The readers can feel
uncommon sense whether positive, negative, or neutral sense. For example:
the girl is so slim. The word ‘slim’ from the sentence has the same meaning
as the word ‘thin’, but the word ‘slim’ is connotative meaning, because it has
Conceptual and associative meaning
According to Leech (cited in Chaer, 2003:293), conceptual meaning belongs
to a lexical item beyond context or even association. Conceptual meaning is
the same as lexical meaning, denotative meaning, and referential meaning.
Associative meaning is the one relates to something beyond language. For
example: a word ‘jasmine’ associates with ‘holiness’. People use associative
meaning to express other concept which is similar to sign, condition, and
adjective of original concept.
Idiom and proverbial meaning
According to Hornby (2000) a proverb is well-known short saying that states
the truth or gives advice On the other hand, idioms are utterances whose
meaning cannot be analyzed lexically or grammatically.
There are so many theories defining what cohesion is. Baker (1992: 180),
states, “Cohesion is a connection of lexical, grammatical, and other relations
which provide links between various parts of a text.” Cohesion itself is about
meaning concept. Meaning can come out because of the connection between the
actual words and their expressions. It can occur not only between a word in a
sentence with a word in another one, but also between a word with another word
within a sentence. English and Indonesian language have the same rule about
cohesion. The purpose of the cohesion itself is to make cohesively-integrated text.
According to Halliday and Hassan (in Baker, 1992: 180) and Baikoeni
(cited in baikoeni.multiply.com/journal/item/135), cohesion comprises five main
cohesive devices which are reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and
a. Reference: this mechanism relates one element of the text to another one for
its interpretation, which can be present or not (endophoric and exophoric
reference). Reference is a semantic relation.
e.g.: Joni lives near a river. He often spends his time there.
The word he above refers to Joni. In brief, reference points out the two
linguistic elements are related in what they refer to.
b. Substitution: a linguistic element is not repeated but it replaced by a
e.g.: Dian likes strawberry ice-creams. She has one everyday.
The word one above is as a substitution item to replace the words strawberry
c. Ellipsis: one of the identical linguistic elements is omitted.
e.g.: All students are given ice-creams. Yuke gets strawberry. Andi gets
chocolate and Hana too.
The words ice-creams above are omitted in the following sentence
Like in English, Ellipsis in Indonesian language is the combination
of two clauses (Alwi et al, 1998: 414). There is an omission of a particular
element from a sentence. Alwi et al (1998) categorizes ellipsis into three
kinds of ellipsis:
a. Textual ellipsis (anaphoric ellipsis and cataphoric ellipsis)
e.g.: Saya yakin ∆ kamu pasti bisa. (∆= bahwa)
c. Situational ellipsis.
e.g.: ∆ senang bertemu denganmu. (∆= aku)
d. Conjunction: particular expressions contribute to create discursive. The
information using conjunction device can’t be found elsewhere in the
sentence, yet conjunction indicates that what have been said before have a
relation with the next statement (Baker, 1992: 190). The following are sort
of conjunctions which can or typically realize each relation (Baker, 1992:
Additive: and, or, also, in addition, furthermore, besides, similarly,
likewise, by contrast, for instance;
Adversative: But, yet, however, instead, on the other hand,
nevertheless, at any rate, as a matter of fact;
Causal: So, consequently, it follows, for, because, under the
circumstances, for this reason;
Temporal: Then, next, after that, on another occasion, in conclusion,
an hour later, finally, at last;
Continuatives Now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all.
Beside the conjunctions of English language, syntactically, there
are some sorts of Indonesian language conjunctions below (Alwi et al, 1998:
Coordinative conjunction: Dan, serta, atau, tetapi, melainkan, padahal,
Correlative conjunction: Baik….maupun..
Tidak hanya….., tetapi juga…
Bukan hanya….., melainkan juga…
Subordinate conjunction: Sejak, sewaktu, setelah, hingga, jika,
andaikan, agar, biarpun, measkipun, seakan-
akan, seperti, sebagai, sebab, karena,
sehingga, dengan, tanpa, sama…..dengan…,
Inter sentence conjunction Biarpun demikian/begitu, Sekalipun
e. Lexical cohesion is the selection of vocabulary in organizing relations within
a text. Halliday and Hassan (in Baker, 1992: 203) divide lexical cohesion
into two main categories: reiteration and collocation. Reiteration involves
repetition of lexical items. Reiteration includes repetition of an earlier items,
synonym or near-synonym, a super ordinate or a general word (can be called
as hyponymy). Furthermore, collocation, as a sub-class of lexical cohesion,
wraps any case which involves a pair of lexical items linked with each other
in the language in some way.
Beside the five cohesive devices above, there are still other word classes
which have a particular characteristic. According to Alwi et al (1998), they are
attributive use (modifier), function words (kata tugas), inversion, passive
sentence, apposition, adverbs (e.g.: reciprocal adverb and adverb of manner), and
adjective. These word classes will have a meaning if they are related with other
words or elements either within a sentence or another sentence in a text. It means
that those word classes are cohesive devices. That is because cohesion is a
connection of lexical, grammatical, and other relations linking varieties parts of a
text to make holistically integrated text.
The following is the details explanation of word classes mentioned by
1. Attributive use/modifier. It will have a meaning if it is combined with other
words. It can be combined with noun (read: noun phrase), with preposition
(read: prepositional phrase), with verb (read: verb phrase), etc. The
modifiers can be placed before or after the head word. Some examples of
attributive use which are used in the following phrases:
a. Verb phrase. The modifiers are lagi, kembali, sedang akan, sudah bisa
e.g.: Dia menangis lagi
Kami harus menulis kembali
Pasien itu sudah boleh makan
b. Noun phrase. The modifiers that usually are used are yang, lagi,
numeration (satu, dua, tiga etc).
e.g.: Penduduk yang bermukim di daerah pedesaan.
c. Prepositional phrase
In prepositional phrase, nouns function as the head word. There are
placed some modifiers in front of the head word such as di, ke, dari,
dalam, untuk, pada etc.
e.g.: Di kantor, ke desa, dari markas, pada masa itu, and etc.
2. Function words (kata tugas).
Kinds of the function word:
Preposition: di-, ke-, dalam, pada, lewat, per, peri, dengan, buat, bagi, etc.
Interjection: ayo, mari, aduhai, amboi, hai, halo, bah, cis, cih, idih, etc.
Article: sang, sri, hang, dang, para, si, yang….. etc.
Insisting particle: -kah, -lah, -tah, and pun.
3. Inversion: a sentence where the verb written before the subject.
e.g.: a. Ada pencuri di halaman [Inversion form]
b. Seorang laki-laki berjenggot. [The antecedent]
4. Passive sentence: a sentence which uses a verb completed with prefix di-.
5. Apposition: a single sentence which broaden by adding some particular
element to an element in a sentence (usually noun element). The main
element and additional element should have the same referent. There are
various apposition such as full apposition, partial apposition, attribute
apposition and fragment apposition (in this case to give an example).
6. Adverbs (keterangan)
a. reciprocal adverb
e.g.: satu sama lain, saling.
b. Adverb of manner: the words which used to explain how someone does
something or how something happened. It usually uses the word
se….nya or se……..mungkin.
e.g.: seenaknya, sekeras-kerasnya, sekeras mungkin etc.
7. Adjective: has a function to point out the degree of quality and various
comparative degrees. To differ the quality degree, there are some borders
which are used such as benar, sangat, terlalu, agak, dan makin.
a. Positive degree: an adjective degree without a border
b. Intensive degree. It uses the words benar, betul and sungguh as the
c. Elative degree. It uses the words amat, sangat, or sekali as the borders.
e.g.: Sikapnya sangat angkuh ketika menerima kami.
d. Excessive degree. It uses the words terlalu, terlampau, and kelewat as
e. Augmentative degree. It draws the increasing or the decreasing of the
quality or the intensity degree. The borders are makin or semakin.
f. Equative degree (equivalent: the same…..as..)
Equative degree appears if an element in subordinate clause and main
clause which is compared has the same degree. The pattern of sentences
of equivalent is that there are words sama….dengan.
g. Comparative degree
Comparative degree in English signed by words more….than, adjective
followed by –er.......than (e.g.: smaller…than), or less……than. In
Indonesian language, the form which used to signal comparative relation
2.5.2 References in English
As the main theme, the study is about references. Before studying it, the
important thing to do first, is to have a lot of information and knowledge about
reference itself, in the case is English references. There are some experts defining
reference device. First experts are Halliday and Hassan (1976; cited in Baker,
1992:180) who state that reference is a part of cohesive devices. The next expert is
Griffiths (2006: 13), states, “Reference is what speakers or writers do when they
use expressions to pick out their audience particular people (“my sister”) or things
(“The Parthenon temple”) or times (“2007”) or places (“that corner”) or events
(“her birthday”) or ideas (“The plan we were told about”)”. The words in the
bracket are references.
The other expert is Yule (1996: 17) states, “Reference is as an act in which
a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable listeners, or readers, to identify
something. The linguistic forms can be called “referring expressions” (Yule,
1996: 17). Referring expressions can be proper nouns (e.g.: Leonardo Di Caprio),
noun phrases which are definite (e.g.: the writer, the dancer), or indefinite (e.g.: a
girl, a teacher), and pronouns (e.g.: he, she, they, it, them). The choice of using
referring expressions is based on what the speaker supposes the addressees
English references are used frequently in text by using pronoun to explain
the things, participants, events, or objects that already mentioned. The use of
pronoun is signaled by omitting the thing that we want to explain, then replaced
by pronoun refers to it in the next sentence. The aim is to avoid repetition, so that
the readers can understand easily what the text is about. (Baker, 1992)
There are several deictic words, which mean word that, its references can
move from one thing to other things such as she, he, I, you, here, there, now,
tomorrow, and later. According to Halliday and Hassan (1976) at
http://home.eserver.org/danzico/Discourse/hallidaysummary.html, there are two
types of references:
1. Exophora (situational)
2. Endophora (textual). Endophora consists of anaphora (to preceding text)
and cataphora (to following text).
The main differences between exophora/exohoric and endophora/endophoric can
be seen in the following examples:
1. Please, clean the four dolls. Then, put them in my locker.
2. He was a good teacher. We are proud of him.
In the example  we can see endophoric, because the word them is textual
referring back to four dolls. The words four dolls are the initial expressions. Yule
(1996: 23) calls the initial expression antecedent. The readers can find the
antecedent about them in the preceding sentence. Halliday and hassan (1976)
mention that without applying contextual reference as can be seen in the sentence
then, put them in my locker [example 1] would not make much sense. Meanwhile,
in example  we can see exophoric. Exophoric is implicit from the text itself, but
it is obvious in certain condition. The readers can feel strange what the word he
refers to, but the characters in the text are aware of the he. So the readers can find
the texture in the sentences. Yule (1996: 19) calls exophoric as attributive use. It
is referring expressions which physical referents are unidentifiable. The referents
do not exist, it can be ‘whoever’ or ‘whatsoever’, but the addressees can identify it
Halliday (1994: 313) states about reference in his another book which
entitled An Introduction to Functional Grammar. References consist of exophoric
and endophoric. Exophoric means that the referring expressions outside the text.
Endophoric consists of anaphoric and cataphoric. Anaphoric: that is the initial
expressions (antecedent) have been mentioned in the previous sentence. And the
last is cataphoric. Cataphoric means that the antecedent can be found in the next
sentence. It is difficult to interpret if there is no full noun phrase presented in the
next sentence. Halliday divides reference into three groups:
1. Personal reference
The structure of personal reference as stated by Halliday (1994):
Function Head Deictic
Class determinative Possessive
Singular He/him, she/her, it His, hers, its His, her, its
Plural They/them Theirs Their
For example: Dude is not at home tonight. Five minutes ago, he sent a
message “Hi! Tonight, I am going to have a dinner with my relation”.
In the sentence, I and He refer to Dude as mentioned in the first sentence.
Larson (1984: 121) categorizes the person/personal references in the
1st person I We
2 person You
3 person Masculine Feminine Neuter
He She It They
2. Demonstrative reference.
This/that, these/those are demonstrative reference. They refer to something as
being ‘near’ and ‘not near’.
The structure of demonstrative reference as stated by Halliday (1994):
Function Near Remote
Head This (singular) That (singular) It
These (plural) Those (plural)
Deictic This (singular) This (singular) The
These (plural) These (plural)
adjunct Here (now) There (then)
Halliday reveals that “the” has a specifying function; it signals the identity or
information is known or knowable. The information is available elsewhere. It
may be in the preceding text (anaphoric).
Halliday and Hassan (cited in Elam, 2001: 27) classify demonstrative
references into two categories as mentioned below:
1.) Adverbial demonstrative reference. The reference refers to the place and
time where the process is going on. The words which belong to this
references are here, there, now, and then.
2.) Nominal demonstrative reference. The reference refers to the place where
the thing is present, person or object involving in the process. The words
belonging to this reference are this, these, that, those, and the.
3. Comparatives reference.
Comparatives set up a relation of contrast. In the following table are kind of
The structure of comparative references as stated by Halliday (1994):
Identity Similarity Difference Deictic/Numerative Epithet adjunct
Same, equal, Similar, Other, More, fewer, less, Bigger Better,
identical & c. additional different further & c.; so-, as- & c.; so- so-, as-,
Adjunct/ Epithet: Adjunct: & c. + numeral , as-, equally-
Submodifier: Such Otherwise, more-, , more-
Identically Adjunct: else, less & c. , less &
So, differently. + c+
likewise, adjective adverb
Based on Halliday and Hassan (in Elam, 2001: 29), comparative
references are divided into two categories:
1.) General comparative references which expresses the likeness among the
things. Two things may be the same or different.
2.) Particular comparative references which compares the different of quality
and quantity among the things.
2.5.2 References in Indonesian language
Like English, Indonesian language also has references and their rules. The
meaning of reference is the same as English. Alwi, et al (1998: 43) defines
reference as a network between a certain element of a language and it’s the real
form including things, matters in the world. References in Indonesian language
are divided into two terms: endophoric and exophoric. The words in Indonesian
language that are used as reference can be called “pronominal.” According to
Hornby (2000: 1057), pronominal is words that can be used to refer to another
word. The references are movable depending on who interpret it. There are three
types of pronominal (Nugraha, 2008):
1.) Person pronominal. It is used to refer to people.
The following table is the use of person pronominal in Indonesian language in
Neutral Exclusive Inclusive
First Saya, aku, ku-, -ku Kami kita
Second Engkau, kamu, Anda, Kalian, kamu,
dikau, kau-, -mu sekalian, Anda
Third Ia, dia, beliau, -nya Mereka
2.) Demonstrative pronominal
There are three types of pronominal in terms of demonstrative, covering:
General demonstrative: it refers to something which is near with the author or
speaker, such as ini, itu, and anu.
Demonstrative pronominal to point out place: sini (dekat), situ (agak jauh),
and sana (jauh). These pronominal are often used with the prepositions of
place such as di/ke/dari.
Pronominal pointing out the things: begini (dekat), begitu (jauh)
3.) Pronominal in the form of question: siapa, apa, mana, mengapa, kenapa,
kapan, bilamana, di mana, ke mana, dari mana, bagaimana.
Syntactically, in Indonesian language, (Alwi, et al, 1998: 44) endophoric
relation which involves anaphora and cataphora, has some restrictions as follows:
Article: si, yang, sang.
Demonstrative: ini, itu, di/ke/dari(sini, situ, sana), begini
(dekat), begitu (jauh)
Pronoun: saya, kami, mereka,-ku, -mu, -nya.
Numeral: satu, kedua
Proper name: Nanang, Sugiyono
Person reference: Bapak, Ibu, Saudara
2. 6 Translation
Many experts have defined the meaning of translation. Translation,
basically, is the process to change one to another. The aim is to reformulate
various kinds of texts, covering literary text, politics, poem, religious, and etc.
Weber (1984) states translation is the transposition of a text from SL to TL. For
further, the translated version must be absolutely accurate in meaning, contain all
nuances of the original, and must be written in clear, elegant language that can be
easily understood by the reader. Translating skill is a language skill that needs two
languages both source language and target language. In this research, the study
also adopts the definition of translation from Newmark (1981:7) who states that
translation is a process of transferring meaning in one source language into target
language in written form.
In line with Larson (1984:3) who mentions that translation consists of
transferring the meaning of the source language to the receptor language which is
done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second
language by way of semantics structure. In his opinion, basically, translation is a
change of form. Forms of language are actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences,
paragraphs, etc., which are spoken and written. It is in line with Bell (1991), that
translation is the process substitute expressions from source language into target
language by maintaining semantic and stylistic equivalences.
One thing which is important in translating is the deep structure. Beside
form of languages, Newmark (1988) states that there are many tensions in
translation for example between sound and sense, emphasis (word order) and
naturalness (grammar), the figurative and the literal, neatness and
comprehensiveness, concision and accuracy. Referring to Newmark, the
translators are demanded to understand about the deep structure of a text, so that
they can reformulate it to target language well.
2.7 The process of translation
The translation process is one step to see how the text is changed into
another language. The translator needs to have sufficient knowledge, capability,
and skill to transfer the text into target language. We can see how a text translated
from one language to another language from the following Larson’s display
(1984). Display of translating process:
SOURCE LANGUAGE RECEPTOR LANGUAGE
Text to be
the meaning the meaning
Nida and Taber (1982: 33) have their own description of the translation
process. They figured three –stage system of translation. The three- stage system
of translation can be seen in the following diagram:
A (source language) B (receptor language)
X (transfer) Y
The three-stage systems are: 1) the analysis of surface structure in terms of
grammatical relationship and meanings, 2) the transferring process from the first
step. At this step, the translator transfers to his/her mind what is conveyed in
language A to language B, 3) restructuring process, in which the message can be
accepted in the receptor language fully and completely.
2.8 The procedure of translation
Newmark (1988: 81) states that translation procedures are employed when
we will observe the translation focusing on sentences or smaller unit of language.
He mentioned some translation procedures as follows:
a. Transference (emprunt, loan words, transcription)
Transference is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a
translation procedure. It includes transliteration, which relates to the
conversion of different alphabets. For example: Coup de’etat (French) is
translated as kudeta (Indonesia). According to Catford (1965: 43-48),
transference means translators do not transfer the meaning. It just borrows the
formal and contextual meaning of TL. Catford views that each language has
its own formal and contextual meaning. So, translators just need to look at
two different formal and contextual meanings between SL and TL.
This procedure relates to adjust the words in the SL to the standard
pronunciation, and then to the standard morphology.
For example: Attraction (in English) – Atraksi (in Bahasa)
c. Cultural Equivalent
This procedure is used when an SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural
word. It can be used in general publicity, propaganda, brief explanation for
ignorant reader of SL culture. The main aim of the procedure is to hold up
another translation procedure in a couplet.
For example: Baccalaureat (English) – Sarjana Muda (Bahasa)
Notaire (English) - Pengacara (Bahasa)
Head (English) - ketua/kepala (Bahasa)
d. Functional Equivalent
This procedure is appropriate to be used for cultural words. It needs the use of
a culture-free word, sometimes with a new particular term.
e. Descriptive equivalent
Description procedure is one of procedures which has to take into
consideration in opposition to function. Description and function are crucial
elements in explanation and in translation.
This tries to find out a near TL equivalent to an SL word in a context. It is
used for an SL word where there is no clear one-to-one equivalent and the
word is not important in the text, in particular for adjectives or adverbs of
It is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations,
components of compounds (superman – ubermensch), and phrases, is
recognized as loan translation. The most obvious examples of through-
translation are the name of international organizations which consist of
universal words and their acronyms. E.g.: UNESCO, FAO, ILO and so on.
Regularly, this procedure of translation should be used only when already
h. Sifts or Transposition
This involves a change in the grammar from SL to TL. This procedure is
applied when there is a connection of meaning between SL and TL but the
translating process needs a change of word classes or syntaxes change. The
procedure used to reach naturalness of some expressions in TL in the words
level and its structure. For example: Beautiful girl (in English) – Gadis cantik
(in Indonesian language)
When the meaning of SL cannot be expressed with the same way in TL
because of the differences of culture and point of view, this procedure is
applied. SL and TL basically have parallel in expressing a particular meaning
yet the point of view is different. For example: Tea-bags (in English) – teh
celup (in bahasa)
j. Recognised Translation
This procedure requires official or generally accepted translation of any
institutional term. For example: Rechsstaat (German) is translated as
Constitutional State (English)
k. Translation Label
This procedure is impermanent translation which should be made in inverted
commas. It could be done through literal translation.
It occurs when loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in
one part of a sentence is compensated in another part, or in a nearby sentence.
m. Reduction and Expansion
These are rather indefinite translation procedures. For each there is at least one
shift which you may like to bear in mind, particularly in poorly written text:
(1) SL adjective of substance plus general noun, TL noun: Science
linguistique – linguistics.
(2) Expansion: a not uncommon shift, often neglected, is SL adjective, English
TL adverb plus past participle, or present participle plus object.
It is an extension or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text. It is
used in an ‘anonymous’ text when it is poorly written, or has important
implications and omissions.
It is a term implying approximate equivalence accounting for the same
situation in different terms; different ways of rendering the clichés and
standard aspects of language – notices, familiar alternatives, phrases and
It uses of a recognized equivalent between two situations. This is a matter
cultural equivalence. For example: Dear Sir (English) is translated as
q. Couplets. It occurs when the translator combines two different procedures.
r. Notes, Additions, Glosses
Notes: addition information in a translation. There are various forms of notes:
within the text, notes at the bottom of the page, notes at the end of chapter, and
notes or glossary at the end of book
2.9 The criteria of a good translation
There are some theories about the criteria of a good translation suggested
by some experts. According to Larson (1984:6) the best translation is the one
a. uses the usual language forms of the receptor language
b. communicates the same meaning in Target Language that comprehended by
the speakers of the source language
c. maintains the dynamics of the original source language text. Maintaining the
dynamics, here, means that the translation is presented in the same responses
as the source text.
Besides Larson, Bell (1991:11) also states about ‘laws’ of a good
translation. He quotes Tytler’s statement that there are three laws of a good
a. There should be a copy of the ideas of the original text in the translation.
b. The writing style and method should be the same with the original.
c. Translation should have all of the ease of the original text.
Novel is a kind of literary work. It has intrinsic values such as theme, plot,
characters and so on and also extrinsic values. According to the free dictionary at
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/novel, novel that functions as noun means a
fictional prose which has long story in a bundle of book. The series of events and
also the characters are imaginative. Samekto (1976: 45) states that novel tells
about ordinary people who came from ordinary society in the author’s life. Novel
has a deep relation to condition of society when the novel was made. According to
Hornby (2000), novel is a long story and has the characters and events which are
usually imaginary. In a novel, setting, plot and characters are usually developed in