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Carl Sagan's COSMOS 30 Years On

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					    Carl Sagan’s COSMOS 30 Years On
 Celebrating the Thirtieth Anniversary of the PBS Series
            COSMOS: A Personal Voyage
    written by Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan and Steven Soter




                    In conjunction with
                 the Light in Winter Festival
This exhibit demonstrates the intersection of science and art


   On display at Tompkins County Public Library
       January 21 through February 27, 2011
Opening Reception—Friday, January 21, 5:00—8:00 PM


                made possible by grant support from
                   the Brooks Family Foundation
                and the Community Arts Partnership
                        Of Tompkins County
            This exhibit demonstrates
        the intersection of science and art
                   and features
      recent images from the Cassini Mission
 images from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission
paintings from Barbara Mink’s Event Horizons series
           The Big Dipper by Dan Larkin
         and original and digital images
 created in celebration of Sagan’s life and work
          by artists inspired by COSMOS,
             collected by Patrick Fish




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                      Curator’s Statement
When Patrick Fish first brought to me the idea for an art exhibit
celebrating the 30th Anniversary of Carl Sagan’s COSMOS series,
I was excited but not sure what should be included.

Patrick Fish has assembled a large collection of digital images
from young and emerging artists all of whom have been moved
to create artwork as a result of seeing Carl Sagan’s COSMOS se-
ries. A small number of these images are reproduced here with
permission of the artists. In some instances the originals them-
selves are on display. During the opening reception some
COSMOS related videos will be shown

As well as showing these artistic responses to the life and work of
Sagan, I wanted to include images relative to the work in which
Sagan would surely be involved if he was alive today. I am
grateful to Joe Burns, Cornell Professor of Astronomy and
Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering, for making it possi-
ble to include some of the most recent images from the Cassini
Mission in this exhibit. I am also grateful to Professor Jim Bell who
directed me to his colleagues Emily Dean and Elaina McCartney,
Cornell Department of Radiophysics and Space Research who
have generously made the Mars Exploration Rover images avail-
able for this exhibit.

Thanks are due to Barbara Mink for supporting my interpretation
of her paintings from her Event Horizons series, 2009, and allowing
me to include them in this exhibit.

Finally, when he was a child of seven, Carl Sagan asked the
question: “What are the stars?” To his good fortune and ours, his
parents took him straight to the nearest library. That was the first
step in a life long journey that opened the way for him and
countless others to a deeper understanding of the universe. I
have included Dan Larkin’s photograph of the Big Dipper, taken
locally, to show any one of us how we too can look at the stars
and strive to follow in Carl Sagan’s footsteps and explore the uni-
verse.
                                                        Sally Grubb




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                  Saturn at Equinox:
         Recent Images from the Cassini Mission




                                                 The Rite of Spring


Saturn, ten times the Earth’s size and ten times as far from the
Sun as our home world, is the most distant planet we can see
without a telescope. Since 2004 the spacecraft Cassini has or-
bited Saturn, revealing a dynamic world of wind and lightning,
rippling rings and a menagerie of moons. Here we show ten im-
ages (out of ~300,000 total that have been returned) with an
emphasis on recent images obtained during Saturn’s spring
equinox, a once-in-15-years event that occurred in August 2009.
At equinox, the Sun illuminated the rings almost exactly edge-
on. This allowed vertical ring features to cast long shadows,
highlighting structures caused by interactions between the rings
and various moons.

Sunlight then also reached the far northern latitudes of Saturn’s
largest moon Titan. Unique among moons in our solar system,
Titan has a dense atmosphere, weather systems and a land-
scape eerily like Earth's. But Titan's surface is frigid: -180°C (-290°
F). While Earth’s surface is mainly composed of rock with many
features carved by flowing water, Titan’s surface is solid water
ice with valleys carved by flowing liquid methane (better known
on Earth as “natural gas”). As the Sun has risen on Titan’s north
pole, it has also set on the south pole of Saturn’s small moon
Enceladus, where geysers spew frozen water-ice droplets into




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space.

Earlier images from this mission that were exhibited at Cornell’s
Johnson Museum of Art are now at Syracuse’s Museum of Sci-
ence and Technology. A selection of Cassini’s images can be
found online at http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov.

All images are provided by Cornell University’s Cassini Coopera-
tive. Special thanks to Joseph A. Burns, Cornell Professor of
Astronomy and the Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering.

Glowing Southern Lights
Different detectors on the spacecraft can sense different wavelengths
of radiation. In this false-color infrared image, reflected sunlight is blue,
the planet’s internal heat is red and the aurorae are green.”
NASA/JPL/LPL

A Busy Moon
 The 50-mile-long moon Prometheus (seen with its shadow at lower left)
drifts along the narrow, ribbon-like F ring and every 14 hours dips into the
ring’s core where it gouges out the visible slanted patterns.”
NASA/JPL/SSI

The Ring’s Rough Rim
In Summer 2009 the Sun crossed the ring plane, highlighting vertical fea-
tures. Here, peaks up to 1.6 miles high cast long shadows across the oth-
erwise flat rings.” NASA/JPL/SSI

Rings and Moons
This scene shows the main ring’s outer edge at right, where the 5-mile-
wide moon Daphnis disturbs the ring vertically and clears a gap. At left
is the isolated F ring. NASA/JPL/SSI

The Rite of Spring
With the Sun illuminating the rings from almost exactly edge-on the rings
become extremely faint, even though their brightness has been in-
creased 20-60 times relative to the planet.”
NASA/JPL/SSI

Geysers on Enceladus
Cassini discovered dramatic plumes of water ice spraying from cracks in
 the south polar region of the 150-mile-radius moon Enceladus, as seen




                                       5
here from the dark side of the moon.
NASA/JPL/SSI

Rivers of Methane
Apparent river valleys flow into a dark lake bed on the Titan’s surface.
While Earth’s valleys are carved into solid rock by flowing water, Titan’s
valley are gouged into solid water ice by flowing methane.” ESA/ R.
Pascal

Glint off a Titan Lake
The final proof of standing liquid on Titan’s surface came when infrared
sunlight was seen reflecting off the smooth surface of a methane lake.
NASA/JPL/LPL

Shadow on the Rings
The shadow of the nearby moon Mimas forms a dark streak on the ex-
tremely flat (less than 30-feet thick) rings
 NASA/JPL/SSI

Confusing Beauty
 This natural-color view shows the un-illuminated side of the rings as they
pass into Saturn’s shadow. Within the shadow, the inner rings can be
seen in silhouette. At upper left, the rings cut off light to the planet’s
northern hemisphere. NASA/JPL/SSI




              Shadow on the Rings
                                                         Confusing Beauty




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              Rover Landings: Cornell on Mars




Spectacular images from the surface of another world bring
science and art together in this exhibition.

In 2000, Cornell University was selected by NASA to lead the
design, development, testing, and operations of the scientific
instruments for a robotic rover mission to the surface of Mars.
Under the leadership of Steven W. Squyres, Cornell’s Goldwin
Smith Professor of Astronomy and the principal investigator for the
Mars Exploration Rover Mission, and James F. Bell, professor of
astronomy and the lead scientist for the mast-mounted color
panoramic camera system called Pancam, the two Mars rovers,
Spirit and Opportunity, began sending to Earth in January 2004
the clearest, most detailed images of Martian Landscapes ever
seen. The mission was originally designed to last ninety martian
days (sols). Now starting the eigth year of operations on the
surface of Mars, Spirit is spending the martian winter hibernating
in a sandy region called Troy in Gusev Crater; Opportunity
continues the long trek toward Endeavour Crater in Meridiani
Planum, now visible on the horizon. The pictorial record of their
journeys on the surface of Mars continues to grow.

Producing these images of Mars is truly a team effort. Hundreds
of individuals contribute to the process of planning, executing,
calibrating, and delivering the finished products. Several
meetings are required each day via teleconferences from
around the world, with both scientists and engineers
collaborating to operate the rovers and collect data.




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Each rover is about the size of a golf cart and is equipped with a
suite of scientific instruments to collect evidence about the past
environmental history of Mars, especially the history of liquid wa-
ter. Each rover’s “Athena science payload” includes Pancam’s
two multispectral, high-resolution stereo cameras to view the
Martian surface in unprecedented detail; the Microscopic
Imager to produce extreme close-up views of target rocks and
soils; engineering cameras called Navcams (for navigation),
and Hazcams (for hazard avoidance); an Alpha Particle X-ray
Spectrometer (APXS); a Mössbauer Spectrometer; and a Rock
Abrasion Tool (RAT).

The images and panoramas included in this exhibit are just a
few of the hundreds of thousands of images acquired by both
rovers.

                             Rover shadow

 Opportunity took a routine end-of-drive hazard as-
sessment image at the edge of Endurance crater
with her Hazcams and saw her own shadow cast by
the sun behind her. Cornell/NASA/JPL


                              Dark dunes
 This scene, about 3 km high, shows the crests of large, dark sand dunes
in the Russell crater on Mars. The image suggests that flow or slumping
of the loose dune materials formed the small gullies. Some carbon di-
oxide frost makes brighter patches. Image from the Mars Global Sur-
veyor Spacecraft, courtesy of Michael C. Malin, Malin Space Science
Systems.
                               Longhorn
Spirit acquired this four-frame mosaic of “Longhorn” in the Columbia
Hills of Gusev Crater on Mars.


                               Burns Cliff
 Burns Cliff in Endurance Crater on the Meridiani Planum of Mars,
named for late mineralogist and geochemist Roger Burns, proved to be
too steep for Opportunity to climb. Before going back across the slope
to egress the crater via a safer route, the science team wanted a mul-




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tispectral record of the Burns Cliff stratigraphy to continue to "read" its
geologic story.
Cornell/NASA/JPL

                                Roving Mars


Poster for the George Butler movie “Roving Mars” (2006).
On loan from Steve Squyres.


                                 RAT’s Nest

 A series of RAT (Rock Abrasion Tool) holes were drilled in the strati-
graphic layers of the Endurance crater’s sloped wall as the Opportunity
rover drove down into the crater to explore. This false-color image of
three holes, called RAT’s Nest, was aquired by the Pancam cameras.

                             Humphrey RAT hole

This subframed image was taken by Spirit’s Pancam after the RAT (Rock
Abrasion Tool) drilled into the surface of a rock called Humphrey.

                          Lander panorama (Spirit)

 After landing on Mars in 2004, Spirit checked her systems and drove off
the lander. She then turned and took a parting mosaic of the lander
with her Pancam cameras before heading out to explore the surface.

                              Serpent Drift scuff

 This 2x1 mosaic was taken by Opportunity’s Pancam cameras after a
“scuff’ procedure carried out by the rover wheel to study the structure
of the soil inside a drift named Serpent.

                      Portion of Endurance panorama

 When Opportunity arrived at Endurance crater, panoramas were ac-
quired from different positions to help the team choose the safest place
for ingress. This is a portion of one panorama.

                                   Fissure

This fissure was imaged by Opportunity’s Pancam cameras near the
Mars feature named Anatolia.




                                       9
                         Mars Exploration Rover

 This scale rendering of the Mars Exploration
Rover was created by Dan Maas from engineer-
ing drawings for the twin rovers Spirit and Oppor-
tunity. This scene as well as animated simulations
were created from what was known about Mars
before the rovers landed early in 2004.
Dan Mass/Cornell


                       Mars Exploration Rover Model
This is a scale model of the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Op-
portunity with scientific instrument payload.


                                  Trench

                    Sometimes the rovers have used their wheels to dig
                   into the soil on Mars to reveal what is underneath
                   the surface. This activity is called “trenching”. Impor-
                   tant discoveries have been made using this tech-
                   nique. Cornell/NASA/JPL


                                 Tracks

Opportunity used her Pancam cameras to look back at her own tracks
on the surface of Mars. The image is slanted because the rover was
parked on a slope when the image was acquired. Cornell/NASA/JPL

                               Blueberries

 Opportunity’s Microscopic Imager took this closeup image of hematite
"blueberries" in Eagle crater. NASA/JPL

                      Mars Exploration Rover Model

This is a scale model of the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Op-
portunity with scientific instrument payload.

                                 Tendrils

 Opportunity's Pancam cameras captured this image of tendrils while
exploring the bottom of Endurance Crater. The dune field was inacces-
sible except for remote sensing, as there was concern that the rover
would become trapped in the soft soil. The dunes and tendrils, also
visible in orbital images, remain untouched by the rover. Cornell/NASA/
JPL




                                    10
                              Barbara Mink
                               607-227-6290
                          barbara.mink@gmail.com

With a nod to the Romantics and Abstract Expressionism, my work rests on
the energy of the gesture, the visible trace of the process, and the coherence
of carefully controlled elements, with textures and density ranging from
thickly layered to ephemeral.
                               Images from
                           Event Horizons—2009

        Astronomical Telegrams
        Acrylic on canvas
        $1,250


        First String
        Acrylic on canvas
        $3,000


        Phase Transition
        Acrylic on canvas
        $1,500


        Second String
        crylic on canvas
        $1,750


        You Can’t Get There (From Here)
        Acrylic on canvas
        $3,000


        llegal Field Line
        Acrylic on canvas
        $1,250


"It is the nature of a successful work of art, in contrast to an exposition in
science, that it presents the spectator with an open field for associa-
tions, even beyond those consciously defined by the artist. The artist sets
the parameters for the types of resonances, but does not enumeate or
prescribe them." Martin




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      Celebrating the Thirtieth Anniversary of the PBS Series
               COSMOS: A Personal Voyage
      Written by Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan and Steven Soter

Thirty years ago, PBS started airing a new kind of science show -
COSMOS: A Personal Voyage, written by Carl Sagan, his wife
Ann Druyan and Steven Soter. It was revolutionary for the
visuals, the music, and for the way history and science were
mixed together. People who never thought they had an interest
in science were drawn to Sagan's mix of speculation and con-
templation tempered by his rigorous adherence to hard facts.
COSMOS was aired during the height of nuclear escalation dur-
ing the cold war and had a profound effect on the body politic.
Through the success of COSMOS, Carl Sagan became the peo-
ple's scientist. As political leaders moved us toward nuclear
oblivion, Sagan's influence on public opinion resulted in a
pushback that helped encourage Reagan into peace talks with
Gorbachev.

Whether it was teaching about the risk of nuclear winter, or de-
bunking the potentially-destabilizing Star Wars program
(Strategic Defense Initiative), Sagan became a very unlikely
geopolitical player.

COSMOS came with a powerfully written narrative and a charis-
matic presenter, but the music and accompanying visuals were
almost as important. This series would cover everything, literally,
and used the arts to help convey its message. It seems fitting
then, that some of the non-scientists who Carl Sagan inspired
would share their appreciation for his work through their art.

It's said that art begets art. Where Sagan's legacy is concerned
it can be said that science begets art. During the past 14
months we have seen John Boswell's “Symphony of Sci-
ence” (SOS) project burst on the scene. Through clever editing
of COSMOS samples, he has created what some call a new hy-
brid genre, a genre that is more like hymns for the rational. This




                                 12
isn't surprising when we consider that one of COSMOS's central
themes is awe and reverence for nature as revealed by science.
Boswell's SOS music videos have created a new interest amongst
the young in Sagan, science and the COSMOS series. The COS-
MOS series is now inspiring a new generation to go into the sci-
ences. There is also an emerging field of “Sagan art” where the
works are clearly influenced by the “Symphony of Science's”
treatment of Sagan. Some of this art is exhibited here.
                                                        Patrick Fish

Sam Saxton
A 21 year old artist in New York City, Saxton will graduate from the
School of Visual Arts in spring, 2011. He was born and raised in State
College, Pennsylvania.

Consider Again, that Dot
Carl Sagan, depicted with content from his TV series, COSMOS.
Pen and ink, and Photoshop
NFS
A Collection of Organic Molecules – Carl Sagan
Pencil Caricature
NFS

Pat Linse
                Pat Linse is an award winning illustrator who specialized in
                film industry art before becoming one of the founders of the
                Skeptics Society, Skeptic magazine, and the creator of Jr.
                Skeptic magazine. She has authored articles for Jr. Skeptic
                magazine and is co-editor of the "Encyclopedia of Pseudo-
                science." As Skeptic’s art director she has created many
                illustrations for both Skeptic and Jr. Skeptic .

Candle in the Dark
Digital reproduction
Original oil painting in Offices of Skeptic Magazine

Helen Sotiriadis
www.helensotiriadis.com info@helensotiriadis.com
Prints available upon request

Pale Blue Dandy
A simple composition for Earth Day, 2009
Photograph




                                    13
A dandelion reflects our dot in uncanny supersymmetry, poised to dis-
perse each of our ships of imagination throughout the cosmos, to better
understand the universe and ourselves.

Little Planet Pendeli
Humanity, making its stand, working together to preserve our wounded
and ever-shrinking home. Volunteer Reforestation Project, Athens,
Greece, 2009

'The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere
else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit,
yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we
make our stand.It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and char-
acter-building experience.

There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits
than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our re-
sponsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and
cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we've ever known.'
Carl Sagan


Eduardo Urbina
Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico
 eumartleon@gmail.com
 eumartleon.deviantart.com
youtube.com/eumartleon

Un Viaje Personal
Adobe Photoshop and Genius Tablet
Prints available from the artist

A tribute to Carl who has inspired us to make our own personal voyages

Jessica Estrada
jessicake42@gmail.com.

Billions and Billions
electronic
Photoshop CS4, Tablet

When I first saw Carl Sagan's COSMOS a couple of years ago, I was pro-
foundly moved. I was not viewing an average, run-of-the-mill science
program; instead, I spent that hour captivated by one man's love for the
strange, beautiful vastness of the universe we find ourselves in. I came
away from the series with the impression that Sagan was a man who
treasured our universe, but, more noticeably, treasured our little Blue
Marble--the Earth, a tiny jewel hanging in the grand necklace of




                                     14
the multitudinous diamonds of the Milky Way, meant so much to Carl
Sagan because of the imagination that had evolved into being upon it. I
have attempted to capture that same fondness in this piece, as a
stylized Carl Sagan cradles our planet from an ethereal standpoint.

Glorious Dawn
Ink and Paper, Photoshop CS4

Carl Sagan's famous quote about a "still more glorious dawn" awaiting
the human race has found its way into the hearts of science lovers
everywhere. In books, in art, even in YouTube autotune renditions, this
line has appealed to so many--why? I personally believe it is quote filled
with imagination and hope, longing and joy.

Sagan knew that the glorious dawning of a galaxy-rise would not be
seen in his lifetime, and yet still he afforded so much enthusiasm for our
race finding its way into the stars; it is this enthusiasm that has stuck with
people, inspirational for both the scientific mind and the emotional spirit.
This piece is both a tribute to Carl Sagan passing on from our lives, as well
as a bright representation of mankind heading "upwards" towards a
more glorious dawn--with all the bright enthusiasm Sagan displayed in his
lifetime.


Greg Mort
Carl Sagan Portrait
Oil on canvas
Original in the collection of the Smithsonian
National Air and Space Museum
Digital reproduction shown


Carl Sagan and the Cosmos Series had a
profound influence on my art work as well as
my passion for the wonders of the universe especially astronomy. I was
first introduced to Carl Sagan at the Lowell Observatory and shortly there
after I was honored when Dr. Sagan asked to use several of my paintings
in his book Pale Blue Dot. Following Dr. Sagan's untimely death I met
Anne Druyan at a White House science lecture and we struck up an
instant friendship. I painted the portrait from my memories of meeting Dr.
Sagan as well as images of him from the Cosmos series. It was a very
moving experience when Anne Druyan and several members of the
Sagan family come to my Maine studio for the unveiling of the portrait. I
was very pleased to have it accepted into the permanent collection of
the Smithsonian because this will help to keep his remarkable legacy
alive.




                                     15
Manu Järvinen
manu.jarvinen@gmail.com

Profit Motive Has No Conscience
Digital Painting
Software: Adobe Photoshop, Blender 3D
(free and open source 3D software)

“Profit motive has no conscience” is a quotation from
Carl Sagan’s COSMOS series.
The image is a representation of the world that the majority of us humans
support by our everyday actions. The question is: why?
Originally made as an activism poster for TheZeitgeistMovement.com ,
copies are available through the artist.

Joshua Tai Taeoalii
tai@weirdchief.com
www.weirdchief.com/artgallery.htm
Digital reproduction
Original Commissioned by Paul Unsbee
NFS
Created with spray paint and stencils
resprays of the piece can be purchased for $65

Kelly Gilleran
170 Black Rock Tpke. Redding, CT 06896
Email: eugenerainy@yahoo.com
Home Phone: 203-938-9884 Cell Phone: 203-470-0449
Online Gallery: eugenerainy.deviantart.com
Prints available on request

Carl Sagan: Cosmos
Year: 2010
Medium: Oil on Canvas

Spiral Sagan
2008
Mono-print with Watercolor and Marker
$250

A few years ago I was introduced to Carl Sagan through the Cosmos
series. One of the most striking factors about Sagan was his never-ending
sense of wonder and the beauty he found in learning and being at
home in our Cosmos. Though these three works present a more literal
interpretation of Sagan, I can honestly say as an artist as well as an
individual, there is no singular voice that has been more influential.
Although there is a perceived gap between Art and Science, I would like
to think that there is always a piece of Sagan throughout my narrative,
as well as a continuing reflection of his sense of wonder and beauty.




                                   16
Jorma Kortelainen

He Who Spoke for Earth
Painted on canvas with acrylics
Digital Print

He showed me how wonder, beauty and poetry
can be found in the natural world through reason, skepticism, and
intellectual honest.

E. Walsh

Sagan birthday
Photoshop CS4 using a graphics tablet.

This work, a birthday gift for a fellow scientist who is
very dear to me, R. Terrett, shows Carl Sagan sitting
with alien characters from species invented by R.
Terrett, on a very distant world.

Eleni Trigkatzi

"The Beauty of a living thing (is not the atoms that go into it)"
 acrylics on paper
digital reproduction on glossy paper

Alternative universe version of the famous deer meeting.

Jemrz Woodard

Carl’s COSMOS

Digital Reproduction




Kira Lehman
kasuna@gmail.com

                           He Speaks for Earth
                           Adopbe Photoshop CS4 and Wacom Tablet,
                           2010

                           Reference photo used for Carl Sagan: Skeptic
                           Magazine, vol13, #1
                           Repredocustions available at
                           stellamari.deviantart.com




                                     17
18
                        Dan Larkin
                  larkman@frontiernet.net]

                      The Big Dipper
                Delayed action photograph
                           POR




Dan Larkin is an Aassociate Professor and program chair of the
BFA Fine Art Photography program in the School of Photographic
Arts and Sciences at the Rochester Institute of Technology. In the
summer of 2008 he was an artist-in-residence at the Constance
Saltonstall Foundation for the Arts in Ithaca, NY.

While at the Saltonsall Foundation he first stumbled upon Saturn
on the Sciencenter’s Planet Walk. He actively sought out the re-
maining planets and attempted to make "concrete abstract"
photographs in an attempt to represent each of them faithfully.
These will be included in an exhibit he will curate at TCPL in the
summer of 2011. On learning of this exhibit, Larkin agreed to
show his photograph of the Big Dipper, taken while staying at the
Saltonstall Foundation in Ithaca.




                                19
101 East Green Street, Ithaca, NY 14850
     607-272-4557—http://tcpl.org




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