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					Session 3

            Industrial Waste Management
               Administration in Japan

        Armando Bandeira dos Santos Jr.

             April 6, 2010

                               GOVERNO FEDERAL
 Solid Waste Classification and Responsibility in Japan
 Solid waste arising from business activities is termed “industrial waste” and the
  enterprise is responsible for treating it.
 All other solid waste is termed “municipal waste” and municipalities are
  responsible for management
                        Municipalities                                                                                           Ordinary garbage (combustible,
                       hold responsible                                                     waste
                                                                                                                                       non-combustible, etc.)

                                                            Garbage                                                             Oversize waste
                    Municipal                                                              waste
                                                              Special control municipal waste
waste               Enterprises
                  hold responsible
                                                                     Waste arising from business activities
                                                                      Special control industrial waste

                       Special control municipal waste/special control industrial waste: Hazardous, infectious or explosive waste
    Industrial waste: Cinders, sludge, waste oil, waste acid, waste alkali, waste plastics and other waste defined by Cabinet Order and imported waste   G O V ERNO FEDERAL
     Responsibilities for solid
       waste management
-   Responsibility for the treatment of Urban Solid
    Wastes: Responsibility from the Provincial
    Government; the Government pays the service
    companies to recycle/treat such wastes

-   Responsibility for the treatment of Industrial
    Wastes: Responsibility from the generator;
    nevertheless, it is transferred to the management
    company once the wastes services company is hired;
    the role of the generator is to identify problems in the
    source of the wastes.

                                                      G O V ERNO FEDERAL
 Roles of National/Local Governments in
National (Federal) Government
  Defining national waste management policy,
  Setting standards for the appropriate waste management,
  Financial and technical support to the local government, etc.
Prefectures (States)
  Establishing regional waste management program,
  Ensuring the appropriate management of industrial waste,
  Authorization for waste treatment facilities and landfills,
  Providing technical aids to the municipalities, etc.

                                                       G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Roles of National/Local Governments in

Municipal Government
 Establishing municipal general waste management program,
 Authorization for general waste treatment agents,
 Treatment of municipal general waste & human waste,
among others

Municipal Solid Waste = Domestic or Urban Solid Waste

                                                    G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Roles of Participants Regarding
Industrial Waste (1)

• Japanese Population
   - make an effort for waste reduction, waste
     recycling, waste separation, and self-
     disposal of waste
   - follow up application/improvement of
     environmental laws
   - check the factories activities
   - accept to pay for special waste recycling

                                           G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Roles of Participants Regarding
Industrial Waste (2)
• Companies
– treat waste produced by their own business
activities under their own responsibility (on-site
– make their best effort in reducing waste by
recycling, reuse and reduction.
– motivated by governmental support and internal
competitiveness, waste service companies make
searches in order to develop new treatment
technologies and build up a positive image among
the people
                                              G O V ERNO FEDERAL
   Roles of Participants Regarding
   Industrial Waste (3)
• Prefectural (State) Government
   – License to treat industrial waste and to install industrial
     waste facilities
   – On-the-spot inspection for companies, treatment
     contractors, and industrial waste facilities
   – Establish prefectural industrial waste treatment plans
• National (Federal) Government
   – Promote technical development concerning collection,
     arrangement, and the provision of information on wastes
     and their treatment
   – Make the best efforts to provide technical and financial
     support for prefectural and municipal government to fulfill
     their own duties
   – License to import waste and verify the export of waste
                                                           G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Industrial Waste Disposal Flow in Japan (2002)

   (FY2002)                                  Note: The percentage of the amount of discharge does not
                                                 correspond to the total percentages of the amount of
                                                 recycling, reduction, and final disposal of waste due
                                                 to rounding off.
     Amount of                                                                     Amount of waste
                      Amount of waste                                             recycled and used
     discharge:       directly recycled                                           (182 million tons)
   393 million tons   (82 million tons)                                                  46%
                                                                              Volume of waste
                                                                               recycled after
                                                         Amount of
                                                     treatment residues          Amount of
                       Amount of waste
                            treated                                             waste finally
                        intermediately               Amount of waste          disposed of after
                                                         reduced                 processing
                                                     175 million tons
                                                                                  Amount of waste
                       Amount of waste                                            finally disposed
                      directly disposed of                                         40 million tons
                       (20 million tons)                                               (10%)

                                                                                   Data Source : MOE
                                                                                                  G O V ERNO FEDERAL
          Legal Framework

Fundamental Law for Establishing
              a Sound Material-Cycle Society

                           Law for the Promotion of
Waste Management Law   Effective Utilization of Resources

  Containers and Packaging Recycling Law
  Home Appliance Recycling Law
  Construction Material Recycling Law
  Food Waste Recycling Law
  End-of-Life Vehicle Recycling Law
                                                G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Waste Management Hierarchy under
      the Fundamental Law
• Basic principle for the sound material-
  cycle society:
   1. Source reduction or waste prevention
   2. Reuse
   3. Recycling
   4. Energy recovery
   5. Appropriate disposal
• Extended producer responsibility: EPR

                                             G O V ERNO FEDERAL
 IWM by Tokyo Metropolitan Government

                  Landfill Sites in Tokyo Bay

12                                              G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Responsibility for Appropriate IWM

                   Industrial                 Industrial
                     Waste                      Waste
  Generator of                                              Licensed
Industrial Waste                                             Landfill
                    Permitted      Facility   Permitted
                    Transporter               Transporter
Building Contractors             Pulverization
Manufacturers                    Incineration
Hospitals                        Recycling

                                                              G O V ERNO FEDERAL
               Industrial Waste in Tokyo
   Industrial waste generated           UNIT:Thousand tons
   in TOKYO           24,448
                                Waste from Others 5%
          Treatment             6%
         23,787 (97.3%)
         Dehydration,                               Sludge
         Pulverization,           Construction
         Incineration, etc.       & Demolition      54%
        3.0%                      Waste
    Disposal    Recycling
   1,405 (5.7%)     7,836
                                                 estimated by TMG
                                                        G O V ERNO FEDERAL
The TMG Waste Management Plan

     Transformation into a
   recycling-oriented society
• Reduction of natural resource consumption
  and waste generation
• Minimization of environmental risks in the
  process of waste treatment

                                        G O V ERNO FEDERAL
The TMG Waste Management Plan:Target 1

• Reducing generation and promoting
①Reduce the final disposal of waste to
  1,600,000 tons in FY2010(Reduction of 35%
  from FY2004)
②Promote recycling waste plastic to achieve
  zero landfill disposal
③Increase the use of construction mud by

                                     G O V ERNO FEDERAL
The TMG Waste Management Plan:Target 2

• Reduction of environmental risks
  concerning waste treatment and recycling
④Establish a system for hazardous waste
  treatment within Tokyo
⑤Reinforce wide-area cooperation in the
  metropolitan area to eradicate illegal
  dumping of industrial waste

                                      G O V ERNO FEDERAL
The TMG Waste Management Plan:Target 3

• Promotion of the development of sound
  waste treatment and recycling business
⑥Establish a system that enable reliable
  industrial waste disposal contractors to
  enhance their market value

                                         G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Toward Zero-Landfilling:
    Plastic Recycling
Composition of Landfilled MSW


others     plastic   others

     ash             ash

by weight            by volume

                              TMG’s landfill site
                                        G O V ERNO FEDERAL
       Toward Zero-Landfilling(1):
              Ash Melting
                                 In Tokyo 23 wards,
      electrode                  most of incinerator ash
ash               flue gas       is melted into slag to
                                 be used as civil
                                 engineering material.

    over 1200℃
Arc Type Ash Melting Furnace                slag
                                                   G O V ERNO FEDERAL
    Toward Zero-Landfilling(2):

In the TAMA region, all of
the incinerator ash is used
to produce Eco-cement.


    Eco-cement facilities     interlocking blocks
                                         G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Summary of IWM in TMG
• Most of industrial wastes are disposed of by
  licensed private companies.
• About three quarters of industrial waste
  generated in Tokyo is disposed of in other
• We are cooperating with other local agencies
  to prevent illegal dumping.
• We are promoting Super Eco-Town Project in
  order to establish environmentally sound
  industrial waste management.

                                          G O V ERNO FEDERAL
Resource Recycling
 • TMG aims to build a recycling-oriented
   society by implementing the measures set
   forth in the TMG waste management plan.
 • The residents should fulfill their
   responsibilities as waste generators and
   improve their daily purchasing behavior.
 • According to the concept of EPR, business
   companies should take a responsible
   approach to reduce waste.
 • TMG will build new recycling systems and
   engage in the development of a wide-area
   framework in collaboration with private-
   sector companies and municipal

                                         G O V ERNO FEDERAL
General Law Concerning the
 Dissemination of the 3 Rs:
  - The factories must follow the following

  1 - Reduce the generation of sub-products in the
  production process and reuse the used products as

  2 - Adopt zero emission measures;

  3 - Collection and recycling of used products.

                                                   G O V ERNO FEDERAL
           About the Industrial Waste
             Management in Japan
     The governmental efforts in creating and solidifying an
 environmental culture in Japan was just providential, once the
   development of the production and consumption as those
noticed in that country in the 1960s do not usually imply in good
   examples concerning the handling of both municipal and
                        industrial wastes.

Japan got to overcome such trend by inventing in environmental
 education and crating strict laws for the separation, collection,
    transport, treatment and final disposal of the wastes by
            generators and management companies.

                                                           G O V ERNO FEDERAL
                      MASTER PLAN
Suggestions from SUFRAMA technicians for the MASTER PLAN:

1- Legislation: specific regulation for the 3Rs;
2- Create a department for the Management of Industrial Wastes in
3- Give suport to awareness programs through of educational actions
related to the advantages of environmental preservation;
4- Implementation and monitoring of the Waste Inventory Data Base, in
partnership with IPAAM;
5- Suport for the companies and other demands regarding to IWM;
6- Incentive for the setting of new WS and Recycling companies;
7- Acknowledge the recycling actions of the factories, such as a green
stamp or award;

                                                                G O V ERNO FEDERAL
                       MASTER PLAN
Suggestions from SUFRAMA technicians for the MASTER PLAN:

8- Extend the adoption of ISO 9001 (Decree 783/1993), foreseen for
the PBP of the large factories, also for ISO 14001 (currently voluntary);
9- Obligation of minimum percentages for on-site waste treatment, in
relation to annual amounts generated for each factory;
10- Subsides for the acquisition/renewal of machines and to obtain
tested/patented technologies from large management companies in
Brazil and abroad, including the treatment of their own wastes.

                                                                   G O V ERNO FEDERAL
       Thank you very much!
        Arigato gozaimasu

Armando Bandeira Jr. -
   David Silva -
   Rita Mariê -
    SUFRAMA JICA Office: 3321-7280/7281

                                                 G O V ERNO FEDERAL