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Development and Inheritance

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					Development and Inheritance

         Chapter 29
       Genetics and Inheritance
• Every somatic cell carries copies of the original 46
  chromosomes in the zygote.
• These chromosomes and their component genes
  constitute the individual’s genotype.
• The physical expression of the genotype is the
  individual’s phenotype.
• Every somatic cell contains 23 pairs of
  homologous chromosomes.
• 22 pairs are autosomes and one pair is the sex
  chromosome (XY in males and XX in females).
      Genes and Chromosomes
• Chromosomes contain DNA, and genes are
  functional segments of DNA.
• The various forms of a gene are called alleles. If
  both homologous chromosomes carry the same
  allele of a particular gene, the individual is
  homozygous;if they carry different alleles, the
  individual is heterozygous.
• Alleles are considered dominant or recessive
  depending on how their traits are expressed.
      Genes and Chromosomes
• Combining maternal and paternal alleles in a
  Punnett Square diagram allows us to predict the
  characteristics of offspring.
• Simple inheritance vs. polygenic inheritance.
• Genetic recombination, or crossing over and
  translocation, that occurs during meiosis, increases
  the variation of male and female gametes.
• The human genome project has identified more
  than 6800 of our estimated 100,000 genes,
  including some of those responsible for inherited
             INTRODUCTION
• Fertilization or conception is the fusion of the male and
  female gametes, that normally occurs in the uterine tube.
• Development is the gradual modification of physical and
  physiological characteristics from conception to maturity.
• The creation of different cells types is differentiation.
• Inheritance is the transfer of genetically determined
  characteristics from generation to generation. Genetics is
  the study of the mechanism of inheritance.
• Prenatal development occurs before birth.
• Postnatal development begins at birth and continues to
  maturity, when aging begins.
                 Fertilization
• Fertilization, or conception, normally occurs in the
  uterine tube within a day after ovulation.
• Sperm cannot fertilize an oocyte until they have
  undergone capacitation.
• The acrosomal caps of the spermatozoa release
  hyaluronidase and acrosin, enzymes required to
  penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida.
                 Fertilization
• When a single spermatozoan contacts the oocyte
  membrane, fertilization begins, and oocyte
  activation follows
• during activation, the oocyte completes meiosis II,
  and polyspermy is prevented by membrane
  depolarization and the cortical reaction.
• After activation, the female pronucleus and male
  pronucleus fuse in a process called amphimixis.
       Prenatal Development
• During prenatal development, differences in
  the cytoplasmic composition of the
  individual cells trigger changes in genetic
  activity.
• The chemical interplay between developing
  cells is called induction.
• The 9-month gestation period can be
  divided into three trimesters.
           The first trimester
• Cleavage and blastocyst formation.
• Cleavage subdivides the cytoplasm of the
  zygote in a series of mitotic divisions;the
  zygote becomes a pre-embryo and then a
  blastocyst.
• The blastocyst consists of an outer
  trophoblast and an inner cell mass.
              Implantation
• During implantation, the blastocyst burrows
  into the uterine endometrium.
• Implantation occurs about 7 days after
  fertilization.
• As the trophoblast enlarges and spreads,
  maternal blood flows through lacunae.
• After gastrulation, the blastodisc becomes
  an embryo composed of endoderm,
  ectoderm and mesoderm. (germ layers)
    Extraembryonic Membranes
• Germ layers help form four extraembryonic
  membranes:the yolk sac, amnion, allantois and chorion.
• The yolk sac is an important site for blood cell formation.
• The amnion encloses fluid that surrounds and cushions the
  developing embryo.
• The base of the allantois gives rise to the urinary bladder.
• Circulation within the vessels of the chorion provides
  provides a rapid-transit system that links the embryo with
  the trophoblast.
 Placentation and Embryogenesis
• Chorionic villi extend outward into the maternal
  tissues, forming an intricate branching network
  through which maternal blood flows.
• As development proceeds, the umbilical cord
  connects the fetus to the placenta.
• The trophoblast synthesizes hCG, estrogens,
  progesterone, hPL, placental prolactin and relaxin.
• The first trimester is critical because events in the
  first 12 weeks establish the basis for
  organogenesis.
    Second and Third Trimesters
• In the second trimester, the organ systems increase in
  complexity. During the third trimester, many of the organ
  systems become fully functional.
• The fetus undergoes its largest weight gain in the last
  trimester.
• The developing fetus is fully dependent on maternal organs
  for nourishment, respiration and waste removal.
• Maternal adaptations include increased respiratory rate,
  tidal volume, blood volume, nutrient and vitamin intake,
  GFR and uterine and mammary gland size.
             Labor and delivery
• Progesterone produced by the placenta has an inhibitory
  effect on uterine muscles;its calming action is opposed by
  estrogens, oxytocin, and prostaglandins.
• At some point, multiple factors interact to produce labor
  contractions in the uterine wall.
• The goal of labor is parturition.
• Labor can be divided into three stages:dilation, expulsion
  and placental.
• Premature labor may result in immature delivery or
  premature delivery.
• Twin births may be dizygotic or monozygotic.
          Postnatal development
• Postnatal development involves a series of life stages: the
  neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence and
  maturity.
• Senescence begins at maturity and ends in the death of an
  individual.
• The neonatal period extends from birth to 1 month after.
• In the transition from fetus to neonate, the respiratory,
  circulatory, digestive and urinary systems begin
  functioning independently.
• The newborn must also begin thermoregulation.
• Mammary gland cells produce protein rich colostrum-then
  convert to milk.
      Adolescence and Maturity
• Adolescence begins at puberty:1.the hypothalamus
  increases its production of GnRH2. Circulating levels of
  FSH and LH rise rapidly3.ovarian or testicular cells
  become more sensitive to FSH and LH.
• These changes initiate gametogenesis and a sudden rise in
  growth rate.
• These also produce gender-specific differences in the
  structure and functions of many systems.
• Further changes occur when sex hormone levels decline at
  menopause or the male climateric.
• Senescence then begins, producing gradual changes in the
  functional capabilities of all systems.