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					saqarTvelos garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa
           erovnuli programa
               (2011-2015)

                 Pproeqti
           (12 noemberi, 2010)




       saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa
                    da
      bunebrivi resursebis saministro




                                         1
                           Seamajamebeli reziume
        “yvelas aqvs ufleba cxovrobdes janmrTelobisaTvis uvnebel garemoSi, sargeblobdes bunebrivi
da kulturuli garemoTi”, - naTqvamia saqarTvelos konstituciis 37-e muxlSi. konstituciis es debuleba
qmnis garemos dacvis politikis SemuSavebisa da bunebrivi resursebis (wyali, haeri, mineraluri
resursebi, biomravalferovneba) dacvis safuZvels.
        saqarTvelo ekonomikuri aRmavlobis gzas adgas. ekonomikur ganviTarebas moaqvs
adamianTa keTildReoba, Tumca, amave dros es procesebi zewolas axdens bunebriv resursebsa
da garemoze. unda iTqvas isic, rom siRaribe ubiZgebs adamianebs xe-tyis mopovebis, Zovebisa
Tu wylis moxmarebis aramdgradi praqtikisken da Sesabamisad, ekonomikuri ganviTareba
ukiduresad mniSvnelovania qveynisaTvis garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis mdgradi
moxmarebis TvalsazrisiTac. garda amisa, saqarTvelo mravali saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis mxarea,
romlebic erTis mxriv, garkveul valdebulebebs akisreben qveyanas, xolo meores mxriv gzas
uxsnian mas saerTaSoriso doneze dagrovili samecniero da meTodologiuri gamocdilebis
danergvisa da amisaTvis saWiro finansuri resursebisken.
        2010 wels SemuSavebuli angariSis mixedviT garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb,
saqarTveloSi garemo sakmaod dabinZurebulia. Sesabamisad, samomavlod meti problemebia
mosalodneli, saqmianobebis ganxorcielebisas dRes damkvidrebuli aramdgradi praqtikis
gamoyenebis gamo. saWiroa mdgradi ganviTarebis midgomebis SemoReba, romlis drosac
ekonomikuri ganviTareba, garemos dacva da socialuri sakiTxebi dabalansebulia. mdgradi
ganviTareba saqarTvelos winsvlisa da saqarTvelos mosaxleobis keTildReobis gadamwyveti
winapirobaa grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi.
        garemosadcviTi problemebis gadaWra sakmaod xangrZlivi procesia. momavalSi
dabinZurebuli garemos gawmendisaTvis saWiro maRali danaxarjebi SeiZleba Tavidan aviciloT
dRes miRebuli swori gadawyvetilebebiT. Tavis mxriv, grZelvadiani miznebis miRweva mxolod
moklevadiani da drouli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis gziTaa SesaZlebeli. mravali garemosdacviTi
problema erTmaneTTan mWidro kavSirSia da saWiroa integrirebuli midgoma. Sesabamisad,
yovlismomcveli erovnuli programa warmoadgens mwvave problemebis gadaWrisa da
saqarTvelos bunebrivi resursebis dacvis mniSvenelovan instruments ekonomikurad momgebiani
RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis gziT. winamdebare dokumenti warmoadgens swored aseT
programas 2011-2015 wlebisaTvis.
        grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi, aseve TiToeuli miznis misaRwevad saWiro
RonisZiebebi warmodgenilia 11 Tematuri sferosaTvis. TiToeul Tematur TavSi warmoCenilia
ZiriTadi problemebi da maTi gamomwvevi mizezebi, dainteresebuli mxareebi, dRemde
gatarebuli RonbisZiebebi, erovnuli da saerTaSoriso procesebi da sakanonmdeblo bazis
Seafasebebi. TiToeuli Tavi sruldeba cxriliT, romelSic naTlad aris gawerili saqmianobebi, konkretul
saqmianobaze pasuxismgebeli struqturebi da savaraudo xarjebi. cxrilebSi aseve miTiTebulia
dafinansebis potenciuri wyaroebi da Sesrulebis indikatorebi.
        TerTmeti dargobrivi Tavi da TiToeuli sferosaTvis dasaxuli grZelvadiani miznebi
warmodgenilia 1-el cxrilSi.

cxrili 1. grZelvadiani miznebi garemos dacvis sferoSi
dargobrivi mimarTulebebi         grZelvadiani (20-wliani) miznebi
wylis resursebi                  adamianis janmrTelobisa da wylis ekosistemebisaTvis wylis
                                 usafrTxo xarisxisa da sakamrisi raodenobis uzrunvelyofa
atmosferuli haeris dacva         qveynis mTel teritoriaze adamianis janmrTelobisa da
                                 garemosTvis usafrTxo haeris xarisxis miRweva

narCenebi da qimikatebi          narCenebis marTvis Tanamedrove sistemis danergva


                                                                                          2
Savi zRva                       Savi zRvis iseT ekologiur mdgomareobis miRweva, romelic
                                dafiqsirebuli iyo wina saukunis 60-ian wlebSi

biomravalferovneba da daculi    saqarTvelos unikaluri ekosistemebis, saxeobaTa mravalferovnebis
teritoriebi                     da genetikuri resursebis dacvis da reabilitaciis uzrunvelyofa

satyeo meurneoba                tyeebis saerTo funqcionaluri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba
                                mdgradi satyeo meurneobis sistemis danergvis gziT

miwis resursebi                 saukeTeso SesaZlo miwaTsargeblobis praqtikis danergva miwis
                                resursebis mdgradi marTvis gziT

mineraluri resursebi            garemosa da adamianTa janmrTelobis dacva mineraluri resursebis
                                mopovebisas garemoze miyenebuli uaryofiTi zemoqmedebisagan
                                da saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleobis usafrTxo da xarisxiani sasmeli
                                wyliT uzrunvelyofa da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis xelSewyoba am
                                produqtiT saerTaSoriso bazarze Sesvlis gziT

katastrofebi                    adamianuri msxverplis Tavidan acileba, adamianis janmrTelobasa
                                da ekosistemebze SesaZlo zianis da ekonomikuri zaralis
                                minimumamde dayvana

birTvuli da radiaciuli          adamianis da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa.
usafrTxoeba
klimatis cvlileba
                                saqarTvelos mosaxleobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa klimatis
                                cvlilebis mimarT saadaptacio RonisZiebebis gatarebis gziT;Dda
                                saTburis gazebis emisiebis Semcireba.


        garda amisa, winamdebare programaSi warmodgenilia ramdenime urTierTgadamkveTi
sakiTxi: garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebisa da nebarTvebis gacemis sistema, kanonaRsruleba,
garemosdacviTi ganaTleba, monitoringi, gadawyvetilebebis miRebisaTvis saWiro samecniero baza
da geoinformaciuli sistemebi. da bolos, dokumentSi mimoxilulia centraluri xelisuflebis sxvadasxva
struqturebs, aseve centralur da adgilobriv xelisuflebas Soris politikis koordinirebis mniSvneloba
garemosdacviTi problemebis efeqturad gadaWrisTvis.
        winamdebare garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa meore erovnuli programis (gdmep-2)
ganxorcieleba moiTxovs qmedebebs rogorc mTavrobis, aseve kerZo seqtorisa da sazogadoebis
mxridan. igi aseve moiTxovs sxvadasxva seqtorebSi momuSave adamianebis gacnobierebas
sxvadasxva saqmianobebiT garemoze miyenebuli zianis Sesaxeb. misi ganxorcielebisaTvis aseve
ukidureasad mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso daxmareba. Semdegi wlebisaTvis SemuSavebuli
msgavsi programebi dasaxaven Semdgom mimarTulebebs saqarTvelos mosaxleobisaTvis
momavalSi jansaRi garemo pirobebisa da bunebriv da kulturul memkvidreobaze
xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, rogorc es saqarTvelos konstituciiTa gansazRvruli.
        rogorc zemoT iqna aRniSnuli, gdmep-2 moicavs 2011-2015 wlebs. saqarTvelos kanoni
garemos dacvis Sesaxeb moiTxovs garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programis yovel 5
weliwadSi erTxel momzadebas. Sesabamisad, Semdegi programa - gdmep-3 unda momzaddes
2016 wlamde 2016-2020 wlebisaTvis. gdmep-2-s ganxorcielebis Sedegebi da sxva Sesabamisi
dokumentebi, Seqmnian safuZvels gdmep-3-is SemuSavebisaTvis.




                                                                                             3
sarCevi


Sesavali ......................................................................................................................... 5

Tavi 1.        garemosdacviTi politikis istoria saqarTveloSi ......................................... 11

                                                                                                                                  4
Tavi 2.          wylis resursebi ........................................................................................ 15

Tavi 3.          atmosferuli haeris dacva........................................................................ 26

Tavi 4.          narCenebi da qimikatebi ....................................................................... 33

Tavi 5.          Savi zRva ................................................................................................. 40

Tavi 6.          biomravalferovneba da daculi teritoriebi ............................................ 47

Tavi 7. satyeo meurneoba ......................................................................................... 62

Tavi 8. miwis resursebi............................................................................................... 72

Tavi 9. Mmineraluri resursebi .................................................................................... 78

Tavi 10. katastrofebi .................................................................................................. 85

Tavi 11. birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoeba .............................................................. 97

Tavi 12. klimatis cvlileba .......................................................................................... 104

Tavi 13. urTierTgadamkveTi sakiTxebi .................................................................. 115

Tavi 14. politikis integracia...................................................................................... 119

danarTi 1. abreviaturebi ......................................................................................... 122




Sesavali

        janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemoSi cxovrebis ufleba saqarTvelos konstituciiTa
gansazRvruli. konstituciaSi naTqvamia: “yvelas aqvs ufleba cxovrobdes janmrTelobisaTvis
uvnebel garemoSi, sargeblobdes bunebrivi da kulturuli garemoTi” (muxli 37). amasTanave,
konstitucia TiToeul moqalaqes avaldebulebs “gaufrTxildes bunebriv da kulturul garemos”.
saqarTvelos konstituticia, romelsac upiratesi iuridiuli Zala aqvs nebismier

                                                                                                                             5
Sidasaxelmwifoebriv         sakanonmdeblo aqtTan Tu saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebasTan
mimarTebaSi, qmnis saxelmwifo mowyobis zogad CarCos da nebismieri samarTlebrivi aqti
(politikuri/strategiuli dokumenti) SesabamisobaSi unda iyos masTan.
         2004 wlis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavroba atarebs radikalur reformebs mraval
sakvanZo seqtorSi. ekonomikis liberalizacia da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis xelSewyoba,
ucxouri investiciebis mozidva da Sesaferisi sainvesticio garemos Seqmna, samuSao
adgilebis Seqmna, swrafi infrastruqturuli ganviTareba da energo usafrTxoeba
warmoadgens saqarTvelos mTavrobis mTavar politikur prioritetebs.                 situaciis
gaumjobeseba da dadebiTi tendenciebi ukve saxezea. Tumca, am iniciativebma
SesaZlebelia zewola moaxdinos garemosa da bunebriv resursebze da mdgradi ganviTarebis
principebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe qveyana momavalSi Rrma da Seuqcevadi
garemosdacviTi problemebis winaSe aRmoCndeba.
         situacias mniSvnelovnad arTulebs is faqti, rom saqarTvelos teritoriis daaxloebiT
20% okupirebulia. Sesabamisad, ver xerxdeba okupirebul regionebSi (afxazeTsa da
samxreT oseTSi) saxelmwifo kontroli da sxva Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis gatareba garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis mopovebis sferoSi.
         saqarTvelos mzadyofnas da survils, danergil iqnes mdgradi ganviTarebis
midgomebi, xazi gausva saqarTvelos prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma Tavis gamosvlaSi
2009 wlis dekemberSi kopenhagenSi Catarebul gaerTianebuli erebis klimatis cvlilebis
konferenciaze.

ra aris mdgradi ganviTareba?
        mdgradi ganviTarebis ganmartebis mravali versia arsebobs, Tumca am terminis
yvelaze gavrcelebuli ganmarteba brundtlandis angariSidan1 modis, romelSic naTqvamia,
rom “mdgradi ganviTareba aris iseTi ganviTareba, romelic akamyofilebs Tanamedrove Taobis
saWiroebebs momavali Taobebis saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebiT”. mdgradi ganviTareba,
romelic socialuri, garemosdacviTi da ekonomikuri aspeqtebis dabalansebuli
urTierTqmedebaa, ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis xelSemwyobi saSualebaa da ara barieri.
Sesabamisad, mdgradi ganviTareba warmoadgens nebismieri qveynis stabiluri ganviTarebis
mniSvnelovan winapirobas da gamonaklisi arc saqarTveloa.

ratom gvWirdeba garemosdacviTi politika da programa?
       saqarTveloSi mravali garemosdacviTi problemaa, romelTa gadaWra qveyanaSi
dRes arsebuli saSualebebiT rTulia. ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom
ekonomikuri ganviTareba kidev ufro zrdis zewolas garemosa da bunebriv resursebze da
aRrmavebs problemebs, Tu Sesabamisi RonisZiebebi ar aris droulad gatarebuli. yvela
garemosdacviTi problema ver gadaiWreba erT dReSi. Tumca, Tu ar arsebobs gegma,
romelic gamoavlens dReisTvis arsebul yvelaze mwvave problemebs da dasaxavs am
problemebis gadaWris RonisZiebebs, aseve dasaxavs SedarebiT grZelvadian miznebs,
problemebi kidev ufro gaRrmavdeba da momavalSi gacilebiT Zviri daujdeba qveyanas maTi
aRmofxvra.

CanarTi 1. fizikuri, socialuri da politikuri konteqsti
mdebareoba
saqarTvelo mdebareobs samxreT kavkasiis regionSi. qveyanas CrdiloeTidan eszRvreba ruseTis
federacia, samxreT dasavleTidan - TurqeTi, samxreTidan - somxeTi da aRmosavleTidan azerbaijani.
                                  2
saqarTvelos farTobia 69,875 km da igi warmodgenili mravali klimaturi zoniT subtropikulisa da
naxevrad ariduli regionebis CaTvliT. alpuri klimati iwyeba daaxloebiT 2,100 metridan.



1
 angariSi, romelic SemuSavebuli iqna brundtlandis komisiis mier, romelsac oficialurad garemosa da
ganviTarebis msoflio komisia ewodeba.

                                                                                                6
bunebrivi resursebi
saqarTveloSi 26 000-ze meti mdinarea, romelTa nawili Sav zRvaSi, xolo nawili ki azerbaijanis gavliT
kaspiis zRvaSi Caedineba. eleqtroenergiis 80%-ze meti hidroeleqtrosadgurebze gamomuSavdeba,
rac qveynis hidroenergo potencilis mxolod 18%-ia. saqarTvelo mdidaria miwisqveSa wylis
                                                                                      3
resursebiTac. mtknari miwisqveSa wylebis saerTo moculoba daaxloebiT 24 milion m Seadgens.
mtknari wylis maragebia aseve saqarTveloSi arsebul 800-ze met tbaSi.

saqarTvelo teritoriis 40% tyis masivebiTaa dafaruli. 2010 wlis mdgomareobiT, qveyanaSi 50 daculi
teritoriaa (14 nakrZali, 8 erovnuli parki, 14 bunebis Zegli, 12 aRkveTili da 2 daculi landSafti), romelTa
saerTo farTobi 493 988 ha-s Seadgens da qveynis mTeli teritoriis 7.1%-s moicavs.

wiaRiseuli
ZiriTad mineralur resurss saqarTveloSi warmoadgens manganumi (222 mln tona), spilenZi (341,000
                                                                                      3
t.), qvanaxSiri (1 mlrd t.) da oqro (37.6 t). navTobis dadgenili maragebi 580 milion m , xolo bunebrivi
                   3
airis 125 milion m Seadgens.

demografia
saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 4.4 milionia, saidanac 83.8% eTnikuri qarTvelebi arian. mosaxleobis saSualo
simWidrove 71 adamiania kvadratul kilometrze. Tumca, simWidrove mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebulia
regionebis mixedviT. yvelaze mWidrodaa dasaxlebuli saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi – Tbilisi, sadac
oficialuri monacemebiT 1, 272,000 mosaxle cxovrobs.

ekonomikuri indikatorebi
bolo periodSi saqarTveloSi SesamCnevi ekonomikuri zrda dafiqsirda. 2004-2007 wlebSi mTliani Sida
produqtis (mSp) wliuri zrda 9% iyo, xolo mSp erT sul mosaxleze 2000-2008 wlebSi $689-dan $2 920-
de gaizarda. mSp-is zrdis tendencia Senelda 2008 wels ruseTTan SeiaraRebuli konfliqtisa da globaluri
ekonomikuri krizisis gamo. Sedegad, wliuri mSp zrda 12.3%-idan (2007 w.) 2.1%-de daeca (2008 w.).

gaeros ganviTarebis programis 2009 wlis angarisis mixedviT, 2007 wels saqarTvelo adamianis
ganviTarebis indeqsis mixedviT (0.778) 89-e adgils ikavebda 182 qveyanas Soris.

xelisufleba
saxelmwifos meTauria arCeuli prezidenti. xelisuflebis aRmasrulebeli Sto warmodegenilia 16
saministroTi. ministrTa kabinetSi Sedis , sami saxelmwifo ministri, 16 ministri da xelmZRvanelobs
premier ministri.

xelisuflebis sakanonmdeblo Sto - saqarTvelos parlamenti erTpalatiania da masSi 150 wevria.

sasamarTlo xelisufleba Sedgeba saerTo sasamarTloebis sistemisagan            (saqalaqo (raionuli),
saapelacio sasamarTloebi da uzenaiesi sasamarTlo) da sakonstitucio sasamarTlosagan.

saqarTveloSi 69 TviTmmarTveli erTeuli da 2 avtonomiuri respublikaa (afxazeTisa da aWaris
avtonomiuri respublikebi).

        saqarTveloSi arsebuli erovnuli gegmebi garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
sferoSi umetesad seqtorulia, rogoricaa magaliTad, biomravalferovnebis strategia da
samoqmedo gegma. arsebobs sxva erovnuli strategiebi da samoqmedo gegmebic, romlebic
jer ar aris oficialurad miRebuli (magaliTad, sanapiro zonis integrirebuli marTvis erovnuli
strategia, satyeo politika, da sxva.). arsebobs aseve konceptualuri dokumentebi
ramodenime sxva seqtorisTvis, magram isini Zalian moklea da mxolod zogad samomavalo
xedvas ayalibeben.
        garemos dacvasa da bunebriv resursebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi arasakmarisad
aris asaxuli qveynis prioritetebis ganmsazRvrel sxvadasxva strategiul dokumentebSi.
sxvadasxva dainteresebul mxareebTan TanamSromlobiT SemuSavebuli iseTi
dokumenetebis naklebobis gamo, romlebSic gaanalizebulia garemosdacviTi problemebi da


                                                                                                       7
dasaxulia maTi gadaWris gzebi, sustia saerTo xedva samomavlo saqmianobebis Sesaxeb
am sferoSi. dagemvis procesi kidev ufro rTuldeba garemosdacviTi problemebis
interseqtoruli bunebis gamo. Sedegad, xSir SemTxvevaSi am sferoSi gadadgmuli nabijebi
fragmentulia da araTanmimdevruli. xSirad isini ar arian SesabamisobaSi sxva strategiul
CarCo dokumentebTan. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare naTeli xdeba erTiani da
Tanmimdevruli dokumentis saWiroeba, romelSic kargad iqneba ilustrirebuli garemos
dacvisa da sxva seqtorebis urTierTkavSirebi saerTo ekonomikuri ganviTarebis konteqstSi,
asaxuli iqneba erovnul prioritetebi da gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba sxvadasxva dainteresebuli
mxareebis interesebi garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis marTvis sferoSi.

garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa meore erovnuli programis (gdmep-2) funqcia
         globaluri garemosdacviTo problemebis fonze qveyanaSi garemos degradacia da
bunebrivi resursebis araracionaluri moxmareba mniSvnelovan risks Seuqmnis qveynis
ekonomikur ganviTarebasa da saqarTvelos mosaxleobis keTildReobas. miwis erozia, wylisa
da haeris dabinZureba, ukanono Wrebi da tyis degrdacia im garemosdacviTi problemebis
mxolod ramodenime magaliTs warmoadgens, romlebic aqtualuria dRes saqarTveloSi.
ZiriTadi garemosdacviTi problemebis CamonaTvali warmodgenilia cxrilSi. (ix. cxrili 2.)
         garemos mdgomareobis gauareseba da bunebrivi resursebis Semcireba zRudavs
mosaxleobis xelmisawvdomobas elementaruli saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad saWiro iseT
resursebze, rogoricaa sasmeli wyali, sufTa haeri, sakvebi, xis masala mSeneblobisa da
gaTbobisaTvis, da sxva. imisaTvis rom Tavidan aviciloT dramatuli Sedegebi momavalSi,
arCevani dRes unda gakeTdes da nabijebic dRes unda gadaidgas. Aucilebelia, arsebobdes
ufro farTo da momavalze orientirebuli midgomebi. Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom zogadi
samomavlo xedva verasodes iqneba realisturi, Tu ar aris aris dasaxuli konkretuli, SedarebiT
moklevadiani miznebi da RonisZiebebi.
         saqarTvelos garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa meore erovnuli programa oficialuri
dokumentia, romelSic warmodgenilia saqarTvelos gegmebi garemos dacvis sferoSi 2011-
2015 wlebisaTvis. naTelia, rom drois es monakveTi ar aris sakmarisi yvela garemosdacviTi
problemis gadasaWrelad. amis gamo, programa saxavs grZelvadian ambiciebsac 2030
wlisTvis da Sesabamisad, qmnis samomavlo garemosdacviTi dagegmarebis karg safuZvels.
aRiarebs ra qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis aucileblobas, dokumentSi               aqcenti
gakeTebulia mdgrad ganviTarebaze da ara amkrZalav perspeqtivebze.
         imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saqarTvelosa da mezobeli qveynebis garemo ar aris
erTmaneTisagan izolirebuli, dokumentSi saTanado yuradreba eTmoba transsasazRvro
sakiTxebsac, rogoricaa magaliTad, Sav zRvasTan, transsasazRvro mdinareebTan,
atmosferul haerTan da sxva seqtorebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi da mati gadaWris
RonisZiebebi.
         gdmep-2 erT-erTi mizania gaaZliereos sakanonmdeblo, administraciuli da
instituciuri CarCo yvela doneze da Sesabamisad, Seqmnas evrokavSirTan daaxloebis kargi
safuZveli. gdmep-2-is ganxorcielebis procesi xels Seuwyobs partniorobas yvela ekonomikur
erTeuls Soris (saxelmwifo, kerZo da arasamTavrobo seqtorebi). yovelive zemoTqmulidan
gamomdinare SeiZleba daskvnis saxiT iTqvas, rom gdmep-2 qmnis myar safuZvels
imisaTvis, rom qveyanaSi iyos jamnrTelobisaTvis uvnebeli garemo, gaumjobesdes
mosaxleobis keTildReoba, Seiqmnas ukeTesi pirobebi qveynis ekonomikuri
ganviTarebisaTvis grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi da bolos, gaZlierdes TanamonawileobiTi
midgomebi.

angariSi garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb da garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis
efeqtianobis Sefaseba (EPR)
       saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis moTxovnis Sesabamisad, anagariSi garemos
mdgomareobis Sesaxeb unda momzaddes yovel sam weliwadSi erTxel. bolo angariSi


                                                                                         8
garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb SemuSavda 2010 wels da moicavs 2006-2009 wlebs.
dokumentmSi detalurad aris aRwerili garemosdacviTi problemebi da maTi masStabebi.
        2010 wels SemuSavda kidev erTi mniSvnelovani dokumenti, romelic iTvaliswinebs
qveyanaSi garemosdacviTi politikisa da zogadad, garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis
efeqtianobis Sefasebas. dokumenti momzadda gaeros evropis ekonomikuri komisiis
(UNECE) mxardaWeriT da masSi Sefasebulia 2003-2009 wlebSi ganxorcielebuli instituciuri,
sakanonmdeblo da mmarTvelobiTi aspeqtebi garemos dacvis sferoSi, gamovlenilia ZiriTadi
miRwevebi da naklovanebebi da warmodgenilia rekomendaciebi.
        am orma dokumentma Seqmna safuZveli gdmep-2-is mosamzadeblad.

gdmep-2-is momzadebis procesi
       gdmep-2-is momzadebis process koordinacias uwevda saqarTvelos garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro. proeqts afinansebda niderlandebis mTavroba.
dokumentis momzadebis procesi eyrdnoboda demokratiul principebs, rameTu
uzrunvelyofili iyo procesis gamWvirvaloba da yvela dainteresebuli mxaris monawileoba.
yvela saministro, samecniero Tu arasamTavrobo organizacia, aseve sxva dainteresebuli
adgilobrivi organizaciebi CarTulni iyvnen dokumentis momzadebis procesSi.
       gdmep-2-is momzadebis process uSualod xelmZRvanelobdnen proeqtis
koordinatori garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrodan da holandieli
eqspertebi. analizisa da konsultaciebis Sedegad gdmep-2-isaTvis SeirCa 11 prioritetuli
garemosdacviTi mimarTuleba. TiToeuli sferosaTvis Camoyalibda samuSao jgufi adgilobrivi
konsultantis, saministros warmomadgenlis da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, holandieli
eqspertis SemadgenlobiT. garda amisa, dokumetis momzadebaSi CarTuli iyo e.w. zogadi
konsultanti, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo dokumentisaTvis erTiani saxis micemasa da
kompilaciaze. gdmep-2-is momzadebis procesi daiwyo 2009 wlis oqtomberSi
mosamzadebeli faziT da dasrulda misi damtkicebiT saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier.

gdmep-2-is struqtura
         gdmep-2 moicavs 15 Tavs. Tavi 1 aRwers garemosdacviTi politikis istorias
saqarTveloSi gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebidan dRemde da im procesebs, romlebic
mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben garemosdacviTi politikis formulirebaSi erovnul doneze.
Mme-2 Tavidan me-12 Tavis CaTvliT gdmep-2-is dokumentSi warmodgenilia dargobrivi
sakiTxebi.
         TiToeul dargobriv Tavs msgavsi struqtura aqvs. Tavi iwyeba dargisaTvis aqtualuri
problemebis aRweriT. Semdeg ganxilulia dargisaTvis mniSvnelovani dainteresebuli
mxareebi, rasac mosdevs am konkretul sferoSi dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebisa da
maTi efeqtianobis mimoxilva. Semdegi qveTavi moicavs im erovnuli da saerTaSoriso
procesebis aRweras, ramac SesaZloa dadebiTi an uaryofiTi gavlena iqonios am sferoze.
amis Semdeg Camoyalibebulia grZelvadiani (20 wliani) da moklevadiani (5 wliani) miznebi.
bolos, mokled aris mimoxiluli da gaanalizebuli, SesaZlebelia Tu ara dasaxuli miznebis
miRweva arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis pirobebSi da saWiroa Tu ara rame cvlilebebis
gatareba. TiToeuli Tavi sruldeba calkeuli moklevadiani miznis misaRwevad saWiro
saqmianobebis cxriliT saqmianobebis vadebis, pasuxismgebeli struqturebis, savaraudo
xarjebisa da ganxorcielebis indikatorebis miTiTebiT.
         dargobrivi Tavebi iwyeba wylis resursebiT (Tavi 2). Semdeg modis atmosferul haeri
(Tavi 3), narCenebi da qimikatebi (Tavi 4), Savi zRva (Tavi 5), biomravalferovneba da daculi
teritoriebi (Tavi 6), satyeo meurneoba (Tavi 7), miwis resursebi (Tavi 8), mineraluri resursebi
miwisqveSa wylis CaTvliT (Tavi 9), bunebrivi da anTropogenuli katastrofebi da samrewvelo
avariebi (Tavi 10), birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoeba (Tavi 11) da bolos, klimatis cvlileba (12).
         dargobrivi Tavebis garda gdmep-2 moicavs zogadi Sinaarsis Tavebsac. kerZod, me-
13 TavSi Sejamebulia is urTierTgadamkveTi sakiTxebi, romelbic bevr dargobriv TavSi


                                                                                                9
gamoikveTa da Sesabamisad maTi mogvareba erTnairad sargeblis momtani iqneba yvela
garemosdacviTi seqtorisTvis. garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis rTuli da inetrseqtoraluri bunebis
gamo, garemosdacviTi strategiisa da politikis integrirebis aucilebloba sxva dargebis
ganviTarebis gegmebsa Tu politikaSi ki mimoxilulia me-14 TavSi.
       abreviaturebis nusxa mocemulia 1-el danarTSi.




cxrili 2. ZiriTadi garemosdacviTi problemebi saqarTveloSi

                                                    saerTo problemebi

         arasrulyofili da fragmentuli sakanonmdeblo baza
         CarTeuli mxareebis dabali cnobiereba da SezRuduli SesaZleblobebi
         monitoringis, inspeqtirebisa da kanonaRsrulebis susti sistemebi
         politikis SemuSavebisaTvis saWiro codnis nakleboba


                                              ZiriTadi dargobrivi problemebi

wylis resursebi                                             miwa
 wylis dabinZureba sxvadasxva wyaroebidan                   miwis degradacia
 wylis resursebis araefeqturi marTva                        dagegmvisa da marTvis susti praqtika
 dabinZurebis prevenciisa da wyalaRebis kontrolis           SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba Sesabamis informaciasa da
     efeqturi meqanizmebis ararseboba                           teqnologiebze
 muncipaluri Camdinare wylebis sistemebis savalalo          susti institucionaluri kavSiri sxvadasxva dainteresebul
     mdgomareoba                                                mxareebs Soris

atmosferuli haeri                                           mineraluri resursebi
 satransporto gafrqvevebi                                   mitovebuli sabadoebi
 haeris xarisxis arasrulyofili monitoringi                  aramdgradi samTo-mopovebiTi parqtika
                                                             miwisqveSa wylebis arasakmarisi monitoringi
narCenebi                                                    miwisqveSa wylebis aramdgradi marTvis praqtika
 garemos danagvianeba sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT
 garemos dabinZureba sayofacxovrebo nagavsayreli
    poligonebidan Pollution of garemos dabinZureba          katastrofebi
    saxifaTo narCenebiT                                      mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb adreuli
 dabinZureba akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebidan               Setyobinebis gamarTuli sistemis ararseboba
                                                             gaxSirebuli wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebi
Savi zRva                                                    calkeuli saxis stiqiur movlenebze xelovnuri zemoqmedebis
 komerciuli cocxali resursebis Semcireba                       samuSaoebis ararseboba
 zRvis da sanapiro zonis bio- eutrofikacia                  mosalodneli safrTxeebi samrewvelo avariebidan
 rekreaciuli wylis aradamakmayofilebeli xarisxi


                                                                                                            10
     biomravalferovneba da daculi teritoriebi                    birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoeba
      gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebis               upatrono radioaqtiuri wyaroebi
           sicocxlisunariani populaciebis kleba da habitatebis
                                                                  seqtoris saxelmwifo marTvisa da regulirebis gaZlierebis
           degradacia
                                                                     saWiroeba
        araefeqturi TevzWerisa da nadirobis paraqtika
                                                                  mosaxleobis da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis gaZlierebis
        daculi teritoriebis erTiani sistemis ararseboba             saWiroeba
        daculi teritoriebis araefeqturi marTva
        biomravalferovnebis konservaciis saTanado
           monacemTa bazis ararseboba da biologiuri              klimatis cvlileba
           resursebis mdgradi marTva                              bunebriv ekosistemebsa da biomravalferovnebaze
        erovnuli biousafrTxoebis sistemis ararseboba                zemoqmedeba, tyeebisa da miwis degradacia,
                                                                     gaudabnoeba, myinvarebis dnoba
     tye da satyeo meurneoba                                      niadagis nayofierebisa da wylis resursebis Semcireba
      mdgradi satyeo meurneobis meqanizmis ararseboba            gaxSirebuli katastrofebi da adamianuri da ekonomikuri
      tyis Wrisa da Zovebis aramdgradi meTodebis                    zaralis zrda
           gamoyeneba



                  Tavi 1. garemosdacviTi politikis istoria saqarTveloSi
        garemosdacviTi dagegmvis sistemis danergvis mcdeloba saqarTveloSi jer kidev 90-iani wlebis
bolodan iwyeba. gacnobierebuli iqna ra garemosdacviTi problemebis kompleqsuri xasiaTi, aseve
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis, jandacvisa Tu socialuri keTildReobis uzrunvelyofis RonisZiebebSi
garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis asaxvis saWiroeba, 1996 wels miRebuli iqna CarCo kanoni garemos dacvis
Sesaxeb. es kanoni iTvaliswinebs erovnuli mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis momzadebas da am
procesSi wamyvan rols garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros aniWebs. kanoni aseve
iTvaliswinebs garemos dacvis erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebis yovel 5 weliwadSi erTxel momzadebas,
romlis momzadebac mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis safuZvelze kanonis mixedviT, aseve garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros funqciaa. miuxedavad kanoniT gansazRvruli aseTi
valdebulebebisa, mdgradi ganviTarebis strategia qveyanaSi ar SemuSavebula. am strategiis
momzadebis mizniT 1996 wels prezidentis gankargulebiT Seqmnilma mdgradi ganviTarebis
samTavrobo komisiam ver moaxerxa strategiis SemuSaveba da komisia 2005 wels gauqmda. imave
wels xelaxla Seiqmna msgavsi komisia, magram verc amjamad moxerxda dasaxuli miznis miRweva.

garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa pirveli erovnuli programa (gdmep-1) da sxva movlenebi
        miuxedavad imisa, rom mdgradi ganviTarebis strategia ar iyo SemuSavebuli, garemos dacvisa
da bunebrivi resursebis saministrom 1996 wels daiwyo pirveli garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli
programis momzadeba msofli bankis finansuri daxmarebiT. gdmep-1 damtkicda 2000 wels prezidentis
gankargulebiT da moicavda 2000-2004 wlebs. dokumentSi gamokveTili iyo prioritetebi da Sesabamisi
RonisZiebebi. rTulia iTqvas, Tu ramdenad kargad Sesrulda gdmep-1-Si dasaxuli RonisZiebebi, radgan ar
momxdara misi Sesrulebis Sefaseba. Tumca, arsebuli informaciis zogadi mimoxilvis safuZvelze
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ZiriTadad gdmep-Si Semavali mxolod is saqmianobebia ganxorcielebuli, romlebic
finansdeboda donorebisa an saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebis mxardaWeriT. garda amisa, im
droisaTvis, roca gdmep-1 iqna damtkicebuli, dokumentSi gaTvaliswinebuli saqmianobebis nawili an
ukve mimdinareobda an dagegmili iyo maTi ganxorcieleba konkretuli, ukve damtkicebuli proeqtis
farglebSi. danarCeni saqmianobebi an Zalian ambiciuri iyo da an Zalian zogadi. unda aRiniSnos isic,
rom gdmep-1 ar moicavda savaraudo finansur Sefasebebs TiToeuli RonisZiebisaTvis. maSasadame,
gdmep-1 iyo oficialuri dokumenti, romelSic zogierTi saqmianoba morgebuli iyo ukve damtkicebul da
mimdinare proeqts da ara namdvil saWiroebebs, xolo zogierTi nakleb realisturi iyo im droisaTvis
arsebuli ekonomikuri da finansuri dagegmvis praqtikis pirobebSi. dagegmarebaSi arasakmarisi
gamocdileba da mwiri finansuri saSualebebi iyo gdmep-1-is araefeqturi ganxorcielebis mizezi.
        miuxedavad gdmep-1-is naklovanebebisa, xazi unda gaesvas am dokumentis mniSvnelobas,
radgan es iyo 5 wliani garemosdacviTi samoqmedo gegmis Seqmnis pirveli mcdeloba. garemos dacvisa


                                                                                                                11
da bunebrivi resursebis saministros morigi mcdeloba Seeqmna gdmep-2 2008-2012 wlebisaTvis
marcxiT damTavrda. proeqti, romlis mizani iyo gdmep-2-s Seqmna, finansdeboda gaeros ganviTarebis
programis mier da daiwyo 2006 wels. gdmep-2-is samuSao versia xelmisawvdomi iyo ukve 2007 wlis
bolosaTvis, Tumca dokumenti mniSvnelovani kritikis obieqti gaxda arasamTavrobo seqtorisa da
eqspertebis mxridan prioritetebis SerCevisa da zogadad, dokumentis SemuSavebis meTodologiis
gamo. Sedegad, ver moxerxda dokumentis oficialurad miReba erovnul doneze.



saSualovadiani samoqmedo gegma
        kidev erT mniSvnelovan gegmarebiTi xasiaTis dokuments warmoadgens saSualovadiani
samoqmedo gegma, romelic mzaddeba `saministroebis saSualovadiani samoqmedo gegmebis
damtkicebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2006 wlis # 19 dadgenilebis Sesabamisad. dadgenilebis
Tanaxmad, yvela saministro valdebulia SeimuSavos da yovelwliurad ganaaxlos saSualovadiani
samoqmedo gegma, romelSic gansazRvrulia qveynis prioritetuli mimarTulebebi, RonisZiebebi da
finansuri gaTvlebi sxvadasxva seqtorebisaTvis. bunebrivi resursebisa da tyeebis efeqturad
gamoyeneba, garemos dacvis sistemis gaumjobeseba, ekoturizmis xelSewyoba, garemosdacviTi
monitoringisa da prognozirebis sistemebis gaumjobeseba, aseve bunebrivi katastrofebis prevencia
warmoadgens 2010-2013 wlebis saSualovadiani samoqmedo gegmis prioritetul mimerTulebebs
garemos dacvis sferoSi. TiToeuli prioritetisaTvis dasaxuli RonisZiebebi karg safuZvels qmnis gdmep-2-
is momzadebisaTvis.

erovnuli garemosdacviTi kanonmdebloba
        1991 wlis Semdeg mravali kanoni Tu kanonqvemdebare aqti iqna miRebuli saqarTveloSi
garemos dacvis sferoSi. saqarTvelos konstitucia, romelsac upiratesi Zala aqvs sxva sakanonmdeblo
aqtebTan mimarTebSi, adgens garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis sargeblobis zogad wesebs.
kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb (1996) qmnis aseve zogad samarTlebriv CarCos garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis marTvis sferoSi. SemuSavebuli da miRebulia mravali dargobrivi kanonic, Tumca,
maTi umetesoba ayalibebs zogad normebs, romlebic Semdeg aRar aris gaSlili kanonqvemdebare
aqtebSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mcdelobis
miuxedavad, dRemde ar arsebobs zogierTi dargobrivi kanoni.
        aRsaniSnavia, rom garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministroSi mimdinareobs
garemosdacviT kodeqsze muSaoba. kodeqsis mizania Seqmnas Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo baza
garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis mdgradi moxmarebisaTvis. misi mizania aseve aRmofxvras
dRes arsebuli Seusabamobani mraval garemosdacviT sakanonmdeblo aqtSi da gaaZlieros
sazogadoebis monawileoba gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi. kodeqsi savaraudod 2015 wels Seva
ZalaSi da iZleva imis saSualebas, rom am dromde moxdes masSi aucilebeli cvlilebebis Setana misi kidev
ufro srulyofis mizniT.

saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi
        garemosdacviTi politikis formireba saqarTveloSi mravali saerTaSoriso valdebulebiTac xdeba.
saqarTvelos    mTavrobis      survili   moaxdinos        saqarTvelos   kanonmdeblobis        evrokavSiris
kanonmdeblobasTan harminizacia mravaljer iqna oficialurad deklarirebuli da garkveuli winsvlac
arsebobs. imisaTvis, rom moxdes saqarTvelos miaxloeba ganviTarebul saerTaSoriso sazogadoebasTan,
saqarTvelo cdilobs danergos saerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli garemosdacviTi midgomebi da
regulaciebi sadac es SesaZlebelia. dReis mdgomareobiT saqarTvelo daaxloebiT 50 mravalmxrivi da
ormxrivi saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis mxarea da TiToeuli SeTanxmeba garkveul valdebulebebs
akisreben saqarTvelos. garemos dacvis sferoSi ZiriTadi konvenciebisa da oqmebis CamonaTvali,
romelTa mxarec aris saqarTvelo, mocemulia cxrilSi (cxrili 3). saqarTvelos konstituciis me-6 muxlis
Tanaxmad “saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas, Tu igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba
saqarTvelos konstitucias, aqvs upiratesi iuridiuli Zala Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebis mimarT”.


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konstituciis es debuleba dazustebulia kanonSi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb,
romelSic naTqvamia, rom saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis debulebebs aqvT pirdapiri moqmedebis Zala
da ar aris aucilebeli maTi erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi asaxva. amisda miuxedavad, ver xerxdeba yvela
saerTaSoriso valdebulebis srulyofilad ganxorcieleba.
        evrokavSirTan integraciis procesis gaRrmavebis mizniT, garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
resursebis saministro agrZelebs muSaobas aTze meti saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebaze. konvencia
transsasazRvro wyalsadinarebisa da saerTaSoriso tbebis dacvisa da gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, konvencia
transsasazRvro konteqstSi garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb, oqmi dambinZurebelTa
garemoSi gaSvebisa da gadatanis Sesaxeb, oqmi samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobisa da zianis
kompensaciis Sesaxeb, romlebic           miyenebuli transsasazRvro wylebze samrewvelo avariis
transsasazRvro gavleniT da oqmi strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis Sesaxeb im saerTaSoriso
SeTanxmebebs Sorisaa, romlebze muSaobac aqtiurad mimdinareobs garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
resursebis saministroSi.

evropis samezoblo politika
         evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegma, romelic efuZneba evropis
samezoblo politikis dokuments, saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris TanamSromlobis strategiul miznebs
saxavs. samoqmedo gegma damtkicda 2006 wlis noemberSi evrokomisiisa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis
mier da misi ganxorcieleba mniSvnelovani wingadadgmuli nabiji iqneba saqarTvelosaTvis evropis
ekonomikur da socialur struqturebSi integraciis TvalsazrisiT. evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos samoqmedo
gegma warmoadgens oficialur dokuments, romelSic formulirebulia saqarTvelos garemosdacviTi
politikis mimarTulebebic. mdgradi ganviTarebis xelSewyoba gegmis erT-erTi prioritetuli
mimarTulebaa. dokumentis zogad miznebs Sorisaa garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobisaTvis Sesabamisi
pirobebis Seqmna, garemos degradaciis prevenciisaTvis RonisZiebebis gatareba, adamianis
janmrTelobis dacva da bunebrivi resursebis racionaluri moxmareba.
         evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis mizniT saqarTvelos TiToeuli
saministro imuSavebs yovelwliur samoqmedo gegmebs da maTi Sesrulebis Sesaxeb angariSgebas
akeTebs saxelmwifo ministrTan evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi.
saxelmwifo ministris aparati ki Sejamebul angariSs yovelwliurad ugzavnis evrkavSirs, romelic afasebs
procesebis mimdinareobas saqarTveloSi da iZleva rekomendaciebs, romelTa asaxvac xdeba
saministroebis mier SemuSavebul Semdeg samoqmedo gegmebSi.

aRmosavleT partnioroba
        aRmosavleT partnioroba evrokavSirisa da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis erToblivi iniciativaa.
Ees procesi daiwyo 2009 wels da misi mizania politikuri, ekonomikuri da savaWro urTierTobebis
gaumjobeseba 6 post-sabWoTa qveyanas (ukraina, belorusi, moldova, azerbaijani, somxeTi da
saqarTvelo) da evrokavSiris qveynebs Soris. aRmosavleT partnioroba oTx Tematur platformas
sTavazobs qveynebs TanamSromlobisaTvis. erT-erTi platformaa (platforma 2) “ekonomikuri integracia
da evrokavSiris politikasTan konvergencia”, romelSic garemos dacva da klimatis cvlileba erT-erT
sakvanZo sakiTxad aris gamokveTili. bunebrivi da anTropogenuli katastrofebis prevencia, mzadyofna
da maTze reagireba, aseve garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis gaumjobeseba am procesis kidev erTi
flagmanuri iniciativaa.
        saqarTvlo muSaobs aRmosavleT partniorobis miznebis misaRwevad da eswrafvis am miznebis
erovnul samoqmedo gegmebsa da programebSi asaxvas.

evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos asocirebuli SeTanxmeba garemos dacvis sferoSi
        amJamad mimdinareobs muSaoba evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris asocirebul
SeTanxmebaze garemos dacvis sferoSi. SeTanxmebis mizania garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan
dakavSirebiT evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobis gaZliereba da mdgradi ganviTarebisa da “mwvane”
ekonomikis xelSewyoba. xelSekrulebis proeqti iTavliswinebs mTel rig RonisZiebebs garemos dacvis
sferoSi, romelTa ganxorcielebac xels Seuwyobs ara marto adamianisa da ekosistemebisaTvis


                                                                                           13
    Sesabamisi garemo pirobebis uzrunvelyofas, aramed garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobisa da efeqtiani
    gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procedurebis gaumjobesebas, rac esoden mniSvnelovania rogorc qveynis,
    aseve regionisa da zogierT SemTxvevebSi, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebisTvisac.
cxrili 3. ZiriTadi konvenciebi da oqmebi garemos dacvis sferoSi, romelTa mxarecaa saqarTvelo
 xelSekrulebis saxelwodeba                                                                   saqarTvelosTan
                                                                                             mimarTebaSi ZalaSi
                                                                                             Sesvlis TariRi
  konvencia biologiuri mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb                                              31 agvisto, 1994
        biologiuri mravalferovnebis konvenciis biousafrTxoebis kartaxenas oqmi              2 Tebervali, 2009

 konvencia gadaSenebis piras myofi veluri faunisa da floris saxeobebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis   12 Ddekemberi, 1996
 Sesaxeb (CITES)

 konvencia saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis Warbteniani, gansakuTrebiT wylis frinvelTa sabinadrod     7 ivnisi, 1997
 vargisi teritoriebis Sesaxeb

 ozonis Sris dacvis Sesaxeb venis konvencia                                                    19 ivnisi, 1996
      monrealis oqmi ozonis Sris damSlel nivTierebaTa Sesaxeb                                 16 seqtemberi, 1996

 Savi zRvis dabinZurebisagan dacvis konvencia                                                  15 ianvari, 1994
         Savi zRvis dabinZurebisagan dacvis konvenciis Savi zRvis biomravalferovnebisa da     26 seqtemberi, 2009
             landSaftebis konservaciis oqmi

 gaeros klimatis cvlilebis CarCo konvencia                                                     27 O oqtomberi, 1994
      kiotos oqmi                                                                             16 Tebervali, 2005
 konvencia garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli informaciis xelmisawvdomobis,               30 oqtomberi, 2001
 gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobis da am sferoSi marTlmsajulebis
 sakiTxebze xelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb (orhusis konvencia)

 gaeros konvencia mdgradi organuli damabinZureblebis Sesaxeb (POPs)                            2 ianvari, 2007

 Sor manZilebze haeris transsasazRvro dabinZurebis konvencia                                   12 maisi, 1999

 gaeros konvencia gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg brZolis Sesaxeb                                      21 oqtomberi, 1999

 roterdamis konvencia calkeuli saSiSi qimiuri nivTierebebiTa da pesticidebiT saerTaSoriso      28 maisi, 2007
 vaWrobis sferoSi winaswari dasabuTebuli Tanxmobis poceduris Sesaxeb
 konvencia saxifaTo narCenebis transsasazRvro gadazidvisa da ganTavsebis Sesaxeb               18 agvisto, 1999

 konvencia gemebidan dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb “MARPOL”                            19 ivlisi, 1994

 konvencia gareuli cxovelebis migrirebad saxeobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb                              1 ivnisi, 2000
      SeTanxmeba Savi zRvis, xmelTaSua zRvisa da mimdebare atlantis okeanis mcire
          veSapisebrTa dacvis Sesaxeb (ACCOBAMS)                                               1 ivnisi, 2001
      SeTanxmeba afrika-evraziis migrirebadi wylis frinvelTa dacvis Sesaxeb                   1 agvisto, 2001
      SeTanxmeba evropis Ramurebis populaciebis dacvis Sesaxeb                                24 agvisto, 2002
 evropis veluri bunebisa da bunebrivi habitatebis dacvis konvencia                             1 marti, 2010

 SeTanxmeba saqarTvelosa da atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos Soris birTvuli iaraRis     3 ivnisi, 2003
 gauvrceleblobasTan dakavSirebiT garantiebis gamoyenebis Taobaze
       damatebiTi oqmi saqarTvelosa da atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos Soris
          birTvuli iaraRis gauvrceleblobasTan dakavSirebiT garantiebis gamoyenebis Taobaze     3 ivnisi, 2003

 konvencia birTvuli nivTierebebis fizikuri dacvis Sesaxeb                                      7 oqtomberi, 2006



                                                                                                         14
gaerTianebuli konvecia gamoyenebul sawvavTan mopyrobis usafrTxoebisa da radiaqtiur
                                                                                     29 oqtomberi, 2009
narCenebTan mopyrobis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb

evropis landSafturi konvencia
                                                                                     ZalaSi Seva 2011 wlis 1
                                                                                               2
                                                                                     ianvridan




                       Tavi 2. wylis resursebi

               am TavSi ganxilulia zedapirul wylebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, xolo miwisqveSa wylebi
   warmodgenilia me-9 TavSi mineraluri resursebis Sesaxeb.

   2
       ratificirebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis mier 2010 wlis 15 seqtembers

                                                                                              15
2.1           problemis aRwera

      saqarTvelo mdidaria wylis resursebiT. mTliani ganaxlebadi wylis resursebi mdinareebidan da
miwisqveSa wylebidan daaxloebiT 63,330 milion m3-s utoldeba weliwadSi. aqedan mTliani wliuri
wyalaReba, maT Soris hidroeleqtroenergiis warmoebisaTvis, gacilebit naklebia da magaliTad, 2008
wels Seadgenda 29,756 mln m3-s. maSasadame, saqarTveloSi sakmarisi raodenobiT aris wylis resursebi,
wyalze arsebuli moTxovnis dasakmayofileblad. Tumca, es resursi araTanabrad aris gadanawilebuli da
upiratesad Tavmoyrilia saqarTvelos dasavleT nawilSi, maSin, roca aRmosavleTis regionebi xSirad wylis
mwvave naklebobas ganicdian.
      zedapiruli wylebis arasrulyofili monitoringis gamo monacemebi zedapiruli wylebis mdgomareobis
Sesaxeb sakmaod SezRudulia. Tumca, monitoringis arsebuli monacemebic aCvenebs, rom
saqarTveloSi wylis dabinZurebis ZiriTadi wyaroa municipaluri Camdinare wylebi. gamokvleuli
mdinareebis umravlesobaSi aRiniSneba amoniumis da Jangbadis biologiuri moxmarebis3 maRali
maCveneblebi xolo calkeuli mdinareebis zogierT kveTebze mZime liTonebis koncentracia zRvrulad
dasaSveb normebs aWarbebs.
      gauwmendav municipaluri Camdinare wylebze modis saqarTvelos mTliani zedapiruli wylebis
dabinZurebis 67%. samrewvelo seqtorebdan zedapiruli wylebis xarisxze gansakuTrebiT Zlier zegavlenas
axdenen: sasargeblo wiaRiseulis gadamuSaveba, navTobis gadamuSaveba da kvebis mrewveloba.
dabinZurebis sxva wyaroebia: arasanitariuli nagavsayrelebi, narCenebis aralegaluri ganTavseba da
sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobebi.
      wylis resursebis araefeqturi marTva, wylis dabinZurebis prevenciisa da wyalaRebis kontrolis
efeqturi meqanizmebis arqona da municipaluri Camdinare wylebis gamwmendi sistemebis
gaumarTaoba wylis sferoSi arsebuli is ZiriTadi problemebia, romlebic dRes qveynis winaSe dgas.

wylis resursebis araefeqturi marTva
        saqarTveloSi wylis marTva moZvelebuli, administraciul sazRvrebze morgebuli modelis
mixedviT xorcieldeba. wylis politikas, romelic mravalricxovani sakanonmdeblo aqtiT aris warmodgenili,
ar gaaCnia naTlad Camoyalibebuli miznebi, romlebic wylis obieqtebis ekologiuri funqciebis aRdgenisa
da SenarCunebisken iqneboda mimarTuli. sxva sityvebiT, wylis politika ar aris Sedegze orientirebuli,
gansxvavebiT Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso midgomebisagan. aseve, saqarTveloSi wylis marTvis
problemebi mniSvnelovanwilad sakanonmdeblo Seusabamobebs ukavSirdeba, razec ufro vrclad me-6
qveTavSi iqneba saubari. garda amisa, wylis marTvasTan dakavSirebuli pasuxismgeblobebi
gadanawilebulia sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebebs Soris. maSin, roca maT Soris horizontaluri, iseve
rogorc vertikaluri TanamSromloba da koordinacia arc Tu ise Zlieria. calkeul SemTxvevebSi es
pasuxismgeblobebi bundovnad aris gansazRvruli da adgili aqvs urTierTgadafarvebs.
        wylis xarisxis efeqturi marTvis uzrunvelsayofad saWiroa monitoringis monacemebis regularuli
Segroveba da wylis obieqtebis statusis Sefaseba. es informacia aucilebelia wylis statusis
gaumjobesebisaTvis saWiro RonisZiebebis dagegmvisaTvis. hidrologiuri da wylis dabinZurebis
monitoringis monacemebis simwiris gamo SeuZlebelia saqarTveloSi zedapiruli wylebis mdgomareobis
sruli suraTis Seqmna. 1940-1970 wlebSi arsebuli 140-160 hidrologiuri sadguridan 2010 wlis
mdgomareobiT mxolod 29 funqcionirebs. 7 sadguris garda, romelTa reabilitacia da aRWurva axlaxans
ganxorcielda, sadgurebi ar aris saTanadod aRWurvili. fiziko-qimiuri xarisxobrivi elementebis yovelTviuri
monitoringi mxolod 22 mdinareze warmoebs maSin, roca 90-ian wlebSi msgavsi dakvirvebebi 72
mdinareze mimdinareobda. sul saSualod 33 elementis monitoringi warmoebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom
arsebuli sami laboratoriidan ori srulad aris aRWurvili, samive laboratoriaSi kvlav problemuria
adamianuri resursebisa da zogierTi laboratoriuli reagentebis nakleboba.

3
 Jangbadis biologiuri moxmareba – wylis organuli dabinZurebis sazomi: Jangbadis raodenoba
miligramebSi litr wyalze, romelsac moixmaren aerobuli mikroorganizmebi wylis sinjSi, 20°C temperaturaze
5 dRis ganmavlobaSi.


                                                                                                    16
         wylis resursebis ufro efeqturi marTvis uzrunvelsayofad aucilebelia wylis marTvis axal da ufro
mdgrad modelebze gadasvla, rogoricaa wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTva. marTvis aseTi forma
uzrunvelyofs strategiuli midgomis Camoyalibebas da wylis resursebis mdgrad mmarTvelobas
xangrZlivvadian perspeqtivaSi. saauzo marTva wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTvis warmatebuli
ganxorcielebis pirveli nabijia. es midgoma uzrunvelyofs yvela tipis wylis obieqtebis, maT Soris
miwisqveSa wylebis erTiani marTvis qveS moqcevas. garda amisa, saauzo marTva mxedvelobaSi iRebs
sivrciT-teritoriul dagegmarebas da miwaTsargeblobas. imavdroulad, xdeba wyalmomxmarebeli yvela
seqtoris da aseve, ekosistemis interesebis saTanadod gaTvaliswineba. sazogadoebis monawileoba da
dainteresebul mxareTa CarTva, rac saauzo marTvis mniSvnelovani nawilia, uzrunvelyofs konfliqtebis
Tavidan acilebas da wylis efeqturad gamoyenebas.

dabinZurebis prevenciisa da wyalaRebis kontrolis efeqturi meqanizmebis ararseboba
         saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs specialuri nebarTvebi wylis aReba/moxmarebisaTvis. im
saqmianobebisaTvis, romlebic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad garemoze zemoqmedebis
nebarTvas saWiroeben, samrewvelo CaSveba, iseve rogorc wyalaReba am nebarTviT regulirdeba.
Tumca, arsebuli garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis sistema gaumjobesebas saWiroebs, ramdenadac,
amJamad is ver uzrunvelyofs wyalTan dakavSirebuli yvela sakiTxis mowesrigebas, rogorc wylis xarisxis,
ise raodenobis kuTxiT. garda amisa, garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTva ar moeTxoveba zogierT
msxvil samrewvelo seqtors (magaliTad, kvebis mrewvelobas), romlebic nutrientebiT4 mdidar
Camdinare wylebs warmoqmnian da Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovan zians ayeneben zedapiruli wylis
obieqtebs,.
         is saqmianobebi, romlebic garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas ar saWiroebs, eqvemdebareba
garemosdacviT teqnikur reglamentebs. teqnikuri reglamentebi adgens CaSvebis standartebs da
uzrunvelyofs wyalaRebis 5 wliani proeqtis SemuSavebas, romelsac amtkicebs garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministro. Tumca wyalCaSvebis kontrolis mimarT aseTi standartuli midgoma ar
iZleva saSualebas mxedvelobaSi miviRoT sabaziso mdgomareoba, teritoriis sensitiuroba an erT
teritoriaze ramdenime sawarmos mier gamowveuli kumulatiuri efeqti. garda amisa, gaZlierebas
saWiroebs rogorc garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis, iseve garemosdacviTi teqnikuri reglamentebis
moTxovnebis aRsruleba.
         ar arsebobs administraciuli CarCo sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobiT gamowveuli difuzuri
dabinZurebis wyaroebis Sefasebisa da marTvisaTvis. soflis meurneobis saqmianobebiT gamowveuli
difuzuri dabinZurebis ZiriTadi wyaroebia sasuqebis, pesticidebis da herbicidebis araswori gamoyeneba.
sxva wyaroebia wertilovani da difuzuri dabinZureba mecxoveleobis fermebidan.
         wertilovani da difuzuri dabinZurebis mniSvnelovani wyaroa arasanitariuli nagavsayrelebi da
myari narCenebis aralegaluri ganTaveba mdinaris napirebze. es sakiTxi ganxilulia me-4 TavSi
narCenebisa da qimikatebis Sesaxeb.

municipaluri Camdinare wylebis sistemebis savalalo mdgomareoba
         gauwmendavi municipaluri Camdinare wylebi saqarTveloSi zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebis
ZiriTadi wyaroa. amJamad, mxolod q. saCxereSi arsebuli erTi gamwmendi nageboba funqcionirebs
srulad. meore moqmedi gamwmendi nageboba, romelic q. gardabanSi mdebareobs, uzrunvelyofs
mxolod pirvelad, meqanikur gawmendas. gardabnis gamwmendi nageboba Camdinare wylebs iRebs q.
Tbilisidan da q. rusTavidan. Tumca, am qalaqebidan Camdinare wylebis mniSvnelovani nawili Semkreb
sistemas ar uerTdeba da pirdapir Caedineba md. mtkvarSi.

2.2              ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
      saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro mTavari saxelmwifo
uwyebaa erovnul doneze wylis resursebis marTvis sferoSi. saministro pasuxismgebelia wylis saxelmwifo
marTvasa da dacvaze, aseve, wylis sferoSi saxelmwifo kontrolis ganxorcielebasa da wylis monitoringis

4
    mcenareebis zrdisTvis auculebeli elementebi, rogoricaa magaliTad fosfori da azoti.


                                                                                             17
sistemis organizebaze. garda amisa, wyalTan dakavSirebuli kompetenciebi gadanawilebulia sxvadasxva
saxelmwifo struqturebs Soris. saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro
pasuxismgebelia sazogadoebis janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemos uzrunvelyofaze. kerZod,
saministro adgens adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemos xarisxobriv normebs. maT Soris,
sasmeli, zedapiruli, miwisqveSa da sanapiro wylebisaTvis. saqarTvelos regionuli ganviTarebisa da
infrastruqturis saministros kompetenciaa regionuli ganviTarebis politikis ganxorcieleba, maT Soris
saqarTveloSi wyliT uzrunvelyofis sistemebis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba da koordinacia. saqarTvelos
soflis meurneobis saministro axorcielebs sasmeli wylis uvneblobis parametrebisa da xarisxis
kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil moTxovnebTan Sesabamisobis monitorings, zedamxedvelobas da
saxelmwifo kontrols. saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro gascems
bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis licenziebs, Tumca, zedapirul wlebTan dakavSirebuli licenziebidan
2006 wlis Semdeg mxolod TevzWeris licenziebi arsebobs. garda amisa, saministros kompetenciaa Sps
“saqarTvelos gaerTianebuli wyalmomaragebis kompaniis” marTva, romelic saxelmwifos 100 %-iani
wilobrivi monawileobiT Seqmnili sawarmoa.
        adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi pasuxismgeblebi arian adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis
wylis resursebis marTvaze, Tumca, maTi kompetenciebi sakmaod SezRudulia, ramdenadac wylis
marTva ZiriTadad centralizebulad xorcieldeba.


2.3          dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

municipaluri Camdinare wylebis sistemebis reabilitacia/mSenebloba
         ukve     ramdenime      welia    mimdinareobs      wyalarinebis     sistemebis      etapobrivi
reabilitacia/mSenebloba. kerZod, ukve dawyebulia q. baTumis, q. foTis, q. quTaisis, q. borjomis da daba
bakurianis wyalmomarageba-wyalarinebis sistemebis reabilitacia. TiTqmis dasrulebulia q. ninowmindis
Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi nagebobis mSenebloba. momzadebulia q. baTumisa da Savi
zRvis sanapiro zolSi, TurqeTis sazRvridan q. baTumamde ganlagebuli yvela dasaxlebuli punqtis, aseve
q. foTis Camdinare wylebis biologiuri gamwmendi nagebobis mSeneblobis proeqti. msgavsi proeqtebis
SemuSaveba igegmeba q. quTaisis, q. borjomisa da daba bakurianisaTvis. am obieqtebis mSeneblobis
vadebi dadgindeba dafinansebis wyaros gamonaxvis Semdeg. gardabnis gamwmendi nagebobis sruli
reabilitaciis da modernizaciis dasruleba gaTvaliswinebulia 2018 wlisaTvis, garemoze zemoqmedebis
nebarTvis pirobebis moTxovnis Sesabamisad, Tumca reabilitaciis samuSaoebi jer-jerobiT ar aris
dawyebuli.

instituciuri reformebi
        wylis servisebis sferoSi gatarebuli cvlilebebis Sedegad, moxda wylis servisebis kompaniebis
gamsxvileba da saxelmwifos 100 %-iani wilobrivi monawileobiT Seqmnili sawarmos Sps “saqarTvelos
gaerTianebul wyalmomaragebis kompaniis” Camoyalibeba. am reformebis mizani iyo wylis marTvis
gamartiveba da wylis seqtorSi investiciebis mozidga. dagegmilia strategiuli dokumentis momzadeba
wyalmomaragebisa da wyalarinebis seqtorebis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. dokumentSi asaxuli iqneba
Semdegi sakiTxebi: instituciuri reformebi; regulatoruli reformebi; kerZo seqtoris monawileoba;
sazogadoebis monawileoba da sxv. dokumentis damtkicebis Semdeg momzaddeba samoqmedo
gegma wyalmomaragebisa da wyalarinebis seqtorebisaTvis.

garemosdacviTi nebarTvebis sistemaSi ganxorcielebuli reformebi
        2005 wlidan mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada garemosdacviTi nebarTvebis sistemam. am
cvlilebebis mizani iyo sanebarTvo procedurebis gamartiveba da erTi sarkmlis principis damkvidreba.
Sedegad moxda mravalricxovani, nebarTvebis da licenziebis maT Soris wyalaRebis da wyalCaSvebis
nebarTvebis da sxva wyalTan dakavSirebuli licenziebis gacxrilva. Tumca, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna,
arsebuli nebarTvis sistema seriozul ganaxlebas saWiroebs.



                                                                                              18
     2010 wlis maisSi miRebuli iqna axali kanoni garemos dacvis inspeqciis Sesaxeb, aseve,
ganxorcielda cvlilebebi garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis kanonSi. am cvlilebebis Sedegad mkafiod
Camoyalibda garemos dacvis inspeqciis (gdi) uflebamosilebebi da dazustda garemoze zemoqmedebis
nebarTvis pirobebis Sesrulebis kontrolis procedura. am mxriv, aRmoifxvra sakanonmdeblo
naklovanebebi, rac aferxebda sawarmoebis regularul inspeqtirebas.

saqarTvelos axali CarCo kanoni wylis Sesaxeb
        amJamad momzadebis stadiaSia saqarTvelos axali CarCo kanoni wylis Sesaxeb. kanonSi
gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba yvela tipis wylis obieqtebi, miwisqveSa wylebis CaTvliT. masSi asaxuli iqneba
wylis rogorc xarisxobrivi ise raodenobrivi aspeqtebi. igi uzrunvelyofs saauzo erTeulze dafuZnebuli wylis
marTvis SemoRebas. kanoni aseve Seexeba wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTvis sxva aspeqtebs, maT
Soris wylis klasifikaciis sistemas, xarisxobriv miznebs da standartebs, wyalmoxmarebas, wylis
resursebis dagegmvas, dabinZurebis prevenciisadmi kombinirebul midgomas, sazogadoebis
monawileobas, monitorings da aRsrulebas, wyaldidobebis riskis marTvas da sxv. axali kanonis miReba
mniSvnelovani wingadadgmuli nabiji iqneba saerTaSoriso doneze miRebuli wylis mdgradi marTvis
meTodebis dafuZnebis TvalsazrisiT.


2.4          erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti

wyalze datvirTvis mosalodneli zrda
        sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg mrewvelobis dakninebis gamo saqarTveloSi Semcirda mTliani
wyalaReba. mniSvnelovnad Semcirda mTliani sarwyavi teritoriac. aseve Semcirda samrewvelo
wyalCaSveba da soflis meurneobaSi sasuqebis da pesticidebis moxmareba. momavalSi, ekonomikur
ganviTarebasTan erTad, savaraudod, es procesebi gaaqtiurdeba rogorc wyalaRebis, ise wyalCaSvebis
TvalsazrisiT. kerZod, dagegmili hidroeleqtrosadgurebis qselis gafarToeba, mzardi turizmis industria,
wyalmomaragebis qselebis da irigaciis sistemebis gaumjobeseba gamoiwvevs wyalze moTxovnis da
wylis obieqtebze zegavlenis gazrdas. efeqturi maregulirebeli saSualebebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, es
gazrdis wylis resursebze datvirTvas.

saqarTvelos wylis resursebze klimatis cvlilebis Sedegebis SesaZlo zegavlena
        klimatis cvlilebis Sedegebis zegavlena saqarTvelos wylis resursebze ar aris saTanadod
Seswavlili. Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT saqarTvelosaTvis hidroresursebis did mniSvnelobas, aucieleblia
klimatis cvlilebis zegavlenis Sefaseba da misi gaTvaliswineba grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. es sakiTxebi
detaluradaa ganxiluli me-12 TavSi klimatis cvlilebis Sesaxeb.

municipaluri Camdinare wylebis sistemebis reabilitacia/mSenebloba
       municipaluri Camdinare wylebis gamwmedi sistemebis reabilitacia/mSenebloba pozitiurad
aisaxeba zedapiruli wylebis xarisxze.

saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi
       saqarTvelom, rogorc evropis samezoblo politikis partniorma qveyanam aiRo valdebuleba,
miuaxlovos misi wyalTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdebloba evrokavSiris wylis kanonmdeblobas.
evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos samoqmedo gegmis sruli ganxorcieleba mniSvnelovan dadebiT Sedegebs
gamoiRebs saqarTvelosaTvis garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT. kerZod, samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebiT
mosalodnelia ufro mdgradi wylis gamoyenebis da marTvis danergva; wylis efeqturi marTvis SemoReba
mdinaris auzis doneze; wyaldidobebis riskebis Semcireba; dabinZurebis Semcireba Camdinare wylebis
gawmendis gaumjobesebis gziT; dadebiTi zegavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze sasmeli da sarekreacio
wylebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis Sedegad; dadebiTi zegavlena ekosistemebze; mdgomareobis
gaumjobeseba ekonomikuri aqtivobis, magaliTad turizmisaTvis; instrumentebis danergva wylis deficitis
aRmosafxvrelad; wylis safasuris, rogorc instrumentis ganviTareba xarjebis amoRebisa da


                                                                                               19
momxmareblis qcevis warmarTvisaTvis; dainteresebuli mxareebis CarTulobis uzrunvelyofa
sazogadoebis monawileobis Sedegad da sxv.
        gaerTianebuli erebis ekonomikuri komisiis (UNECE) mxardaWeriT 2010 wlis seqtemberSi
daiwyo molaparakebebi erovnuli politikuri dialogis dawyebis mosamzadeblad wylis resursebis
integrirebuli marTvis sferoSi. erovnuli politikuri dialogi exmareba aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da
centraluri aziis qveynebis mTavrobebs danergon wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTva gaerTianebuli
erebis ekonomikuri komisiis wylis konvenciis, wylisa da janmrTelobis Sesaxeb oqmis, evrokavSiris wylis
CarCo direqtivis da sxva gaeros da evrokavSiris instrumentebis principebis Sesabamisad. saqarTveloSi
wylis sferoSi erovnuli politikuri dialogi fokusirebuli iqneba sam ZiriTad sakiTxze. esenia: wylis sferoSi
erovnuli kanonis momzadeba wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTvis principebis Sesabamisad; konkretuli
samizneebis dasaxva wylis konvenciis gaerosa da msoflios jandacvis organizaciis wylisa da janmrTelobis
Sesaxeb oqmis ganxorcielebisaTvis; da mezobel azerbaijanTan wylis sferoSi transsasazRvro
TanamSromlobis xelSewyoba.
2.5           grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

        wylis resursebis marTvis sferoSi grZelvadiani (20 wliani) mizania adamianis janmrTelobisa da
wylis ekosistemebisaTvis wylis usafrTxo xarisxisa da sakamrisi raodenobis uzrunvelyofa. am miznis
misaRwevad saWiroa Semdegi moklevadiani (5 wliani) miznebis da Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis
ganxorcieleba.

mizani 1 – wylis efeqturi marTvis Camoyalibeba

mizani 2 –dabinZurebis prevenciis da wyalaRebis efeqturi kontrolis meqanizmebis SemoReba –
nebarTvebis sistemis gaumjobeseba

mizani 3 – wylis dabinZurebis Semcireba gauwmendavi municipaluri Camdinare wylebidan

mizani 4 – wylis dabinZurebis Semcireba difuzuri sasoflo-sameurneo wyaroebidan



2.6           arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

        saqarTvelos arsebuli wyalTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdebloba fragmentuli, araTanmimdevruli da
winaaRmdegobrivia. is ver uzrunvelyofs naTlad Camoyalibebuli wylis marTvis sistemis Seqmnas da ar
gaaCnia wylis dabinZurebis da gadaWarbebuli moxmarebis prevenciis efeqturi meqanizmebi. `wylis
Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos moqmedi kanoni ar moicavs wylis marTvis da dacvis mTel rig aspeqtebs da
aseve, moklebulia sxva seqtorebTan kavSirebs. ufro metic, sayovelTaod gacnobierebulia, rom wylis
Sesaxeb kanonma praqtikulad umoqmedoa, ramdenadac ar aris SesabamisobaSi arsebul licenziebis da
nebarTvebis sistemasTan, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsTan da sxva seqtorul
kanonmdeblobasTan. garda amisa, arsebuli wylis Sesaxeb kanoni ar uzrunvelyofs wylis marTvisadmi
itegrirebul, saauzo marTvis erTeulze dafuZnebul midgomas. imisaTvis, raTa moxdes arsebuli
sakanonmdeblo Seusabamobebis aRmofxvra da wyalTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis srulad dafarva,
aucilebelia wylis Sesaxeb axali kanonis miReba, Sesabamis kanonqvemdebare detalur regulaciebTan
erTad.
        gaumjobesebas saWiroebs arsebuli garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis sistemac. amisaTvis,
saWiro iqneba garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis Sesaxeb arsebul kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis
Setana da axali regulaciebis SemoReba.




                                                                                                20
21
    2.7       miznebi da RonisZiebebi
    grZelvadiani mizani – adamianis janmrTelobisa da wylis ekosistemebisaTvis wylis usafrTxo xarisxisa da sakamrisi raodenobis uzrunvelyofa.

          mizani 1 – wylis efeqturi marTvis Camoyalibeba

                                                                                         daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                   5
                                                        ganxorcielebi pasuxismgebeli       biujeti     dafinansebis potenciuri
                      RonisZiebebi                                                                                                           indikatorebi
                                                          s periodi      struqtura        (larebSi)            wyaro

                                                                       garemos dacvisa
                                                                       da bunebrivi
    axali kanonis miReba wylis Sesaxeb                                 resursebis                                                miRebulia axali kanoni wylis
1                                                          2011-2012                         -----               -----
                                                                       saministro                                                Sesaxeb
                                                                       (gdbrs),
                                                                       parlamenti
                                                                       gdbrs,
    wylis Sesaxeb axali kanoniT gansazRvruli                                                                                     miRebulia wylis Sesaxeb axali kanoniT
                                                                       parlamenti,
2   kanonqvemdebare aqtebis miReba                         2012-2014                         -----               -----           gaTvaliswinebuli kanonqvemdebare
                                                                       saqarTvelos
                                                                                                                                 aqtebi
                                                                       mTavroba
    saauzo marTvis sapilote proeqtebis
                                                                                                                                 SemuSavebulia mdinaris auzis
    ganxorcieleba identificirebuli mdinareebis                                           saSualo        saxelmwifo biujeti,
3                                                          2012-2015   gdbrs                                                     marTvis gegma SerCeuli
    auzebis farglebSi                                                                                   donorebi
                                                                                                                                 mdinareebis auzebisaTvis

                                                                                                        saxelmwifo biujeti,      damatebiTi sinjis aRebis wertilebis
4   wylis dabinZurebis monitoringis qselis gafarToeba      2011-2015   gdbrs             saSualo
                                                                                                        donorebi                 raodenoba

    damatebiT Semdegi nivTierebebis regularuli
    monitoringis ganxorcieleba: poliaromatuli                          gdbrs                            saxelmwifo biujeti,
5                                                          2011-2015                     saSualo                                 warmoebs Sesabamisi analizebi
    naxSirwyalbadebi, pesticidebi da navTobis jamuri                                                    donorebi
    naxSirwyalbadebi (TPH)

                                                                       gdbrs                            saxelmwifo biujeti,      Seqmnilia Sesabamisi monacemTa
6   regularuli hidrobiologiuri monitorignis warmoeba       2011-2015                     mcire
                                                                                                        donorebi                 baza


    5
     winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic aRemateba
    500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                            22
    treningebis Catareba garemos erovnuli saagentosa
    da gdbrs-s regionuli uwyebebis personalisaTvis
    maTi pasuxismgeblobebis Sesabamisad da saauzo                                          mcire         saxelmwifo biujeti,       personalis raodenoba, romelTac
7                                                         2011-2015    gdbrs
    marTvis sapilote proeqtebis ganxorcielebis                                                           donorebi                  gaiares treningi
    farglebSi


    saqarTvelos ZiriTad mdinareebze klimatis
                                                                                                                                   momzadebulia saqarTvelos
    cvlilebis zegavlenis Sefasebis momzadeba                                                             saxelmwifo biujeti,
8                                                         2011-2014    gdbrs               saSualo                                 mdinareebze klimatis cvlilebis
    Sesabamisi klimatis modelebis gamoyenebiT                                                            donorebi
                                                                                                                                   zegavlenis Sefaseba




         mizani 2 –dabinZurebis efeqturi prevenciis da wyalaRebis kontrolis meqanizmebis SemoReba – nebarTvebis sistemis gaumjobeseba

                                                                                           daaxloebiTi
                                                          ganxorcielebi pasuxismgebeli        biujeti    dafinansebis potenciuri
                       RonisZiebebi                                                                                                            indikatorebi
                                                            s periodi      struqtura        (larebSi)            wyaro

    garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas da
                                                                                                                                   kanonSi garemoze zemoqmedebis
    savaldebulo gzS-s daqvemdebarebuli
                                                                                                                                   nebarTvis Sesaxeb Setanilia
    saqmianobebis siaSi im specifikuri identificirebuli
1                                                         2011-2013    gdbrs, parlamenti       -----              -----            cvlilebebi, ris Sedegadac aRniSnuli
    samrewvelo seqtorebis Setana, romlebic
                                                                                                                                   seqtorebi daeqvemdebarebian
    warmoqmnian nutrientebiT mdidar Camdinare
                                                                                                                                   garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas
    wylebs.
    treningebis Catareba garemos dacvis inspeqciis
    personalisaTvis garemoze zemoqmedebis                                                                saxelmwifo biujeti,       personalis raodenoba romelTac
2                                                         2011-2014    gdbrs               mcire
    nebarTvis pirobebis da garemosdacviTi teqnikuri                                                      donorebi                  gaiares treningi
    reglamentebis Sesrulebis zedamxedvelobis kuTxiT.
                                                                                                                                   samrewvelo seqtoris
    cnobierebis amaRlebis kampaniis warmarTva                                                            saxelmwifo biujeti,       warmomadgenlebis raodenoba,
3                                                         2011-2015    gdbrs               mcire
    samrewvelo seqtorisaTvis                                                                             donorebi                  romlebmac monawileoba miiRes
                                                                                                                                   kampaniaSi




                                                                                                                                                                         23
                                                                                                                                       adamianebis raodenoba, romlebic
                                                                                                                                       CarTulni iyvnen cnobierebis
    cnobierebis amaRlebis kampaniis warmarTva                                                                                          amaRlebis kampaniaSi;
    sazogadoebisaTvis, garemosdacviTi                                                                       saxelmwifo biujeti,        adamianebis raodenoba, romlebic
4                                                         2011-2015      gdbrs               mcire
    gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis                                                           donorebi                   garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi
    monawileobis kuTxiT                                                                                                                daeswrnen gzS-s sajaro ganxilvebs,
                                                                                                                                       an warmoadgines werilobiTi
                                                                                                                                       komentarebi
    arsebuli nebarTvebis sistemis gaumjobeseba –
                                                                                                                                       SemoRebulia integrirebuli nebarTva
    integrirebuli nebarTvis SemoReba msxvili
                                                                                                            saxelmwifo biujeti         msxvili sawarmoebisaTvis;
5   sawarmoebisaTvis da ufro gamartivebuli                2011-2015      gdbrs               mcire
                                                                                                            donorebi                   SemoRebulia nebarTvebi saSualo da
    nebarTvis SemoReba saSualo da mcire
                       6                                                                                                               mcire sawarmoebisaTvis
    sawarmoebisaTvis


          mizani 3 – wylis dabinZurebis Semcireba gauwmendavi municipaluri Camdinare wylebidan

                                                                                                   daaxloebiTi
                                                         ganxorcielebi      pasuxismgebeli                           dafinansebis potenciuri
                        RonisZiebebi                                                             biujeti (larebSi)                                         indikatorebi
                                                           s periodi           struqtura                                     wyaro
                                                                         ekonomikisa da
                                                                         mdgradi ganviTarebis
    municipaluri Camdinare wylebis                                                                                                             SemuSavebulia municipaluri
                                                                         saministro (emgs),
    Semkrebi/gamwmendi sistemebis                                                                                                              Camdinare wylebis
                                                                         regionuli                                   saxelmwifo biujeti,
1   reabilitaciis/mSeneblobis programis SemuSaveba        2011-2013                              saSualo                                       Semkrebi/gamwmendi sistemebis
                                                                         ganviTarebisa da                            donorebi
    qveynis masStabiT                                                                                                                          reabilitaciis/mSeneblobis erovnuli
                                                                         infrastruqturis
                                                                                                                                               programa
                                                                         saminsitro (rgis),
                                                                         gdbrs
    municipaluri Camdinare wylebis
    Semkrebi/gamwmendi sistemebis                                                                                                              uzrunvelyofilia dRe-RameSi sul
                                                                                                                                                                3
    reabilitacia/mSeneblobis dasruleba SerCeul 7                                                                     saerTaSoriso              mcire 160 000 m moculobis
2                                                         2011-2015      emgs, rgis, gdbrs       maRali
    qalaqsa da dabaSi (baTumi, qobuleTi, ureki, foTi,                                                                safinanso institutebi     municipaluri Camdinare wylebis
    borjomi, bakuriani, quTaisi)                                                                                                               sruli gawmenda



    6
        integrirebuli nebarTva moicavs atmosferuli paeris komponentsac
                                                                                                                                                                                    24
    treningis uzrunvelyofa axladaSenebul municipaluri
                                                                                                                 saxelmwifo biujeti,       personalis raodenoba, romelTac
3   Camdinare wylebis gamwmend nagebobebze               2011-2015      emgs, gdbrs          mcire
                                                                                                                 kerZo seqtori, donorebi   gaiares treningi
    momuSave personalisaTvis
    kvlevis Catareba municipaluri Camdinare wylebis
    gamwmendi sistemebis sxvadasxva modelebis                                                                    saxelmwifo biujeti,
4                                                        2011-2013      emgs, gdbrs, rgis    mcire                                         momzadebulia Sesabamisi kvleva
    mizanSewonilobis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos                                                                         donorebi
    soflebisaTvis


         mizani 4 – wylis dabinZurebis Semcireba difuzuri sasoflo-sameurneo wyaroebidan

                                                                                               daaxloebiTi
                                                        ganxorcielebi     pasuxismgebeli     biujeti (larebSi)   dafinansebis potenciuri
                      RonisZiebebi                                                                                                                     indikatorebi
                                                          s periodi          struqtura                                   wyaro

                                                                                                                                           SemuSavebulia erovnuli samoqmedo
    erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis SemuSaveba
                                                                        soflis meurneobis                                                  gegma pesticidebis, herbicidebisa da
    pesticidebis, herbicidebisa da sasuqebis                                                                     saxelmwifo biujeti,
1                                                        2011-2013      saminsistro (sms),   saSualo                                       sasuqebis gamoyenebis Semcirebis
    moxmarebis Semcirebis Sesaxeb                                                                                donorebi
                                                                        gdbrs                                                              Sesaxeb

    organuli meurneobebis Seqmnis xelSewyoba
                                                                        gdbrs, sms,
    cnobierebis amaRlebis kampaniebis, eko-                                                                      saxelmwifo biujeti,       dafuZnebuli organuli meurneobebis
2                                                        2011-2015      adgilobrivi          saSualo
    markirebis, ekonomikuri instrumentebis, reklamis                                                             donorebi                  raodenoba
                                                                        TviTmmarT-velobebi
    da sxva saSualebebiT




                                                                                                                                                                            25
         Tavi 3. atmosferuli haeris dacva

3.1. problemis aRwera
         haeri adamianisTvis umTavresi sasicocxlo resursia da amitom atmosferuli haeris dacva
dabinZurebisgan garemos dacvis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes komponents warmoadgens.
mecnierulad dasabuTebulia, rom atmosferoSi dambinZureblebis, kerZod ki iseTi mavne
nivTierebebis, rogoricaa: naxSirbadis, azotisa da gogirdis oqsidebi, Wvartli, organuli naerTebisda
a.S. daSvebulze maRali koncentraciebi uaryofiTad zemoqmedebs adamianis janmrTelobaze,
ekosistemebsa da materialur faseulobebze.
         arsebuli monitoringis monacemebis mixedviT yvela im qalaqSi, sadac sadamkvirveblo jixuria
ganTavsebuli aRiniSneba e. w. “ZiriTadi dambinZureblebi”-s (SO2, NO2, CO, zestafonSi - MnO2)
mier formirebuli koncentraciebis gadaWarbeba maT dasaSveb mniSvnelobebze. miuxedavad imisa,
rom CvenTvis ucnobia, mosaxleobis ra wili imyofeba dambinZurebelTa daSvebulze maRali
koncentraciis zemoqmedebis qveS, Tavad is faqti, rom es gadaWarbebebi dafiqsirebulia qalaqebis
teritoriaze, mWidrod dasaxlebul ubnebSi, dauyovnebliv reagirebas iTxovs. Tumca monacemTa
simwire mniSvnelovnad arTulebs swor dagegmvasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebas.
         saqarTveloSi atmosferuli haeri ZiriTadad binZurdeba avtotransportidan, samrewvelo da
energetikuli obieqtebidan warmoebuli atmosferuli gafrqvevebiT. amaTgan ZiriTadi urbanuli
dambinZurebelia avtotransporti, romelic atmosferuli haeris xarisxis formirebaSi mniSvnelovan rols
TamaSobs. am sferoSi aseve problemas warmoadgens haeris xarisxis arasakmarisi monitoringi.

satransporto gafrqvevebi
        qveyanaSi gafrqveulidambinZureblebis udidesi wili satransporto seqtorze modis:
naxSirJangis gafrqvevaTa 87%, azotis Jangeulebis 70%, gogirdis dioqsidis 50%, aqroladi organuli
naerTebis 40%swored satransporto saSualebebidan xvdeba atmosferul haerSi.
        saqarTvelos satransporto seqtoridan dambinZurebel nivTierebaTa didi gafrqvevebi
ramodenime mizeziTaa gamowveuli:
      saqarTvelos umetes qalaqebSi da gansakuTrebiT regionebSi sazogadoebrivi transporti
         arasakmarisad aris ganviTarebuli, rac msubuq avtomobilebze did moTxovnas qmnis. bolo
         10 wlis ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi msubuqi avtomobilebis raodenoba gaormagda: dRes
         saqarTveloSi yovel 100 kacze 12 msubuqi avtomobili modis;
      qveyanaSi arsebuli socialuri donis gamo msubuqi avtomobilis SeZenisas upiratesoba
         naxmar avtomobilebs eniWeba. dResdReobiT qveyanaSi arsebuli saavtomobilo parkis
         udidesi nawili 15 welze meti asakisaa. moZvelebuli avtomobilebi ki haerSi met
         dambinZurebel nivTierebebs afrqvevs;
      miuxedavad imisa, rom avtomobilebis umetesoba evropidanaa Semotanili qveyanaSi
         dReisaTvis arsebuli sawvavis pirobebSi gamonabolqvis gamwmendi mowyobiloba
         (konverteri), romelic evropuli avtomobilebisTvis aucilebeli mowyobilobaa, swrafad
         gamodis mwyobridan, ris gamoc mZRoli saerTod aSorebs mas avtomobils. amis Sedegad
         avtomobilis gafrqveva daaxloebiT 10-jer izrdeba;
      bolo wlebSi droebiT SeCerebulia msubuqi avtomobilebis teqnikuri mdgomareobis
         regularuli savaldebulo daTvaliereba. amis Sedegad gzaze moZravi bevri avtomobili
         teqnikurad gaumarTavia da Sesabamisad ufro met dambinZurebel nivTierebebs afrqvevs;
      sawvavis xarisxis moqmedi moTxovnebi sakmaod rbilia evrokavSiris moTxovnebTan
         SedarebiT, rac agreTve zrdis gafrqvevebs avtotransportidan;
      saqarTvelos bevr qalaqSi ar funqcionirebs satransporto nakadebis optimizaciis sistemebi.
         Sedegad xSiria sacobebi, ris gamoc avtomobilebis Zravebi maRali gafrqvevis reJimSi
         muSaobs.

samrewvelo gafrqvevebi


                                                                                               26
        samrewvelo seqtorSi istoriulad ZiriTad dambinZurebel wyarod iTvleboda cementis
warmoeba rusTavsa da kaspSi, feroSenadnobTa warmoeba q. zestafonSi, metalurgiuli kompleqsebi
rusTavSi da quTaisSi. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg metalurgiuli kompleqsebi daixura da maTi
sruli reabilitacia axlo momavalSi naklebad savaraudoa. gasul wlebSi cementis warmoebis
gafrqvevebi mowesrigda. aseve mimdinareobs mtverdamWeri sistemebis sareabilitacio samuSaoebi
zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSi, Tumca dRevandeli mdgomareobiT feroSenadnobTa qarxana
inarCunebs “wamyvan” rols am regionSi manganumis mtvris (MnO2) emisiis doniT. im faqtorebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, rom qarxana imyofeba reabilitaciis procesSi da ekonomikur problemebs ganicdis,
agreTve warmoadgens ZiriTad damsaqmebels regionSi, moqmedi haerdacviTi kanonmdeblobis
Sesabamisad, sawarmos 2013 wlamde daudginda mavne nivTierebaTa droebiT SeTanxmebuli
gafrqvevis normebi. am vadis gasvlis Semdeg sawarmo valdebulia dambinZurebel nivTierebaTa
gafrqvevebi im donemde Seamciros, rom haerSi maTi koncentraciis gadaWarbeba ar gamoiwvios.
        haeris erT-erT damabinZurebels warmoadgens energetikis seqtoric. Tumca, imis gamo, rom
saqarTveloSi, kerZod ki gardabanSi moqmedi sami msxvili Tboeleqtrosadguri (ss `enerji investi~,
Sps `mtkvari energetika~ da ss `Tbilsresi~) sawvavad ZiriTadad bunebriv airs moixmars, isini ar
qmnian mniSvnelovan dabinZurebas.

haeris xarisxis arasrulyofili monitoringi
        obieqturi da utyuari informacia atmosferuli haeris xarisxis Taobaze dResdReobiT
saqarTveloSi ar moipoveba. 1990 wlebis Semdgomi mZime ekonomikuri krizisis Sedegad yofili
hidrometeorologiis departamentis kuTvnili haeris monitoringis qseli moiSala. 2010 wlamdehaeris
dabinZurebis gamzomi mxolod oTxi sadamkvirveblo jixuri moqmedebdaSemdeg qalaqebSi: Tbilisi,
quTaisi, zestafoni da baTumi (TiTo jixuri TiTo qalaqSi). es sadgurebi didi xania ar ganaxlebula da ar
SekeTebula, ris gamoc isini teqnikurad moZvelebulia. moZvelebulia gazomvebis meTodologiac. ar
aris danergili monacemTa damuSavebis Tanamedrove sistemebi, rac uaRresad arTulebs
monacemTa interpretacias. garda amisa, Sesabamisi aparaturis uqonlobis gamo 2010 wlamdear
izomeboda adamianis janmrTelobaze uSualo zemoqmedebis mqone iseTiparametrebi, rogoricaa
O3, PM10, PM2,5 koncentraciebi. haeris monitoringis monacemebi qveyndeba orhusis centris veb-
gverdze, Tumca sakmaod dagvianebiT, mxolod TveSi erTxel da isic imgvari formiT, rom Cveulebrivi
moqalaqisTvis naklebad gasagebia.
        monitoringis arsebuli monacemebis mixedviT yvela dakvirvebis punqtze aRiniSneboda
zogierTi dambinZureblis koncentraciis gadaWarbeba maT dasaSveb mniSvnelobebze. sadgurebis
raodenoba da monacemTa simwire, agreTve monacemTa damuSavebis Tanamedrove sistemebis
ararseboba ar iZleva saSualebas mTeli qalaqis haeris xarisxis mdgomareobaze gvqondes
warmodgena, Sefasdes dabinZurebuli haeris zemoqmedebis qveS myofi mosaxleobis raodenoba da
ganisazRvros is qmedebebi, romelic uzrunvelyofs mosaxleobis janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebuli
riskebis Semcirebas.
        aqedan gamomdinare, cxadad dgeba saqarTveloSi arsebuli monitoringis sistemis
modernizaciis sakiTxi, rogorc sakanonmdeblo da meTodologiuri, aseve materialur-teqnikuri bazis
gaumjobesebis kuTxiT.


3.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
        atmosferuli haeris xarisxze mTavar pasuxismgebel uwyebas qveyanaSi garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministro warmoadgens, romelic axorcielebs am mimarTulebiT saxelmwifo
politikas. aseve saministros funqciaa haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa gafrqvevebis saxelmwifo aRricxva
da haeris xarisxis monitoringi. am ukanasknels axorcielebs saministros struqturaSi Semavali
garemos erovnuli saagento.
gadawyvetilebebi, romelTac zemoqmedeba aqvT satransporto seqtoris gafrqvevebze, saqarTveloSi
ramodenime sxvadasxva uwyebaSi miiReba. gadawyvetilebas imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra tipis avtomobilebi
eqvemdebareba regularul teqnikur daTvalierebas, saqarTvelos parlamenti iRebs, Sesabamisi
wesebis dacvis uzrunvelyofa ki am sakiTxis daregulirebis Semdeg, Sinagan saqmeTa saministros


                                                                                                  27
funqcia iqneba. gadawyvetilebis miReba saavtomobilo sawvavSi mavne komponentebis daSvebuli
Semcvelobis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos mTavrobis kompetenciaa; ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis
saministros struqturaSi Semavali erTiani satransporto administracia SeimuSavebs da amtkicebs
transportis sferoSi moqmed teqnikur reglamentebs, maT Soris gafrqvevaTa moTxovnebs; amave
saministros funqciaa qveynis satransporto politikis gansazRvra; sazogadoebrivi transportis
ganviTarebisa da satransporto nakadebis optimizaciasTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebs
damoukideblad iReben municipalitetebi.
        yvela CamoTvlili uwyebis TanamSromlobisa da maT mier gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisas
garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis saTanadod gaTvaliswinebis gareSe satransporto seqtoris gafrqvevaTa
Semcireba ararealuria.


3.3 dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

satransporto gafrqvevebi
        bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi gatarda garkveuli zomebi sazogadoebrivi transportis
gasaumjobeseblad. magaliTad, Tbilisis mTavrobam Tbilisis avtobusebis kompaniisTvis TiTqmis 1000
avtobusi SeiZina. sazogadoebriv transportSi mgzavrebis mozidvis mizniT dainerga fasdaklebis
sistemebi. maT Soris yvelaze warmatebulia Tbilisis metrosa da avtobusis erToblivi fasdaklebis
baraTebi.
        Tbilisi agreTve liderobs satransporto nakadebis optimizaciis mcdelobebSi. dainerga
gzajvaredinebis axleburi gadawyveta, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira satransporto sacobebi
qalaqSi. mimdinareobs centraluri gzajvaredinebis gadakeTebis samSeneblo samuSaoebi.
        mTavrobis mier damtkicda saavtomobilo sawvavis xarisxis gamkacrebuli normebi, romelic
saavtomobilo gafrqvevebs qveyanaSi mniSvnelovnadSeamcirebda. Tumca ekonomikuri
problemebis gamo misi amoqmedeba gadadebulia (am etapze _ 2011 wlis 1 ianvramde). igive
mizezebis gamo msubuqi avtomobilebis savaldebulo teqnikuri daTvaliereba SeCerebulia 2013
wlamde.

samrewvelo gafrqvevebi
      rusTavisa da kaspis cementis qarxnebSi 2008-2009 wlebSi damontaJda mtvris gamwmendi
maRalefeqturi sistemebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen am sawarmoebis emisiis misaReb doneebs.

haeris xarisxis monitoringi
        2009 wlis bolos saagentom SeiZina da Tbilissa da rusTavSi ganaTavsa haeris xarisxis
monitoringis 3 axali sadguri (2 TbilisSi, 1 ki rusTavSi), Tumca es ar aris avtomaturi gamzomi jixurebi.
2010 wlidan TbilisSi daiwyo miwispira ozonis koncentraciis gazomvebi. Tumca jer kidev ar izomeba
atmosferoSi iseTi mniSvnelovani dambinZureblebi, rogoricaa mtvris umciresi zomis nawilakebi
(PM10 da PM2,5). garda amisa, saagento ar flobs Tanamedrove meTodologiebs da saWiro
mowyobilobas am jixurebis ganTavsebisTvis reprezentatiuli adgilebis SesarCevad. kvlav
problemuria monacemTa damuSaveba. Sedegad SeiZleba kvlav miviRoT monacemebi, romelTa
interpretireba Zalzed rTuli an SeuZlebeli iqneba.
        mTeli rigi saerTaSoriso proeqtebis Sedegadbolo wlebSi garemos erovnulma saagentom
agreTve miiRoTanamedrove laboratoriuli teqnika (speqtrofotometrebi, qromatografebi da sxva), ris
Sedegadac maTi monacemebis saimedooba gaizarda. Tumca sadamkvirveblo jixurebi da nimuSebis
aRebis meTodologia kvlav Zalzed moZvelebulia.


3.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
      saqarTvelos geografiuli mdgomareoba gansazRvravs mis satranzito rols kavkasiaSi.
MdResdReobiT qveyanaSi aqtiurad viTardeba satranzito infrastruqtura: mimdinareobs sarkinigzo



                                                                                                    28
qselis gaumjobesebisa da gafarTovebis samuSaoebi, Sendeba Cqarosnuli saavtomobilo
magistralebi. Sesabamisad momavalSi mosalodnelia satranzito satransporto nakadis da
gadazidvaTa zrda. Sesabamisi zomebis gatarebis gareSe am procesis Tanmdevi Sedegi iqneba
atmosferul haerSi dambinZurebelTa emisiebis zrda da haeris xarisxis gauareseba. amitom satranzito
infrastruqturis ganviTarebis paralelurad aucilebelia satransporto saSualebebis emisiaTa
Semcireba/regulirebis zomebis ganxorcieleba.
        mosalodnelia, rom qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba gazrdis adamianTa rogorc saqmian,
aseve sarekreacio mobilurobas qveynis SigniT. Tuki am procesis paralelurad ar moxda
sazogadoebrivi transportis adekvaturi ganviTareba, swrafad gaizrdeba kerZo msubuqi
avtomobilebis ricxvi, rasac moqalaqeTa keTildReobis mosalodneli zrdac Seuwyobs xels. amave dros
mosalodnelia, rom uaxloesi 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi keTildReobis zrda ar iqneba imdenad mkveTri, rom
axali avtomobilebis brunvam meoradi avtomobilebis brunvas gauswros. Sesabamisad, saTanado
zomebis gatarebis gareSe (igulisxmeba gansxvavebuli regulireba sxvadasxva asakis
avtomobilebisTvis) avtomobilebis saSualo asaki qveyanaSi SesaZloa kvlav maRali SenarCundes, rac
gazrdis haeris dabinZurebas., gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar aRdga avtomobilebis
savaldebulo teqnikuri daTvalierebebis (maT Soris gamonabolqvis Semowmebis) praqtika.
        unda aRiniSnos, rom avtomobilebis gafrqvevaTa perioduli Semowmebis amoqmedeba,
romelic maT teqnikur daTvalierebasa da gamarTvasTan aris dakavSirebuli, manqanis mflobelTa
umetesobisTvis momgebiani iqneba rogorc usafrTxoebis, aseve ekonomiurobis zrdis gamo
(gamarTuli avtomobili nakleb sawvavs xarjavs). saqarTveloSi arsebuli Zalzed liberaluri moTxovnebis
pirobebSi savaldebulo regularuli teqnikuri daTvaliereba saavtomobilo parkis mxolod mcire nawilis
(ara umetes 10%) mflobelebs daazaralebs, romelTa avtomobili savaraudod, minimalur tests ver
gaivlis gaumarTaobis gamo. Tumca sazogadoebis mier gaweuli es xarji srulebiT dabalansebuli
iqneba socialuri sargebliT, romelsac sazogadoeba satransporto moZraobis meti usafrTxoebisa da
haeris naklebi dabinZurebis saxiT miiRebs.
        qveyanaSi ekonomikuri zrdis pirobebSi mosalodnelia, agreTve, samrewvelo seqtoris
ganviTareba da Sesabamisad, emisiebis mateba, rac sawarmoo obieqtebis garemosdacviTi riskebis
safuZvliani Sefasebis da garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis pirobebis Sesrulebis saTanado
kontrolis uzrunvelyofas moiTxovs. aucilebelia dainergos garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT saukeTeso da
ekonomikurad xelmisawvdomi axali da sufTa teqnologiebi, romlebic yvelaze ufro efeqturi iqneba
garemoze mavne zemoqmedebis Tavidan acilebis an minimumamde Semcirebis TvalsazrisiT.


3.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

      haeris xarisxTan dakavSirebiT grZelvadian mizans warmoadgens qveynis mTel teritoriaze
adamianis janmrTelobisa da garemosTvis usafrTxo haeris xarisxis miRweva.
am miznis misaRwevad uaxloes 5-wlian periodSi Semdegi konkretuli Sedegebi unda iyos miRweuli:

mizani 1. saavtomobilo gafrqvevebis etapobrivi Semcireba. es SesaZlebelia gamonabolqvis
regulirebis sakanonmdeblo normatiuli bazis gaumjobesebiT da saTanado meqanizmebis
ganxorcielebiT saerTaSoriso praqtikis da adgilobriv TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT.

mizani 2. samrewvelo gafrqvevebis Semcireba, sawarmoTaTvis axali, mowinave, energodamzogi
teqnologiebis danergvis xelSewyobis da garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTviT gansazRvruli
moTxovnebis Sesrulebis regularuli kontrolis uzrunvelyofis GgziT.
mizani 3. monitoringis arsebuli qselis srulyofa da misi etapobrivi avtomatizacia, rac SesaZlebels
gaxdis atmosferuli haeris mdgomareobis da masze zemoqmedebis ZiriTadi faqtorebis realur
Sefasebas.




                                                                                               29
3.6 arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba
        arsebuli kanonmdeblobiT msubuqi avtomobilebis teqnikuri mdgomareobis yovelwliuri
daTvaliereba savaldebulo gaxdeba 2013 wlidan. aucilebelia, rom am RonisZiebis amoqmedeba aRar
gadavaddes. igive exeba saavtomobilo sawvavis normebs _ arsebuli kanonmdeblobiT gamkacrebuli
normebi ZalaSi 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan Sedis. aucilebelia, es vada daculi iqnes.
        mniSvnelovania sxvadasxva asakis avtomobilebisTvis gansxvavebuli moTxovnebis
wayeneba da Sesabamisad gamonabolqvis normebis etapobrivi gamkacreba. aseve, qveyanaSi
satransporto saSualebebis importze dasaSvebi asakobrivi zRvaris daweseba da misi TandaTanobiT
Semcireba.




                                                                                          30
     3.7. miznebi da RonisZiebebi
     grZelvadiani mizani - qveynis mTel teritoriaze adamianis janmrTelobisa da garemosTvis usafrTxo haeris xarisxis miRweva.

     mizani 1: saavtomobilo gafrqvevebis Semcireba
    RonisZiebebi                                         ganxorcie    pasuxismgebeli uwyeba          daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                             7       dafinansebis
                                                         lebis                                       biujeti                                indikatorebi
                                                                                                                     potenciuri wyaro
                                                         periodi                                     (larebSi)
1   saavtomobilo sawvavis xarisxis moTxovnebis           2011         saqarTvelos mTavroba           -               -                      mTavrobis Sesabamisi dadgenileba
    gamkacreba;                                                                                                                             ZalaSia

2   msubuqi avtomobilebis teqnikuri mdgomareobis da      2013         saqarTvelos parlamenti,        -               -                      msubuqi avtomobilebis wili, romelTac
    gafrqvevaTa regularuli Semowmebis meqanizmis                      Sinagan saqmeTa                                                       gavlili aqvT wliuri teqdaTvaliereba
    amoqmedeba da kontroli                                            saministro, garemos dacvsa
                                                                      da bunebrivi resursebis
                                                                      saministro (gdbrs)
                                                                      ekonomikisa da mdgradi
                                                                      ganviTarebis saministro
                                                                      (emgs)
3   satransporto nakadebis marTvis                       2011-2013    Tbilisis meria, gdbrs          maRali          adgilobrivi biujeti,   TbilisSi Semcirebulia sacobebi
    gaumjobeseba/optimizacia TbilisSi                                                                                donorebi

4   saqalaqo da saqalaqTaSoriso sazogadoebrivi           2011-2015    municipalitetebi, emgs,        maRali          adgilobrivi an         sazogadoebrivi transportis
    transportis Semdgomi ganviTareba/ganaxleba                        Sps. saqarTvelos rkinigza,                     saxelmwifo biujeti,    mgzavrTbrunva gazrdilia da
    (naklebad dambinZurebeli satransporto                             gdbrs                                          donorebi               sazogadoebrivi transportis
    saSualebebis danergva, rogoricaa eleqtrotransporti                                                                                      samanqano parkis saSualo asaki
    da sxva);                                                                                                                               Semcirebulia




     mizani 2: samrewvelo gafrqvevebis Semcireba

     7
      winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
     aRemateba 500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                       31
        RonisZiebebi                                           ganxorcie   პასუხისმგებელი უწყება   daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                 dafinansebis
                                                               lebis                               biujeti                              indikatorebi
                                                                                                                 potenciuri wyaro
                                                               periodi                             (larebSi)
1       garemos dacvis inspeqciis (gdi) SesaZleblobebis        2011-       gdbrs                   saSualo       saxelmwifo biujeti,    gdi-s mier inspeqtirebis raodenoba
        gaZliereba atmosferuli haeris damabinZurebeli          2015                                              donorebi
        sawarmoo obieqtebidan gafrqvevebis efeqturi
        zedamxedvelobis mizniT



         mizani 3: ZiriTad qalaqebSi haeris xarisxis monitoringis gaumjobeseba
        RonisZiebebi                                           ganxorci    პასუხისმგებელიუწყება    daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                 dafinansebis
                                                               elebis                              biujeti                             indikatorebi
                                                                                                                 potenciuri wyaro
                                                               periodi                             (larebSi)
    1   haeris xarisxis gamzomi avtomaturi sadguris            2011-       gdbrs                   maRali        donorebi              amoqmedda sul cota erTi avtomaturi
        SeZena da amoqmedeba                                   2013                                                                    sadguri minimum 5 parametris
                                                                                                                                       gasazomad
    2   haeris xarisxis cvlilebis kompiuteruli modelis         2011-       gdbrs                   saSualo       donorebi              Seqmnilia da muSaobs haeris xarisxis
        SeZena da danergva                                     2013                                                                    kompiuteruli modeli TbilisisTvis

    3   haeris xarisxis gamzomi araavtomaturi stacionaruli     2012-       gdbrs                   maRali        saxelmwifo biujeti,   miiReba haeris monitoringis regularuli
        axali jixurebis amoqmedeba saqarTvelos qalaqebSi       2015                                              donorebi              monacemebi sul cota damatebiTi 10
                                                                                                                                       jixuridan
    4   sazogadoebisaTvis haeris xarisxis informaciis drouli   2012-       gdbrs                   mcire         donorebi              regularulad ganaxlebadi veb-gverdi
        da ioli xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofa internet         2014                                                                    Seqmnilia
        portalis saSualebiT




                                                                                                                                                                   32
          Tavi 4.      narCenebi da qimikatebi
         winamdebare Tavi moicavs municipalur da saxifaTo narCenebs. radioaqtiuri narCenebi ganxilulia me-11
TavSi.

4.1      problemis aRwera
       saqarTveloSi erT-erT seriozul garemosdacviT problemas warmoadgens garemos dabinZureba narCenebiT
da qimikatebiT. problema kompleqsuria da moicavs garemos danagvianebas sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT,
garemos dabinZurebas nagavsayrelebidan,, aseve saxifaTo da akumulirebuli       narCenebis   marTvasTan
dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.

garemos danagvianeba sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT
        saqarTveloSi TvalSisacemia bunebrivi landSaftebis da obieqtebis uSualo danagvianeba ukontrolod dayrili
sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT. es mdgomareoba problemuria ara marto esTetiuri da ekonomikuri, aramed
daavadebebisa da parazitebis gavrcelebis saSiSroebis TvalsazrisiTac. xSirad am narCenebiT ikvebebian Sinauri da
gareuli cxovelebi, rac maT mowamvlas an daavadebas, an maT qsovilebSi arasasurvel nivTierebaTa dagrovebas
iwvevs.
        ukontrolod dayrili sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT garemos dabinZurebis ZiriTad mizezs narCenebis
mogrovebis sistemis moSla warmoadgens. dResdReobiT sayofacxovrebo narCenebis regularuli mogroveba
ZiriTadad mxolod msxvil qalaqebsa da raionul centrebSi xorcieldeba. umetes dasaxlebul punqtSi, gansakuTrebiT
soflebSi, mosaxleoba iZulebulia Tavad moagvaros problema da rogorc wesi isini narCenebs uaxloes xevSi, gzispiras
an mdinaris napirebze yrian. es teritoriebi ar sufTavdeba da Sesabamisad, mcire ukontrolo „nagavsayrelebi”
warmoiqmneba.
        sayofacxovrebo narCenebis mogrovebis municipaluri sistemebis moSlis mizezs erTi mxriv misi SezRuduli
dafinanseba, meore mxriv ki momsaxurebis arasakmarisi komercializacia warmoadgens: dRes es saqmianoba
municipaluri biujetebidan finansdeba da municipaluri samsaxuris an municipaluri sawarmos mier xorcieldeba.
dafinansebis wyaros centraluri biujetis transferebi da municipalitetSi dasufTavebis mosakrebeli warmoadgens. es
resursi ki momsaxurebis danaxarjebs srulad ver faravs. Sesabamisad, momsaxurebis dafarva SezRudulia, xarisxi ki
dabali.

garemos dabinZureba sayofacxovrebo nagavsayreli poligonebidan
         garemosTvis mniSvnelovani zianis momtania miwisqveSa da zedapiruli wylebis, agreTve haeris
dabinZureba arasaTanadod mowyobili oficialuri municipaluri nagavsayrelebidan. saqarTveloSi dRes arsebul 63
oficialuri municipaluri nagavsayrelidan umravlesobas ar gaaCnia nagavsayrelidan gamoJonili wylebis
mogrovebis/gawmendis sistema da wyalgaumtari fuZe, romelic miwisqveSa wylebs dabinZurebisgan daicavda.
         poligonebis nawili mdinareebis napirze an wyalgamtar xevebSia ganTavsebuli, rac praqtikulad gardauvals
xdis zedapiruli wylebis mudmiv dabinZurebas am poligonebidan. ar warmoebs poligonebdan gamoJonili wylebis
dabinZurebis monitoringi. savaraudod, isini dabinZurebulia rogorc mavne organuli nivTierebebiT, aseve mZime
metalebiT da SesaZloa paTogenuri mikroorganizmebiTac (ix. qvemoT).
         saqarTveloSi dRes arsebuli sayofacxovrebo narCenebis TiTqmis yvela municipaluri nagavsayreli sabWoTa
periodSi aris mowyobili da maTi konstruqcia im periodSi moqmed normebidan da am normebis ignorirebis
regularuli praqtikidan gamomdinareobs. 1996 wlis kanoni „garemosdacviTi nebarTvis Sesaxeb“ yvela Zvel
sawarmos (maT Soris nagavsayrelebs) aTavisuflebda garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis da ekologiuri
eqspertizisgan. 2007 wels miRebuli iqna axali kanoni, „garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis Sesaxeb“, romlis
mixedviT yvela Zveli nagavsayrelis operators 2010 wlis 1 ianvramde unda ganexorcielebina obieqtis ekologiuri
auditi, Seedgina garemoze zemoqmedebis Serbilebis RonisZiebaTa gegma da amis safuZvelze moepovebina
garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTva. dResdReobiT garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTva mxolod 4 municipalur
nagavsayrels (dedofliswyaro, xobi, rusTavi-gardabani da Tbilisi) gaaCnia, romelTagan ukve funqcionirebs
dedofliswyaros, xobisa da Tbilisis nagavsayrelebi. danarCeni municipalitetebis umoqmedobis ZiriTad mizezs
garemosdacviTi moTxovnebis saTanadod ganxorcielebisTvis saWiro codnis, gamocdilebisa da saxelmZRvanelo
masalebis nakleboba warmoadgens.
         garda imisa, rom nagavsayrelebis umetesoba arasworadaa mowyobili, praqtikulad yvela maTganze irRveva
operirebis moTxovnebic - ar xdeba narCenebis drouli da regularuli datkepna-dafarva-danamva gaxrwnili
narCenebis TviTaalebis Tavidan asacileblad. Sedegad yvela met-naklebad msxvil nagavsayrelze spontanurad
mimdinareobs narCenebis dabaltemperaturuli Ria wva, rac iwvevs haerSi uaRresad mavne dambinZureblebis,



                                                                                                             33
dioqsinebisa da furanebis gafrqvevas. narCenebis Ria wvis Sedegad warmoqmnili mdgradi organuli
dambinZureblebi Zalze didxans ar iSleba garemoSi da atmosferuli nakadebiT Sor manZilebze gadaitaneba.
       municipalitetebis    SesaZleblobebi, gaakontrlon kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba arsebuli
nagavsayrelebis mimarT, ar aris sakmarisi. ar arsebobs meToduri miTiTebebi municipalitetebisTvis, imis Sesaxeb Tu
rogor Catardes garemosdacviTi auditi, ra RonisZiebebi unda daigegmos auditis Sedegad, rogor da ra vadebSi, ra
dafinansebiT unda ganxorcieldes es RonisZiebebi da sxva.

garemos dabinZureba saxifaTo narCenebiT

        saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs saxifaTo narCenebis moqmedi nagavsayreli. Sedegad samrewvelo, samedicino,
veterinaruli da sxva saxifaTo narCeni xSirad yovelgvari gauvnebelyofis gareSe sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebze
xvdeba da garemos dabinZurebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan              wyaros warmoadgens. saxifaTo narCenebis
sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebze moxvedris mTavari mizezi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom qveyanaSi ar arsebobs
samrewvelo, samedicino, veterinaruli da sxva saxifaTo narCenebis warmoqmnis, gadazidvisa da gauvnebelyofis an
gadamuSaveba-ganadgurebis aRricxvisa da kontrolis sistemebi. Sesabamisad, bazarze ar aris moTxovna saxifaTo
narCenebis usafrTxod gadazidvis da gauvnebelyofa-ganadgurebis momsaxurebaze, rac Tavis mxriv qveyanaSi am
sferoSi momsaxureobis ukmarisobas iwvevs.
        yvelaze aqtualuri problema ki mainc municipalur nagavsayrelebze saxifaTo samedicino narCenebis (maT
Soris infeqciuri narCenebis) gauvnebelyofis gareSe moxvedraa, ris gamoc nagavsayrelebi ara mxolod garemos
dabinZurebis, aramed infeqciaTa SesaZlo gavrcelebis kerebsac warmoadgens.

dabinZureba akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebidan
        garemo mniSvnelovnad binZurdeba samTo-mopovebiTi da gamamdidrebeli warmoebebis akumulirebuli
narCenebisa da Slamebisgan, romelic ganTavsebulia yofili sabWoTa sawarmoebis mimdebare teritoriebze.
gansakuTrebiT sayuradsaReboa dariSxanis Semcveli nacari da Slami soflebSi cana da uravi (yofili dariSxanis
mopovebisa da gamamdidrebeli sawarmos teritoriaze), agreTve manganumis Semcveli narCenebi zestafonSi.
        garemos dabinZurebis mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgens agreTve vadagasuli sasoflo-sameurneo
qimikatebi, gansakuTrebiT pesticidebi, romelTa narCenebi sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg didi raodenobiT darCa
qveynis teritoriaze. 2700-mde tona saxifaTo qimikati ganTavsebulia saxifaTo narCenebis dazianebul da naxevrad
gaZarcvul samarxSi, iaRlujas mTaze, daaxloebiT 230 tona vadagasuli pesticidi ki yofili kolmeurneobebisa da
sabWoTa meurneobebis dangreuli sawyobebis teritoriebze iyo gafantuli. maTi didi nawili mogrovda da droebiT
ganTavsda iaRlujis samarxSi, Tumca saWiroa maTi Semdgomi gauvnebelyofa ekologiuri moTxovnebis
gaTvaliswnebiT.

4.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
        narCenebis marTvis sferoSi saxelmwifo politikas SeimuSavebs da axorcielebs garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
resursebis saministro. kerZod, saministro pasuxismgebelia Sesabamisi normatiuli bazis uzrunvelyofaze
(nagavsayrelis mowyobisa da operirebis teqnikuri moTxovnebi) yoveli nagavsayrelis garemoze zemoqmedebis
Sefasebis ganxilvasa da garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemaze. aseve saministros, kerZod ki misi
saqveuwyebo dawesebulebis - garemos dacvis inspeqciis funqciaa sanebarTvo pirobebis Sesrulebis kontroli.
        sayofacxovrebo narCenebis marTvaSi gadamwyveti roli Sesabamis municipalitets ekuTvnis. misi
pasuxismgeblobaa narCenebis mogroveba da teritoriis dasufTaveba, narCenebis gatana da ganTavseba, agreTve
sayofacxovrebo narCenebis poligonebis mowyoba da operireba. rogorc wesi, es saqmianobebi ara uSualod
municipalitetis, aramed mis mier daqiravebuli kerZo an municipaluri sawarmos saSualebiT xorcieldeba.
        saxifaTo narCenebis (magaliTad, samedicino, veterinaruli, sasoflo-sameurneo, an sxva) marTva an marTvis
koordinireba saqarTveloSi romelime erTi uwyebis kompetencias ar warmoadgens. Sromis, janmrTelobisa da
socialuri dacvis saministros mier dadgenilia samedicino dawesebulebebSi narCenebis marTvis maregulirebeli
sanitaruli wesebi, romelTa dacva samedicino dawesebulebebisTvis savaldebuloa.
        akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebi sabWoTa samrewvelo sawarmoebis danatovaria. sawarmoebis nawili
privatizebulia da Sesabamisi narCenebi sawarmos operatoris gankargulebaSia (rogorc magaliTad manganumis
Semcveli narCenebi WiaTuraSi). Sesabamisad sawarmos operatoris pasuxismgeblobaa am narCenebiT
dabinZurebisgan garemos dacva. sawarmoebis nawili daixura da Sesabamisi narCenis kontroli, konservacia-
gauvnebelyofa jer-jerobiT saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobaa.

4.3    dRemde gatarebuli zomebi da maTi Sedegebi



                                                                                                              34
sayofacxovrebo narCenebis mogroveba
sayofacxovrebo narCenebis mogrovebis mdgomareobam gamosworeba daiwyo 2006-2007 wlebidan. pioneri am
mxriv Tbilisis meria iyo, romelmac qalaqis sisufTavis uzrunvelyofa prioritetul sakiTxad aRiara. Sedegad Tbilisis
biujetSi gamoiyo sakmarisi Tanxebi dasufTavebis municipaluri sawarmos materialur-teqnikuri bazis TiTqmis
mTlianad gasaaxleblad, gaizarda da garantirebuli gaxda sawarmos momsaxurebis anazRaureba, paralelurad
gamkacrda sawarmos muSaobis kontroli. Sedegad momsaxurebis xarisxi mniSvnelovnad amaRlda. 2008 wlidan
sxva municipalitetebSic daiwyo msgavsi procesebi. Tumca Tanxebis ukmarisobis gamo bevr dasaxlebul punqtSi
narCenebis gatanis momsaxureba kvlav problematuria.

sayofacxovrebo narCenebis ganTavseba-gadamuSaveba
         municipalitetebs gacnobierebuli aqvT, rom maT mflobelobaSi arsebuli municipaluri nagavsayrelebi
dasaxuria da saWiroa axali, Tanamedrove standartebis Sesabamisi nagavsayrelebis aSeneba. swored Tanamedrove
standartebis Sesabamisadaa aSenebuli Tbilisis axali nagavsayreli, romelmac operireba 2010 wlis noemberSi daiwyo.
garda amisa, uaxloes droSi iwyeba rusTav-gardabnis nagavsayrelebis mSenebloba (gacemulia nebarTva) da
dagegmilia baTumis axali sanitaruli nagavsayrelebis mSenebloba. xorcieldeba calkeuli proeqtebi narCenebis
separaciisa da gadamuSavebis xelSewyobisTvis, rac nagavsayrelze mosaxvedri narCenebis raodenobas Seamcirebs.
quTaisSi ganxorcielda gansxvavebuli konteinerebis saSualebiT narCenebis separaciis sacdeli proeqti (evrokavSiris
granti).

saxifaTo narCenebi
        2008 wels aWaraSi ganxorcielda sapiloto proeqti (evrokavSiris granti), romlis farglebSi baTumis
municipalitetis dasufTavebis municipalur sawarmos gadaeca simZlavreebi (insineratori, transporti da konteinerebi)
samedicino narCenebis mogrovebis, transportirebis da ganadgurebisTvis. aWaris garemos dacvis samsaxuris
organizebiT yvela samedicino dawesebulebaSi daiwyo saxifaTo narCenebis gancalkevebiT Segroveba.
        garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier momzadebulia kanonproeqti, romelic saxifaTo
narCenebis ganmartebas, klasifikacias, maTi warmoebis, gadatanis, gauvnebelyofis, ganTavsebis aRricxvas da am
procesis kontrols iTvaliswinebs. kanonis miReba da amoqmedeba daaregulirebs saxifaTo narCenebis ukontrolo
gadaadgilebas da maT usafrTxo ganTavsebas.

akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebi
        gasul wlebSi, moxda vadagasuli pesticidebis detaluri aRwera SedarebiT msxvil sasawyobo meurnoebebSi.
aseve moxda poliqlorbifenilebis moculobis Sefaseba eleqtrodanadgarebis zeTebSi. aRwerili vadagasuli pesticidebis
nawili (230t-mde) Segrovda, SeifuTa da droebiT ganTavsda iaRlujis saxifaTo narCenebis samarxSi, sadac aseve
gadatanili iqna 600t-mde pesticidebiT dabinZurebuli grunti. amJamad mimdinareobs narCeni vadagasuli
pesticidebis SedarebiT mcire odenobis narCenebis identificireba da inventarizacia.

4.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
        sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg qveynis ekonomika praqtikulad kolapsis pirze mivida. ekonomikurima
siduxWirem adamianebis yuradReba meoradi masalebis gamoyenebisken mimarTa. Tumca meoradi masalebis
gadamuSavebis sawarmoebi nela viTardeba. dResdReobisTvis saqarTveloSi SesaZlebelia mxolod qaRaldis, SuSis da
ramodenime tipis plastmasis meoradi masalis gamoyeneba, aseve akumulatorebidan tyviis amoReba da
gadadnoba. uaxloes wlebSi mosalodnelia meoradi masalebis bazris ganviTareba.
        dReisaTvis sayofacxovrebo narCenebis warmoqmna erT sul mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT saqarTveloSi didi
ar aris: TbilisSic ki, sadac sayofacxovrebo narCenebis warmoqmna yvelaze maRalia, erT sul mosaxleze
gadaangariSebiT igi saSualo evropulis naxevaria. qveyanaSi ekonomikis ganviTarebasTan erTad mosalodnelia
narCenebis moculobis zrda, rac gamoiwvevs narCenebis warmoqmnis minimizaciis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis
gatarebis (magaliTad mravaljeradi taris gamoyenebis waxaliseba), aseve ukve warmoqmnili narCenebis separaciisa
da reciklirebis saWiroebas.
mrewvelobis ganviTarebam samrewvelo qimikatebis moxmarebisa da saxifaTo narCenebis warmoqmnis matebac
gamoiwvia. Tumca garkveuli seqtorebis ganviTareba xels suwyobs Sesabamisi narCenebis marTvis gaumjobesebas.
magaliTad, jandacvis sistemis ganviTareba savaraudod gaaumjobesebs samedicino narCenebis marTvas.
        garda amisa, saqarTvelos nakisri aqvs narCenebTan dakavSirebuli rigi saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi. am
saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis Sesrulebis xelSewyobis mizniT, saerTaSoriso dafinansebiT ganxorcielda garkveuli
proeqtebi/RonisZiebebi, romlebic mimarTuli iyo narCenebis sferoSi arsebuli probelemebis gadaWrisken da
garkveuli Sedegebi ukve miRweulia. mosalodnelia da, zogierT sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, ukve dagegmilia kidec



                                                                                                              35
garkveuli qmedebebi, romlebic xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi narCenebis marTvis sferoSi arsebuli problemebis
mogvarebas da Tanamedrove midgomebis erovnul doneze danergvas.
       saqarTvelo monawileobs qimikatebis saerTaSoriso marTvisadmi strategiuli midgomis (SAICM)
ganxorcielebaSi. momzadda saqarTvelos qimiuri profili da qveynis saWiroebaTa Sefaseba SAICM erovnuli
ganxorcielebisaTvis. mzaddeba dambinZurebel nivTierebaTa garemoSi moxvedrisa da gadatanis erovnuli reestris
(PRTR) instituciur saWiroebaTa Sefaseba.

4.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi
narCenebis marTvis sferoSi grZelvadin mizans warmoadgens narCenebis marTvis Tanamedrove sistemis
danergva (narCenebis usafrTxo ganTavseba, narCenebis energiis wyarod gamoyebena, narCenebis
gadamuSaveba, reciklireba, narCenebis minimizacia, narCenebis warmoqmnis Tavidan acileba).

uaxloes 5 weliwadSi ki miRweuli unda iqnes Semdegi moklevadiani miznebi:


mizani 1: municipaluri da saxifaTo narCenebis marTvis (mogroveba, transportireba da ganTavseba)
gaumjobeseba

mizani 2: akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebiT garemos dabinZurebis Semcireba


4.6 arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba
        narCenebis marTvis maregulirebeli sakanonmdeblo dokumenti saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs. narCenebis
marTvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi regulirdeba sxvadasxva kanonebSi gafantuli debulebebiTa da saerTaSoriso
SeTanxmebebiT.
        rogorc zemoT iqna aRniSnuli saqarTveloSi arsebuli kanonmdeblobiT, dasaxlebul punqtebSi sayofacxovrebo
narCenebis Segrovebisa da utilizaciis samuSaoTa warmoebis dagegmva da ganxorcieleba Sesabamisi
municipalitetis pasuxismgeblobas warmoadgens. Tumca kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs narCenebis marTvis
municipaluri gegmebis momzadebis valdebulebas, rac narCenebis mogrovebisa da ganTavsebis saqmianobaTa
optimizaciisTvis aucilebelia. aucilebelia kanoniT dadgindes aseTi gegmebis momzadebis valdebuleba, ganawildes
pasuxismgeblobebi sayofacxovrebo narCenebis marTvis erovnuli da municipaluri gegmebis momzadebisTvis,
dadgindes am gegmebis statusi (ra normatiuli dokumentiT damtkicdeba), erovnuli da municipaluri gegmebis
urTierTSesabamisobis valdebuleba da miRwevis procedura, gegmebis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelmyofi debulebebi
(dafinanseba, angariSgeba, kontroli). aseve aucilebelia, kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli iqnes sazogadoebis
monawileoba gegmis SemuSavebisa da ganxorcielebis yvela etapze.




                                                                                                          36
     4.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi
     grZelvadiani mizani - narCenebis marTvis Tanamedrove sistemis danergva

     mizani 1. municipaluri da saxifaTo narCenebis marTvis (mogroveba, transportireba da ganTavseba) gaumjobeseba
                                                                    ganxorciel                 daaxloebiTi   dafinansebis
                                                                               pasuxismgeb             8
     RonisZiebebi                                                   ebis                       biujeti       potenciuri             indikatorebi
                                                                               eli uwyeba
                                                                    periodi                    (larebSi)     wyaro
                                                                               garemos
                                                                               dacvisa da
     narCenebis marTvis erovnuli strategiisa da gegmis                         bunebrivi                                            momzadebulia narCenebis marTvis
1                                                                   2011-2012
     SemuSaveba                                                                resursebis                                           erovnuli strategia da gegma
                                                                               saministro
                                                                               (gdbrs)
                                                                                               maRali (Tanxa
                                                                                                                                    Seqmnilia narCenebis erovnuli
     narCenebis erovnuli inventarizacia, narCenebis klasifikacia da                            ukve          saxelmwifo
2                                                                   2011-2012 gdbrs                                                 reestri, narCenebis klasifikacia da
     monacemTa bazis Seqmna                                                                    damtkicebulia biujeti,
                                                                                                                                    monacemTa baza
                                                                                               evrokomisiis  evrokomisia
     narCenebis marTvis kanonisa da misi qvemdebare aqtebis                                                                         momzadebulia narCenebis marTvis
3                                                                   2011-2012 gdbrs            mier)
     momzadeba                                                                                                                      kanoni da misi qvemdebare aqtebi
     narCenebis marTvis SesaZleblobaTa gaZliereba (erovnul                                                                          gaZlierebulia narCenebis marTvis
4.                                                                  2011-2012  gdbrs
     doneze)                                                                                                                        SesaZleblobebi (erovnul doneze)
                                                                                                                                    amaRlebulia sazogadoebis
     sazogadoebis cnobierebis amaRleba narCenebis marTvis
5.                                                                  2011-2012     gdbrs                                             cnobiereba narCenebis marTvis
     Taobaze
                                                                                                                                    Taobaze
                                                                                                                                    municipalitetebisTvis
                                                                                                                                    momzadebulia meToduri masalebi
                                                                                  gdbrs,                                            narCenebis marTvis gegmebis
     municipalitetebis SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba sayofacxovrebo
                                                                                  regionuli                                         momzadebisa da
     narCenebis mogrovebis sistemis dagegmvisa da saTanado
                                                                                  ganviTarebisa                    saxelmwifo       ganxorcielebisaTvis;
     marTvis (m.S. dafinansebis sakiTxebis organizebisa da
6                                                                   2011-2015     da                saSualo        biujeti,         arsebuli nagavsayrelebis mimarT
     administrirebis) uzrunvelsayofad, aseve nagavsayrelebis
                                                                                  infrastruqturis                  donorebi         kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa
     kanonmdeblobasTan SesabamisobaSi mosayvanad.
                                                                                  saministro                                        SesrulebisaTvis,
                                                                                  (rgis)                                            Catarebuli treningebis raodenoba
                                                                                                                                    municipalitetebis
                                                                                                                                    warmomadgenlebisTvis.




     8
      winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
     aRemateba 500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                   37
                                                                                                  dabali biujeti
     sayofacxovrebo narCenebis marTvis municipaluri gegmebis                                                        adgilobrivi    momzadebulia sayofacxovrebo
                                                                    2012-2015   municipalitet     (TiToeuli
7    SemuSaveba, romelic harmonizebuli iqneba narCenebis                                                            biujeti,       narCenebis marTvis gegma.
                                                                                ebi, gdbrs        municipaliteti
     marTvis erovnuli gegmasTan.                                                                                    donorebi       TiToeuli municipalitetisTvis
                                                                                                  saTvis)
                                                                                                  saSualo biujeti
                                                                                                                                   sayofacxovrebo narCenebis
     sayofacxovrebo narCenebis mogrovebisa da gatanis                           municipalitete    (TiToeuli         adgilobrivi
8                                                                   2011-2015                                                      regularuli mogroveba xorcieldeba
     etapobrivad gaumjobeseba yvela municipalitetSi                             bi, gdbrs         municipalitetis   biujeti
                                                                                                                                   municipalitetis yvela dasaxlebaSi
                                                                                                  aTvis)
                                                                                                                                   daxuruli nagavsayrelebis
     Zveli nagavsayrelebis daxurva-konservaciis etapobrivi                                                          saxelmwifo
                                                                                municipalitet                                      raodenoba
9    ganxorcieleba da axali, Tanamedrove nagavsayrelebis            2011-2015                     maRali            biujeti,
                                                                                ebi, gdbrs                                         Tanamedrove nagavsayrelebis
     mSenebloba                                                                                                     donorebi
                                                                                                                                   raodenoba
                                                                                gdbrs,
     finansur-ekonomikuri safuZvlebis SemuSaveba narCenebis                                                         saxelmwifo     momzadebulia ekonomikurad
                                                                                samecniero
10   minimizaciisa da narCenebis marTvaSi kerZo biznesis            2012-2014                     saSualo           biujeti,       dasabuTebuli rekomendaciebis
                                                                                kvleviTi
     monawileobis stimulirebisTvis.                                                                                 donorebi       ramodenime paketi
                                                                                institutebi
                                                                                gdbrs, Sromis,
                                                                                janmrTelobisa
                                                                                da socialuri
                                                                                                                                   danergilia rigi saxifaTo narCenebis
                                                                                dacvis
     saxifaTo narCenebis Segrovebis, gadazidvis da gauvnebelyofis                                                                  Segrovebis, gadazidvis da
11                                                                  2012-2014   saministro        maRali            donorebi
     Tanamedrove teqnologiebis danergvis xelSewyoba                                                                                gauvnebelyofis Tanamedrove
                                                                                (Sjsds), soflis
                                                                                                                                   teqnologiebi
                                                                                meurneobis
                                                                                saministro
                                                                                (sms)


     mizani 2 akumulirebuli saxifaTo narCenebiT garemos dabinZurebis Semcireba
                                                                   ganxorciel                     daaxloebiTi       dafinansebis
                                                                              pasuxismgeb
     RonisZiebebi                                                  ebis                           biujeti           potenciuri     indikatorebi
                                                                              eli uwyeba
                                                                   periodi                        (larebSi)         wyaro
                                                                              gdbrs,
     canasa da uravSi akumulirebuli dariSxanis Semcveli narCenebis
                                                                              ekonomikisa                                          SemuSavebulia dariSxanis Semcveli
     detaluri Seswavla/aRricxvis safuZvelze maTi                                                                    saxelmwifo
                                                                              da mdgradi                                           narCenebis gauvnebelyofis proeqti
1    konservacia/gauvnebelyofis proeqtis SemuSaveba                2012-2015                      maRali            biujeti,
                                                                              ganviTarebis                                         pirveli rigis gadaudebeli RonisZiebebi
     (RonisZiebaTa gegma) da pirveli rigis (gadaudebeli)                                                            donorebi
                                                                              saministro                                           ganxorcielebulia
     RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba
                                                                              (emgs)




                                                                                                                                                                38
    saxifaTo narCenebis iaRlujis samarxis droebiTi konservacia                                           samarxi SemoRobilia da mowyobilia
    (SemoRobva, wyalamridi Txrilis mowyoba), masSi                                                       wyalamridi Txrili,
    ganTavsebuli saxifaTo nivTierebebis Seswavla-Sefaseba da                                             momzadebulia samarxis inventarizaciis
2                                                                2011-2015   gdbrs   maRali   donorebi
    gansakuTrebiT saSiSi nivTierebebis saimedo gauvnebelyofa                                             angariSi
    (an SefuTva da droebiT ganTavseba/eqsporti                                                           500-600 tona saxifaTo qimikati/narCeni
    gauvnebelyofisTvis)                                                                                  gauvnebelyofilia




                                                                                                                                    39
          Tavi 5. Savi zRva

5.1 problemebis aRwera

        Savi zRva aris …wylis unikaluri obieqti. es aris zRva, romelic warmoadgens yvelaze did
wyalSemkreb auzs msoflioSi. auzis farTobi Seadgens 2 mln kv.km da faravs evropis kontinentis TiTqmis
erT mesameds. am bunebrivma mocemulobebma Savi zRva gamorCeuli gaxada biomravalferovnebis
TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, bolo aTwleulebis manZilze Savi zRva iqca Cveni planetis erT-erT yvelaze
degradirebul regionul zRvad. didi wyalSemkrebi auzisa da naxevaradCaketili bunebis gamo Savi zRva
Zalian mgrZnobiarea anTropogenuli zegavlenis mimarT.
        gamomdinare iqedan, rom saqarTvelosTvis prioritetulia Savi zRvis sanapiro zonis infrastruqturis
ganviTareba turistuli seqtoris potencialis gazrdis mizniT, ukiduresad mniSvnelovania Savi zRvis
ekologiuri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba.
        dReisaTvis Sav zRvasTan mimarTebaSi gamokveTilia Semdegi Ziridadi problemebi: (a)
komerciuli mniSvnelobis cocxali resursebis saxeobebis Semcireba; (b) Savi zRvis da sanapiro zonis
biomravalferovnebisa da habitatebis degradacia; (g) eutrofikacia9; (d) adamianis janmrTelobisTvis,
sarekreacio miznebisa da wylis biotasaTvis aradamakmayofilebeli wylis xarisxi.


komerciuli cocxali resursebis Semcireba
        1960 wels registrirebuli 26 Tevzis komerciuli saxeobidan dResdReobiT mxolod 3-4 saxeobaa
SemorCenili. gadaWarbebuli rewvis gamo 1970-80-ian wlebSi mniSvnelovnad Seicvala TevzWeris
struqtura.
        komerciuli saxeobebis Semcirebis ZiriTad mizezebs warmoadgens gadaWarbebuli rewva, ucxo
saxeobebis SemoWra da Tevzis saarsebo garemos degradacia. unda aRiniSnos, rom regionuli
SeTanxmeba TevzWeris Sesaxeb xels Seuwyobda mdgradi TevzWeris praqtikas. regionis doneze
harmonizebuli komerciuli populaciebis Sefasebebis meTodologiis ararseboba arTulebs imis
gansazRvras, Tu ra raodenobis komerciuli resursis amoRebaa SesaZlebeli. aseTi meTodologiis
ararseboba aseve SeuZlebels xdis komerciuli saxeobebis dacvisaken mimarTuli erToblivi regionuli
RonisZiebebis dagegmvas. samecniero kvelevebis nakleboba Savi zRvis ekologiisa da meTevzeobis
sferoSi qmnis informaciul vakuums, rac arTulebs dagegmvisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis process.
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom ar arsebobs garemos dacvis kuTxiT misaRebi marikulturis ganviTarebis
xelSemwyobi meqanizmebi.

zRvis da sanapiro zonis bio-mravalferovnebisa da habitatebis degradacia
        invaziuri saxeobebis zrda gavlenas axdens Savi zRvis biologiur mravalferovnebaze, rac
uaryofiTad aisaxeba adamianebis saqmianobasa da qveynis ekonomikur interesebze. aRsaniSnavia,
rom marto 1996-2005 wlebSi aRricxulia Sav zRvaSi SemoWrili 48 ucxo saxeoba.
        Savi zRvisa da sanapiros biomravalferovnebisa da habitatebis degrdacias xels uwyobs Savi
zRvis sanapiro zonis araefeqturi marTva. SemuSavebulia sanapiro zonis integrirebuli marTvis CarCo
kanonmdebloba da strategiis proeqtebi, Tumca es dokumentebi ar aris oficialurad miRebuli. mdinare
Woroxis mier Camotanili myari natanis raodenobis Semcireba da samSeneblo miznebisaTvis myari
natanis intensiuri mopoveba imave arealis sanapiro zonidan, iwvevs sanapiro zonis eroziasa da
degradacias. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebulia konservaciisken mimarTuli
mravali RonisZieba sanapiros Warbteniani teritoriebis dasacavad (mag. Seqmnilia kolxeTis erovnuli
parki), kidev meti gulisxmeva unda iqnes gamoCenili, raTa ganisazRvros da Seiqmnas sxvadasxva
dacvis reJimis mqone teritoriebi sanapiros biomravalferovnebisa da habitatebis mniSvnelobis
gaTvaliswinebiT.


9
 fosforis, azotisa da sxva elementebis zrda wylis ekosistemaSi, rac xels uwyobs wylis mcenareebis,
gansakuTrebiT ki wyalmcenareebis gamravlebas. es ki Tavis mxriv amcirebs jangbadis Semcvelobas wyalSi da
iwvevs sxva organizmebis daxocvas.

                                                                                                           40
       ukiduresad rTuli mdgomareobaa saqarTvelos afxazeTis regionis Savi zRvis sanapiro zonaSi,
saidanac xdeba samSeneblo masalebis, kerZod ki qvisa da qviSis didi raodenobiT amoReba 2014 wlis
soWis zamTris olimpiadisaTvis saWiro infrastruqturis ganviTarebis dasakmayofileblad. movlenebis am
gziT ganviTarebis SemTxvevaSi, uaxloesi wlebis ganmavlobaSi Savi zRvis sanapiro zonis unikalurma da
mowyvladma garemom, romelic uSualod saqarTvelosa da ruseTis sazRvris samxreTiT mdebareobs,
SesaZloa ganicados iseTi mZime ziani, romelic aRdgenas veRar daeqvemdebareba.
       Savi zRvis sanapiro zonaSi dagegmili zogierTi saqmianoba ixileT me-12 TavSi klimatis cvlilebis
Sesaxeb.

eutrofikacia
        nutrientebis10 Warbi raodenobiT Cadineba iwvevs Savi zRvis eutrofikacias, rac mniSvnelovan
risks uqmnis ara marto Savi zRvis biomravalferovnebas, aramed adamianTa janmrTelobas.
Eeutrofikacia, iwvevs ra arasasurveli wyalmcenareebis gamravlebas Sav zRvaSi, seriozuli safrTxis qveS
ayenebs turizmis seqtoris ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi nutrientebis ZiriTad wyaros municipaluri
Camdinare wylebi warmoadgens. Savi zRvis auzSi 19 Camdinare wylis gamwmendi nagebobidan
dReisaTvis mxolod erTi funqcionirebs. Camdinare wylebis umetesi nawili Sav zRvaSi yovelgvari
gawmendis gareSe Caiedineba. nutrientebi Sav zRvaSi xvdeba sasoflo sameurneo miwebidan wvimis
Sedegad Camorecxili wylebidanac. Savi zRvis auzis ZiriTadi mdinareebisa da SesarTavebze
arasakmarisi monitoringis gamo rTulia aucilebeli RonisZiebebis gansazRvra da ganxorcieleba am
mimarTulebiT.

rekriaciuli wylis aradamakmayofilebeli xarisxi
         saqarTvelo aris gemebidan dabinZurebis prevenciis saerTaSoriso konvenciis mxare
(MARPOL-is konvencia). Kkonvencia garkveul moTxovnebs uyenebs wevr saxelmwifoebs, saqarTvelos
mxridan ver xerxdeba am moTxovnebis srulad Sesruleba gansakuTrebiT ZiriTad saporto qalaq foTSi,
sadac ar aris aranairi nageboba balasturi da navTobSemcveli wylis miRebisa da gawmendisaTvis, rac
bunebrivia mniSvnelovnad abinZurebs Sav zRvas. Savi zRva aseve binZurdeba zRvis siaxloves mdinaris
napirebze ganTavsebuli mravali nagavsayrelidan da rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, municipaluri
Camdinare wylebidan. wylis xarisxis gauaresebas Sav zRvaSi iwvevs aseve damatebiTi faqtorebi,
romlebic Tavis mxriv gamowveulia gadatvirTuli moZraobiT uSualod rekreaciul zonaze gamaval
gzatkecilze. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom turistuli sezonis ganmavlobaSi ar xdeba sabanao wylebis xarisxis
srulyofili monitoringi.

5.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi

       erovnul doneze, Savi zRvis dacvis saqmeSi mTavari uwyebaa garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
resursebis saministro. sxva struqturebia ekonomikuri da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro,
janmrTelobis, Sromisa da socialuri dacvis saministro, soflis meurneobis saministro, ganaTlebisa da
mecnierebis saministro da regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministro, romlebsac aseve
mniSvnelovani roli akisriaT. pirdapiri pasuxismgebloba eniWebaT adgilobriv municipalitetebs, radgan
narCenebis marTva adgilobriv doneze swored maTi funqciaa. sxva dainteresebuli mxareebi arian
sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi, biznes seqtori da sanapiro zonis adgilobrivi mosaxleoba, romelic 250
000 komls Seadgens.

5.3 dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

       1992 wels 6 qveyanam xeli moawera Savi zRvis dabinZurebisagan dacvis konvencias (buqarestis
konvencia). es saerTaSoriso dokumenti uzrunvelyofs erToblivi da koordinirebuli qmedebebis safuZvels,
romlebic mimarTulia Savi zRvis ekosistemis gaumjobesebisa da sanapiro qveynebis mdgrad
ganviTarebisaken.



10
     mcenareebis zrdisTvis auculebeli elementebi, rogoricaa magaliTad fosfori da azoti.

                                                                                                   41
        buqarestis konvenciis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg (1994) mravali proeqti iqna ganxorcielebuli erovnul
Tu regionul doneebze. AamaTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovania kolxeTis erovnuli parkis daarseba, romelic
uzrunvelyofs zRvisa da sanapiro zonis biomravalferovnebis dacvas, garda amisa, SemuSavda kanoni
sanapiro zonis integrirebuli marTvis Sesaxeb da iyo myari sayofacxovrebo narCenebisa da Camdinare
wylebis problemebis mogvarebis mcdelobebi. Tumca, rogorc zemoT iqna aRniSnuli kanoni sanapiro
zonis integrirebuli marTvis Sesaxeb ar iqna miRebuli da sanapiro zonaSi myar narCenebTan Tu
Camdinare wylebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi kvlavac aqtualuria.
        2005 wels saqarTvelos mTavrobam daamtkica biomravalferovnebis strategia da samoqmedo
gegma, Tumca igi ar moicavs zRvis biomravalferovnebas, es nakli nawilobriv gamosworda saqarTvelos
mier Savi zRvis dabinZurebisagan dacvis saerTaSoriso konvenciis biomravalferovnebis oqmis
xelmoweriTa da sxva saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis (bonis konvenciis SeTanxmeba - ACCOBAMS )
aRebiT. arsebuli ekonomikuri instrumentebi wylis obieqtebis dacvisaTvis, rogoricaa licenziebis gacema
wylis amoRebis/CaSvebisa da wylis dabinZurebis gadasaxadebi, gauqmda. instituciuri optimizaciis
mizniT qveyanaSi gatarebuli reformebis Sedegad moxda Savi zRvis sakiTxebze momuSave bevri
samTavrobo, Tu akademiuri institutis reorganizacia, Tumca aseTma cvlilebebma ver uzrunvelyves Sav
zRvasTan dakavSirebuli adgilobrivi Tu transsasazRvro sakiTxebis momcveli srulyofili politikis
SemuSaveba.


5.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti

         Savi zRvis sanapiro zona warmoadgens erT-erT yvelaze perspeqtiul adgils saqarTveloSi turizmis
ganviTarebisTvis. mravali infrastruqturuli saqmianoba am regionSi, turistebi nakadis zrda, dagegmili
msxvilmasStabiani proeqtebi, rogoricaa magaliTad aeroportis mSenebloba an Tavisufali savaWro zonis
Seqmna foTSi da sxva, mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xels am regionis ekonomikur ganviTarebas, Tumca
amave dros gazrdis zewolad Sav zRvaze. klimatis cvlilebac moaxdens gavlenas sanapiro zonaze, radgan
es regioni ganixileba rogorc klimatis cvlilebis mimarT erT-erT yvelaze mowyvlad teritoriad
saqarTveloSi. klimatis cvlileba da misi SesaZlo zemoqmedeba sxvadasxva ekosistemebze, aseve am
mimarTulebiT dagegmili RonisZiebebi ganxilulia me-12 TavSi klimatis cvlilebis Sesaxeb.
         Savi zRvis dacvis aucilebloba kargadaa gacnobierebuli saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier. 1992-2009
wlebSi mraval saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebas moewera xeli, romlebic mimarTulia Savi zRvis dacvisa da am
sferoSi regionuli TanamSromlobis xelSewyobisken. Savi zRvis regionul strategiul samoqmedo gegmaSi
(kievi, 2009) gansazRvrulia prioritetuli mimarTulebebi da RonisZiebebi Savi zRvis dacvis sferoSi. Sav
zRvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebs prioritetuli mniSvneloba aqvT miniWebuli evro-kavSirisa da
saqarTvelos samezoblo programaSic. Aaxlaxans saqarTvelom ratifikacia gaukeTa Savi zRvis konvenciis
biomaravalferovnebis oqmsa da xmelTze ganlagebuli wyaroebisa da saqmianobebiT gamowveuli Savi
zRvis dabinZurebisagan dacvis ganaxlebul oqms, riTac kidev erTxel daadastura Tavisi mzadyofna Savi
zRvis dacvisken mimarTuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcilebaSi monawileobisaTvis.


5.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

      Savi zRvis dacvis sferoSi grZelvadian mizans warmoadgens Savi zRvis iseT ekologiur
mdgomareobis miRweva, romelic dafiqsirebuli iyo wina saukunis 60-ian wlebSi. es mizani
SesabamisobaSia Savi zRvis regionul strategiul samoqmedo gegmaSi dasaxul miznebTan.
Aam miznis misaRwevad unda moxdes Semdegi moklevadiani miznebis miRweva momdevno 5 wlis
ganmavlobaSi:

mizani 1. komerciuli cocxali resursebis dacva da SenarCuneba

mizani 2. Savi zRvis da sanapiro zonis biomravalferovnebisa da habitatebis dacva da marTva

mizani 3. eutrofikaciis Semcireba


                                                                                                    42
mizani 4. wylis usafrTxo xarisxis uzrunvelyofa adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis, sarekreacio
gamoyenebis miznebisa da wylis biotasaTvis

        am miznebis miRweva Zalian mniSvnelovania ara marto biomravalferovnebisa da garemos
dacvis kuTxiT, aramed sanapiro zonis mdgradi infrastruqturuli ganviTarebisa da turizmis xelSewyobis
TvalsazrisiTac.


5.6 arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

       konkretuli kanoni Savi zRvis dacvis Sesaxeb ar arsebobs. xolo meTevzeobasTan dakavSirebuli
sakiTxebis maregulirebeli sakanonmdeblo baza arasrulyofilia, rac mniSvnelovnad aferxebs am seqtoris
ganviTarebas da garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT misaRebi marikulturis instrumentebis danergvas. Savi
zRvis regionuli strategiuli samoqmedo gegmis mixedviT unda arsebobdes regionul doneze
harmonizebuli kanoni, romelic uzrunvelyofs unificirebul politikis gatarebas regionSi. arsebuli erovnuli
CarCo kanonmdebloba saWiroebs ganaxlebas da aucilebelia kanonqvemdebare aqtebis SemuSaveba.
sanapiro zolis integrirebuli marTvis midgomebis danergva da sanapiro zonis degradaciisagan dacva
aseve moiTxovs Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo bazis arsebobas. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi arsebuli
kanonmdebloba ar iZleva eutrofikaciis gamomwvevi mizezebis aRmofxvris saSualebas da
Sesabamisad,       aucilebelia    am     kuTxiTac      gatardes       cvlilebebi   kanonmdeblobaSi.




                                                                                                    43
      5.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi

      grZelvadiani mizani - Savi zRvis iseT ekologiur mdgomareobis miRweva, romelic dafiqsirebuli iyo wina saukunis 60-ian wlebSi
                                                                   11
       mizani 1. komerciuli cocxali resursebis dacva da SenarCuneba
      RonisZiebebi                                 ganxor pasuxismgebeli uwyeba        daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                 12       dafinansebis
                                                   cielebis                              biujeti                                               indikatorebi
                                                                                                        potenciuri wyaro
                                                   periodi                               (larebSi)
1.    Savi zRvis ekologiisa da Tevzis meurneobis 2011-       gdbrs, ganaTlebisa da     saSualo        saxelmwifo biujeti,    Savi zRvis monitoringis
      samecniero kvlevis ganviTareba Savi zRvis    2012      mecnierebis saministro                   donorebi               centri Sesabamisi kadrebiT
      monitoringis centris gaZlierebis                       (gms)                                                           aris dakompleqtebuli
      meSveobiT
2.    sakanonmdeblo instrumentebis danergva,       2012-     soflis meurneobis         mcire          saxelmwifo biujeti,    instrumentebi danergilia
      romlebic uzrunvelyofen garemosaTvis          2013      saministro (sms), emgs,
      usafrTxo marikulturis gazrdil warmoebas                gdbrs, kerZo seqtori

       mizani 2. Savi zRvis da sanapiro zonis biomravalferovnebisa da habitatebis dacva da marTva
     RonisZiebebi                                ganxorcie pasuxismgebeli uwyeba        daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                          dafinansebis
                                                 lebis                                    biujeti                                              indikatorebi
                                                                                                        potenciuri wyaro
                                                 periodi                               (larebSi)
1    zRvis biomravalferovnebis aspeqtebis        2011-2015 gdbrs, gms,                 mcire          saxelmwifo biujeti,    2011-2015 wlis biomravalferovnebis strategiuli
     Setana Sesabamis strategiul                                                                      donorebi               samoqmedo gegma moicavs zRvis
     dokumentebSi                                                                                                            biomravalferovnebis sakiTxebs
2    zRvis biomravaleferovnebasTan               2011-2012 gdbrs                       mcire          GTZ                    indikatorebi SemuSavebulia
     dakavSirebuli indikatorebis SemuSaveba
     da biomravalferovnebis monitoringis
     erovnul sistemaSi Setana
3    zRvis biomravalferovnebis dacvis mizniT     2011-2014 gdbrs                       saSualo        GTZ                    sapiloto proeqti ganxorcielebulia
     sapiloto proeqtis SemuSaveba da
     ganxorcieleba
4    sazRvao da sanapiro habitatebisa da         2011-2015 gdbrs, saerTaSoriso         maRali         saxelmwifo biujeti,    sazRvao da sanapiro daculi teritoriebis marTva
     biomravalferovnebis                                    garemosdacviTi                            donorebi               gaumjobesebulia
     dacvis/SenarCunebis gaZliereba arsebuli                organizaciebi
     daculi teritoriebis ganviTarebis                                                                                        daarsebulia axali sazRvao da/an sanapiro daculi
     xelSewyobiTa da sadac es                                                                                                teritoriebi
     mizanSewonilia, damatebiTi daculi


      11
        Sav zRvaSi TevzWeris sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli maregulirebeli bazis Seqmna ganxorcieldeba me-6 Tavis me-2 miznis me-8 saqmianobis farglebSi
      12
        winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
      aRemateba 500 000 lars
                                                                                                                                                                  44
           teritoriebis daarsebis gziT
    5      sanapiro zonis integrirebuli marTvis          2011-2015    gdbrs, emgs, regionuli       maRali       saxelmwifo biujeti,    erovnuli strategia miRebulia
           midgomebis danergva Savi zRvis                             ganviTarebisa da                          donorebi
           konvenciis dabinZurebis xmeleTze                           infrastruqturis saministro
           ganlagebuli wyaroebisa da saqmianobis                      (rgis), parlamenti,
           oqmis Sesabamisad, sanapiro zonis                          adgilobrivi xelisufleba
           integrirebuli marTvis strategiis miRebiT.

    6      Savi zRvis auzis mdinareebidan                2011-2012    emgs, gdbrs                  mcire        saxelmwifo biujeti,    angariSi da rekomendaciebi momzadebulia
           samSeneblo masalebis amoRebis                                                                        donorebi
           mizanSewonilobis Seswavla

    7      sanapiro zonis regionebis adgilobrivi         2011-2015    gdbrs                        mcire                               dainteresebuli mxareebisaTvis Catarebuli
           dainteresebuli mxareebis cnobierebis                                                                 donorebi               treiningebi da seminarebi
           amaRleba Savi zRvis regionuli strategiuli
           samoqmedo gegmis moTxovnebis
           Sesaxeb


             mizani 3 eutrofikaciis Semcireba
        RonisZiebebi                                   ganxorciele    pasuxismgebeli uwyeba        daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                    dafinansebis
                                                       bis periodi                                    biujeti                                            indikatorebi
                                                                                                                  potenciuri wyaro
                                                                                                   (larebSi)
1       monitoringisa da Sefasebis sistemis            2013-2014      gdbrs, Sromis,               saSualo     saxelmwifo biujeti     arsebobs sando (sarwmuno) monacemebi
        danergva azotisa da fosforisTvis                              janmrTelobisa da
        (koncentraciebi da Cadineba) Savi zRvis                       socialuri dacvis
        ZiriTad mdinareebSi                                           saministro (Sjsds)
2       soflis meurneobaSi saukeTeso praqtikisa da     2011-2015      gdbrs, sms,                  mcire        saxelmwifo biujeti,    organuli fermebis raodenoba
        organuli fermerobis da sxva                                   municipalitetebi,                         biznes seqtori
        naklebdamabinZurebeli safermero                               arasamTavrobo
        sistemebis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba                            organizaciebi
3       Savi zRvis popularuli sakurorto adgilebSi      2011-2015      gdbrs, rgis,                 maRali       saxelmwifo biujeti,    arsebobs sasmeli wylis/sakanalizacio sistema
        sasmeli wylis/sakanalizacio sistemebisa                       municipalitetebi                          saerTaSoriso           urekSi da gamwmendi nageboba ureki-
        da narCeni wylebis gamwmendi                                                                            safinanso              qobuleTi
        nagebobebis mSeneblobisaTvis                                                                            institutebi,
                                             13
        sainvesticio proeqtebis xelSewyoba                                                                      DABLAS TF

             mizani 4. wylis usafrTxo xarisxis uzrunvelyofa adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis, sarekreacio gamoyenebis miznebisa da wylis biotasaTvis

             13
                  es saqmianoba SesaZlebelia daifaros me-2 Tavis mizani 3-is me-2 RonisZiebiT.
                                                                                                                                                                           45
    RonisZiebebi                                ganxorciele   pasuxismgebeli uwyeba     daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                         dafinansebis
                                                bis periodi                                biujeti                                            indikatorebi
                                                                                                       potenciuri wyaro
                                                                                         (larebSi)
1   monitoringis xelSewyobis mizniT Savi        2011-2012.    gdbrs                     mcire         saxelmwifo biujeti,     nusxa SemuSavebulia da regularulad xdeba
    zRvis “prioritetuli damabinZureblebis                                                             DABLAS TF               misi ganaxleba
    nusxis” danergva
2   gemebze warmoSobili narCenebis              2011-2015     portis administraciebi,   maRali        portis                  xdeba balasturi da navTobSemcveli wylis
    misaRebi adekvaturi mimRebi                               municipalitetebi, gdbrs                 administraciebi         gadamuSaveba foTis portSi, SerCeulia
    nagebobebis gamoyofa/aSeneba gemebze                                                                                      ganTavsebis standartuli adgilebi sxva
    warmoSobili narCenebisaTvis marpolis                                                                                      narCenebisaTvis baTumsa da foTis portebSi
    konvenciis Sesabamisad.
3   araregulirebadi/arakanonieri mdinarispira   2011-2013     gdbrs, municipalitetebi   saSualao      saxelmwifo da           araregulirebuli/arakanonieri nagavsayrelebi
    da sanapiro nagavsayrelebis gawmenda da                                                           adgilobrivi biujetebi   mdinaris napirebsa da sanapiroze gawmendili
    daxurva                                                                                                                   da daxurulia baTumTan, qobuleTTan da
                                                                                                                              foTTan. gamoyofilia Sesabamisi adgilebi
                                                                                                                              saTanado infrastruqturiT.
4   turistuli sezonis dros sabanao wylis        2011-2015     gdbrs                     dabali        saxelmwifo biujeti      mimdinareobs yoveldRiuri monitoringi
    mudmivi monitoringis warmoeba                                                                                             zafxulSi baTumSi, qobuleTsa da urekSi
5   qobuleTi-baTumis SemovliTi gzis             2011-2014     rgis, gdbrs               maRali        saerTaSoriso            SemovliTi gza mowyobilia
    mSeneblobis xelSewyoba                                                                            safinanso
                                                                                                      organizaciebi,
                                                                                                      saxelmwifo biujeti




                                                                                                                                                                 46
           Tavi 6.        biomravalferovneba da daculi teritoriebi
     6.1     problemis aRwera

    saqarTvelo, rogorc kavkasiis ekoregionis nawili, warmoadgens biomravalferovnebis erT-erT
`cxel wertils~ (amJamad Conservation International-is mier dedamiwaze gamoyofilia
biomravalferovnebis 34 `cxeli wertili~, romlebic gamoirCevian gansakuTrebuli biomravalferovnebiT
da romlebic, amasTanave, mniSvnelovani safrTxis winaSe imyofebian). WWF-is Sefasebis
mixedviT kavkasia, agreTve aris globaluri mniSvnelobis ekoregioni, romelic xasiaTdeba saxeobrivi
mravalferovnebiT, endemizmis maRali doniT, mcenareulobis tipebis mravalferovnebiTa da globalur
doneze iSviaTi biomebiT.

saqarTveloSi warmodgenilia globaluri mniSvnelobis habitatebi da ekosistemebi. magaliTad,
biomravalferovnebis konservaciis TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis 17 adgili ukve CarTulia zurmuxtis
      14
qselSi (Emerald Network). saqarTveloSi gamovlenilia frinvelebisTvis mniSvnelovani 31 adgili. garda amisa,
kolxeTis dablobze mdebare 2 Warbteniani teritoria Setanilia ramsaris konvenciis saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis
Warbteniani teritoriebis nusxaSi.

saqarTvelo biologiurad mdidar qveynebs miekuTvneba. aq aRwerilia WurWlovan mcenareTa 4130 saxeoba.
aqedan 600-mde saxeoba (14,2%) kavkasiis endemia, xolo daaxloebiT 300 saxeoba – saqarTvelos endemi
(9,0%). saqarTveloSi aRwerilia faunis 16 054 saxeoba, maTgan 758 saxeobis xerxemliani.

         dReisaTvis biomravalferovnebis sferoSi arsebuli mTavari problemebia: habitatebis
degradacia da saxeobebis ricxovnebis Semcireba, aramdgradi TevzWera da nadiroba, daculi
teritoriebis araefeqturi marTva, daculi teritoriebis erTiani qselis ararseboba, biomravalferovnebis
konservaciisa da mdgradi marTvisaTvis saTanado monacemTa bazis ararseboba, da bolos,
genetikurad modificirebuli organizmebis araregulirebuli gadaadgileba.

saxeobebis ricxovnebis Semcireba da habitatebis degradacia
       habitatebis rRvevisa da mzardi, araregulirebuli moxmarebis gamo mcenareebis da
cxovelebis mravali saxeoba gadaSenebis zRvarzea misuli. maT Soris ZuZumwovarTa 29, frinvelTa
35, qvewarmavalTa 11, amfibiebis 2, Tevzebis 14 da merqniani mcenareebis 56 saxeoba Setanilia
erovnul wiTel nusxaSi. amasTan saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli xerxemlian cxovelTa 44 saxeoba aris
globalurad gadaSenebis piras myofi da Setanilia IUCN-is wiTel nusxaSi rogorc mowyvladi,
gadaSenebis piras myofi an gadaSenebis ukiduresi safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeoba. Detalebi ixileT
chanarTSi (CanarTi 6.1)

CanarTi 6.1 informacia safrTxis winaSe myofi zogierTi saxeobis Sesaxeb
gansakuTrebuli safrTxis winaSe arian msxvili ZuZumwovrebi. amJamad maTi mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba
mxolod specialuri sakonservacio RonisZiebebis gatarebiT aris SesaZlebeli. gasul saukuneSi saqarTveloSi
gadaSenda jeirani da niamoris samxreT populacia (TrialeTis qedi). jiqi da zolebiani afTari saqarTveloSi jer
kidev gvxvdeba, Tumca, mxolod calkeuli individebis saxiT. katastrofulad aris Semcirebuli keTilSobili irmis
raodenoba (SemorCeniliasul 3 populacia dacul teritoriebze). 1990-2005 wlebSi aRmosavleTkavkasiuri jixvis
populacia Semcirda 20%-iT, xolo dasavleTkavkasiuri jixvis populacia – 50%-iT. gasuli saukunis dasawyisidan
Savi zRvis zuTxisebrTa saxeobebis populaciebis raodenoba Semcirda minimum 37-jer brakonierobis, agreTve
satofe mdinareebze hidroeleqtrosadgurebis mSeneblobis da samSeneblo inertuli masalis amoRebis, agreTve
wylis dabinZurebis gamo.




14
  zurmuxtis qseli – ekologiuri qseli Seqmnili evropis veluri florisa da faunis da maTi bunebrivi habitatebis
konservaciis mizniT.
                                                                                                               47
         intensiuri Zoveba ganixileba biomravalferovnebaze zemoqmed erT-erT mniSvnelovan
faqtorad, rac ZiriTadad exeba saqarTvelos maRalmTianeTis subalpur da alpur saZovrebs da
saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleTis aridul ekosistemebs, sadac Sinauri pirutyvis (gansakuTrebiT
cxvris) didi raodenoba da mouwesrigebeli Zoveba iwvevs niadagis erozias, uaryofiTad moqmedebs
mcenareuli safaris Semadgenlobasa da produqtiulobaze da qmnis invaziuri mcenareebis
gavrcelebis pirobebs. miwis degradaciis problemebi ganxilulia me-8 TavSi miwis resursebis
Sesaxeb.
         me-20 saukunis 90-ani wlebidan daiwyo saqarTvelos tyeebis intensiuri moxmareba
ekonomikuri mizniT. saSeSe merqani jer kidev aris zogierTi soflisa da patara qalaqis saTbobi
energiis umTavresi wyaro. mniSvnelovani moTxovna arsebobs agreTve merqanze. naTelia, rom
mdgradi tyeTsargeblobis principebis danergva sakvanZo mniSvnelobas iZens qveynis
biomravalferovnebis konservaciisaTvis. satyeo seqtoris problemebi da maTi gadaWris gzebi
ganxilulia me-7 TavSi.
         saTanado yuradRebas moiTxovs agreTve Savi zRvisa da sanapiros biomravalferovnebis
dacva. Savi zRvis biomravalferovnebis dacvis erovnuli strategia da moqmedebaTa gegma jer ar aris
SemuSavebuli. Savi zRvis biomravalferovnebis dacvis sakiTxebi ganxilulia me-5 TavSi.
         biomravalferovnebaze ganviTarebis proeqtebis zegavlenis Semcirebis mizniT moqmedebs
garemoze zemoqmedebis sanebarTvo sistema, romlis Semadgeneli nawilia garemoze
zemoqmedebis Sefaseba (gzS). Tumca aRniSnuli meqanizmi saWiroebs Semdgom ganviTarebasa
da srulyofas. arasakmarisi codnisa da gamocdilebis, agreTve, xelmisawvdomi informaciis simwiris
gamo garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis angariSebSi umetes SemTxvevaSi sustadaa
warmodgenili biomravalferovnebaze dagegmili saqmianobis zegavlenis sakiTxebi, Semarbilebeli da
sakompensacio zomebi. arasrulad xorcieldeba biomravalferovnebaze zegavlenis Sesamcireblad
gzS-s procesSi gansazRvruli RonisZiebebis danergvisa da efeqturobis monitoringi.

TevzWerisa da nadirobis araefeqturi praqtika
        kanonaRsrulebisaTvis aucilebeli administraciuli resursebis nakleboba, samonadireo
meurneobebis efeqturi marTvis codnisa da gamocdilebis nakleboba, maTi araTanabari ganawileba
qveynis teritoriaze da zogadad sazogadoebis dabali garemosdacviTi cnobiereba ganapirobeben
brakonierobis maRal dones. aRniSnulis gamo uaRresadaa Semcirebuli sanadiro saxeobebis
ricxovneba.
        1991 wlis Semdgom saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi Seqmnilma sirTuleebma da bazrebis
dakargvam, agreTve, Sav zRvaSi Tevzis resursebis mkveTrma Semcirebam, uaryofiTi
zemoqmedeba iqonia Tevzis meurneobis seqtorze. mniSvnelovnad Semcirda TevzWeris moculoba
Sav zRvaSi. Savi zRvis saqarTvelos wylebSi qafSia komerciulad yvelaze mniSvnelovani Tevzia,
romlis wliuri Werac 30 000 – 40 000 tonas Seadgens. Tevzis sxva saxeobebis Weris wliuri odenoba
(merlanga, katrani, kefalis sami saxeoba, stavrida) gacilebiT naklebia. am sferoSi arsebuli
problemebis da gatarebuli RonisZiebebis detaluri aRwera mocemulia me-5 TavSi.
        mniSvnelovnadaa Semcirebuli Tevzis resursebi saqarTvelos Sida wyalsatevebSi, sadac
erTerTi umniSvnelovanesi problemaa Tevzis invaziuri saxeobebi. ar aris Sefasebuli iqTiofaunis
umravlesi saxeobebis (zuTxisebrTa da Savi zRvis oragulis garda), maT Soris Sida wylebSi
gavrcelebuli endemuri formebis mdgomareoba.

miuxedavad mdgradi TevzWeris xelSewyobisaTvis gatarebuli RonisZiebebisa, kvlav mniSvnelovan
problemad rCeba ukanono TevzWeris maRali done, monitoringis sistemis ararseboba,
meTevzeobis dargSi kvalificiuri kadrebis simwire. mniSvnelovan gaumjobesebas saWiroebs Tevzis
resursebis Sefasebisa da Weris kvotebis dadgenis sistema. monacemTa simwire mniSvnelovnad
arTulebs konkretuli RonisZiebebis dasaxvas, romelTa gatarebac aucilebelia TevzWeris mdgradi
marTvisaTvis. TevzWeris seqtoris ganviTarebis erTerTi xelisSemSleli garemoebaa Tevzisa da Tevzis
produqtebis sertificirebis sistemis ar arseboba, rac xels uSlis axali bazrebis aTvisebas.

                                                                                             48
daculi teritoriebis erTiani sistemis ararseboba
         biomravalferovnebis efeqturi konservaciis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes instruments daculi
teritoriebis daarseba warmoadgens. saqarTveloSi pirveli oficialuri daculi teritoria –lagodexis
nakrZali daarsda 1912 wels. amJamad saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva kategoriis 50 daculi teritoriaa,
romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriis 7,1%-s faraven. miuxedavad imisa, rom daculi teritoriebis pirveladi
daniSnuleba biomravalferovnebis konservaciis uzrunvelyofaa, maT agreTve mniSvnelovani
samecniero-kvleviTi funqcia ekisrebaT da didi roli aqvT qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
saqmeSi, gansakuTrebiT erovnuli da saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT. daculi
teritoriebis sistemis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanes problemas daculi teritoriebis erTiani qselis
ararseboba warmoadgens. qveyanaSi arsebobs iseTi sensitiuri ubnebi, romlebic jer kidev ar aris
moqceuli daculi teritoriebis statusis qveS. aseve aRsaniSnavia globaluri da trans-sasazRvro daculi
teritoriebis nakleboba da ekologiuri derefnebis simcire.

daculi teritoriebis araefeqturi marTva
         sistemis kidev erTi yuradsaRebi problemaa daculi teritoriebis araefeqturi marTva, rac
gamoixateba zogierTi daculi teritoriisaTvis menejmentis gegmebis ararsebobaSi, monitoringis
sistemisa da monacemTa bazis arasrulyofilebasa da sakanonmdeblo bazaSi arsebul xarvezebSi.
ufro detalurad sakanonmdeblo aspeqtebi ganxilulia me-6 qve-TavSi. aseve mniSvnelovani
problemaa dacul teritoriebze arsebuli arasrulyofili materialur-teqnikuri baza da sistemaSi
kvalificiuri kadrebis nakleboba. aqve aRaaniSnavia bunebrivi resursebiT ukanono sargebloba, rac
aseve Zalian mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens am sferoSi daZiriTadad gamowveulia
mosaxleobis mZime socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobiT, sxvadasxva dainteresebul mxareTa
Soris interesTa konfliqtis arsebobiT da mosaxleobis garemosdacviTi cnobierebis dabali doniT.
         daculi teritoriebis sistemaSi aRwerili problemebis umetesoba gamowveulia agreTve
sistemis arasakmarisi dafinansebiT.

biomravalferovnebis konservaciis saTanado monacemTa bazis ararseboba da biologiuri
resursebis mdgradi marTva
       monacemTa Segrovebis, Senaxvisa da analizis Tanamedrove da efeqturi meqanizmebis
ararsebobis gamo garTulebulia saxeobaTa da habitatebis mdgomareobaSi cvlilebebis gamovlena,
rac Tavis mxriv mniSvnelovnad arTulebs biomravalferovnebis realuri mdgomareobisa da
tendeciebis Sefasebas. monacemTa simwire aris erTerTi damabrkolebeli garemoeba
biomravalferovnebis konservaciisa da biologiuri resursebis efeqturi marTvisaTvis optimaluri
gadawyvetilebebis miRebisaTvis.

erovnuli biousafrTxoebis sistemis ararseboba
       biousafrTxoebis sistemis ararsebobis gamo saqarTveloSi erovnul doneze ar regulirdeba
cocxal modificirebul organizmebTan dakavSirebuli riskebi. ar arsebobs monacemebi genetikurad
modificirebuli organizmebis wilis Sesaxeb saerTo importirebul saTes/dasargav masalaSi da sasoflo
sameurneo produqciaSi. Sesabamisad, bio- da agrobiomravalferovnebisaTvis cocxal modificirebul
organizmebTan dakavSirebuli riskebi ar aris cnobili. agreTve unda aRiniSnos, rom riskis
menejmentis SesaZleblobebi erovnul doneze Zalze SezRudulia.

6.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
        garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro monawileobs biomravalferovnebis
sferoSi saxelmwifo politikis SemuSavebaSi da pasuxismgebelia mis Sesrulebaze. saministro
agreTve pasuxismgebelia biomravalferovnebis saxelmwifo monitoringis sistemis Seqmnasa da


                                                                                                49
koordinaciaze. saministro gansazRvravs biologiuri resursebiT sargeblobis dasaSveb odenobebs
(kvotebs da limitebs), sargeblobis adgilebs, pirobebs da wesebs.
         daculi teritoriebis sistema saqarTveloSi agreTve saministros daqvemdebarebaSia. kerZod,
daculi teritoriebis saagento (garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros sajaro samarTlis
iuridiuli piri) da mis daqvemdebarebaSi myofi 19 teritoriuli erTeuli pasuxismgebelia daculi
teritoriebis marTvaze, konservaciasa da dacvaze, da agreTve erTiani sistemis Seqmnaze, aseve
dacul teritoriebze ekoturizmis ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofaze.
         ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro gascems TevzWerisa da samonadireo
meurneobebis Seqmnis licenziebs. TevzWeris da samonadireo meurneobebis licenziantebi
valdebulni arian ganaxorcielon arsebuli resursebis inventarizacia da yovelwliurad warmoadginon
monacemebi garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministroSi. isini agreTve valdebulni arian
daicvan licenzirebul teritoriaze arsebuli gadaSenebis piras myofi saxeobebi. ekonomikisa da
mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros turizmisa da kurortebis departamenti pasuxismgebelia
qveyanaSi turizmis seqtoris ganviTarebaze.
         soflis meurneobis saministros mniSvnelovani roli akisria agrobiomravalferovnebis dacvaSi
da saZovrebis gamoyenebis wesebis gansazRvraSi. soflis meurneobis saministro agreTve
pasuxismgebelia pesticidebisa da agro-qimikatebis marTvaze, zedamxedvelobaze da kontrolze.
saZovrebis gamoyeneba regulirdeba adgilobrivi xelisuflebis doneze.
         kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministro pasuxismgebelia istoriuli da kulturuli memkvidreobis
Zeglebis konservaciaze. zogierTi aseTi Zegli daculi teritoriis farglebSi an masTan axlos mdebareobs
da maT nawils SeiZleba mieniWos bunebrivi Zeglis statusi (daculi teritoriebis erT-erTi kategoria
IUCN-is kategoriebis Tanaxmad).
         ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro CarTulia garemosdacviTi ganaTlebisa da
sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis amaRlebis gaumjobesebaSi. saqarTvelos sazRvris dacvis policia
garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTan erTad icavs trans-sasazRvro dacul
teritoriebs.
         samecniero-kvleviTi institutebi (ilias saxelmwifo universitetis ekologiis instituti, zoologiis
instituti da Tbilisis botanikuri baRi da botanikis instituti) axorcieleben biomravalferovnebis kvlevasa
da monitorings da moTxovnisamebr awvdian informacias da rekomendaciebs garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministros. Tbilisis botanikuri baRi da botanikis instituti, iseve, rogorc
miwaTmoqmedebis da mebaReobis, mevenaxeobisa da meRvineobis institutebi, monawileoben
saqarTvelos florisa da agro-biomravalferovnebis ex-situ konservaciaSi. gadaSenebis safrTxis
winaSe myofi saxeobebis komisia, romelSic Sedian Sesabamisi sferoebis eqspertebi,
pasuxismgebelia saxeobebis sakonservacio statusebis Sefasebaze da wiTeli nusxis SemuSavebaze.
         saqarTvelos avtokefaluri samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesia SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas
rogorc erT-erTi dainteresebuli mxare, vinaidan eklesiebis da SemorCenili nangrevebis garkveuli
nawili mdebareobs daculi teritoriebis farglebSi.
         biomravalferovnebis konservaciaSi aqtiurad monawileoben saerTaSoriso da erovnuli
arasamTavrobo organizaciebi.
     da bolos, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba warmoadgens uSualo dainteresebul mxares, vinaidan mravali
adamiani uSualod damokidebulia biomravalferovnebis resursebze da nebismieri sakonservacio
RonisZieba, Tu raime sxva qmedebebi unda daigegmos maTTan mWidro TanamSromlobis
safuZvelze.

    6.3 dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

    2005 wels saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier damtkicda biomravaferovnebis erovnuli strategia da
moqmedebaTa gegma (NBSAP). NBSAP gansazRvravs 10 wlian strategias da 5 wlian
moqmedebaTa gegmas biomravalferovnebis dacvis da biologiuri resursebis gonivruli gamoyenebis
sferoSi. qvemoT ganxilulia NBSAP_is ganxorcielebis umTavresi Sedegebi:

                                                                                                    50
    `wiTeli nusxisa da wiTeli wignis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad
gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebis komisiam IUCN-is kriteriumebisa da kategoriebis
mixedviT Seafasa florisa da faunis saxeobebis mdgomareoba da Seadgina saqarTvelos axali wiTeli
nusxa, romelic damtkicda prezidentis brZanebiT. garda momzadda ramdenime saxeobisa da
saxeobaTa jgufis konservaciis marTvis gegma (jixvi, jiqi, xelfrTianebi, mura daTvi, kavkasiuri roWo,
wyalmcuravi frinvelebi, beqobis arwivi, xmelTaSuazRvis ku, kavkasiuri salamandra, zuTxisnairebi).
unda aRiniSnos, rom mwiri finansuri resursebis gamo daiwyo marTvis gegmebiT gaTvaliswinebuli
mxolod ramdenime RonisZiebis ganxorcieleba.
    mniSvnelovani progresi aRiniSneba gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi da endemuri
saxeobebisa da agrobiomravalferovnebis ex-situ da on farm konservaciaSi, ris Sesaxebac ufro
detaluri informacia mocemulia CanarTSi (CanarTi 6.2)

CanarTi 6.2 gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi da endemuri saxeobebisa da agrobiomravalferovnebis
konservacia
2005 wlidan Tbilisis botanikuri baRi monawileobs kius botanikuri baRis (didi britaneTi) aTaswleulis Teslis
bankis proeqtSi, romlis farglebSic Seiqmna gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi da endemuri 600 saxeobis
(saqarTvelos floris 17%) dublirebuli koleqcia.

miwaTmoqmedebis institutSi Seqmnilia genuri banki, romelSic amJamad inaxeba marcvleulis da bostneulis
3 075 nimuSi. xexilisa da vazis 1 519 nimuSi daculia mebaReobis, mevenaxeobisa da meRvineobis institutSi.
mimdinareobs gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi Zveli qarTuli tradiciuli sasoflo-sameurneo jiSebis on farm
konsrvacia. samcxe-javaxeTSi aRdgenilia marcvlovnebisa da parkosnebis 10 saxeobisa (wiTeli doli, dika, qeri,
Wvavi, fetvi, muxudo, cercvi, ospi, ZaZa, culispira) da erTi teqnikuri kulturis (seli) moyvanis tradicia. agreTve,
Segrovda da gamoyvanil iqna vaSlis 22 adgilobrivi jiSis nergebi, romlebic gavrcelda samcxe-javaxeTis
fermerul meurneobebSi.



        GTZ-is finansuri da teqnikuri mxardaWeriT mimdinareobs biomravalferovnebis erovnuli
monitoringis sistemis Camoyalibeba biomravalferovnebis mdgomareobis da tendenciebis Sesaxeb
adekvaturi informaciis mopovebis, reagirebis sistemis Seqmnisa da saxelmwifo politikaSi maTi
integrirebis mizniT. erovnuli indikatorebi biomravalferovnebis monitoringisaTvis ukve SerCeulia.
amJamad SerCeuli indikatorebis Sesabamisad mimdinareobs monacemebis Segroveba da analizis
meTodebis SemuSaveba.
        gansakuTrebulad unda aRiniSnos daculi teritoriebis sistemis ganviTarebaSi miRweuli
progresi. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda daculi teritoriebis farTobi. 2010
wlisaTvis kanoniT daculia saqarTvelos mTeli teritoriis 7,1% (493 988 ha). garda amisa, dagegmilia
daculi teritoriebis saerTo farTobis gazrda, raSic garkveuli progresi ukve miRweulia. dagegmili
proeqtebis Sesaxeb ufro detaluri informacia mocemulia CanarT 6.3-Si.

CanarTi 6.3. dagegmili daculi teritoriebi

mimdinareobs ramdenime daculi teritoriis daarsebis (javaxeTis, maWaxelas, fSav-xevsureTis da centraluri
kavkasionis) da ukve arsebuli daculi teritoriebis gafarToebis procesi (yazbegis da algeTis). trans-sasazRvro
daculi teritoriebis dafuZnebas – javaxeTis (somxeTTan erTad) da maWaxelas (TurqeTTan) – ormagi sargebeli
eqneba, vinaidan daculi teritoriebis SeqmnasTan erTad gaRrmavdeba mezobel qveynebTan
TanamSromloba. zemoT CamoTvlili proetqebis ganxorcielebiT, qveyanaSi daculi teritoriebis procentuli
maCvenebeli sagrZnoblad gaizrdeba da dafaravs saqarTvelos teritoriis daaxloebiT 15%-s.




ruka 6.1 saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebi



                                                                                                              51
        aqve aRsaniSnavia dacul teritoriebze turizmis infrastruqturis ganviTarebisaTvis gatarebuli
sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi, romelTa Sedegadac daculi teritoriebis didi nawils dReisaTvis ukve
gaaCnia adekvaturi turistuli infrastruqtura. dacul teritoriebze xelmiswvdomia sxvadasxva turistuli
servisebi, rogoricaa cxeniT gaseirneba, jomardoba, samTo turizmi, frinvelebze dakvirveba da a.S.,
rac daculi teritoriebisaTvis adgilobriv Semosavlis wyaros warmoadgens. dResdReobiT aqtiurad
sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi infrastruqturis ganviTarebisa da administraciebis SesaZleblobebis
gasaZlierebis mizniT. daculi teritoriebis saagento sxvadasxva donor organizaciebTan mWidro
TanamSromlobiT koordinacias uwevs proeqtebs, damxmare zonaSi arsebuli mosaxleobis socialur-
ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebisaTvis.
        agreTve aRsaniSnavia kavkasiis bunebis fondis (CNF) dafuZneba. fondi Seiqmna 2006 wels
da miznad isaxavs saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis daculi teritoriebis sistemebis
mxardaWeras am qveynebSi daculi teritoriebis mimdinare xarjebis Tanadafinansebis gziT. fondis
dafinansebiT saqarTveloSi ukve ganxorcielda ramdenime proeqti (borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli
parkis aRWurva xanZarsawinaaRmdego inventariT 2009 wels da borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis
mimdinare xarjebis dafinanseba (2010-2012 wlebSi)). ganxilvis stadiaSia sxva proeqtebi.
    aRsaniSnavia, rom “saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebis sistemis ganviTarebis strategia da
samoqmedo gegma” momzadda 2009 wels.

   6.4     erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
     imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom qveyana orientirebulia swraf ekonomikur ganviTarebaze da
siRaribesTan brZolaze, mosalodnelia mTeli rigi infrastruqturuli proeqtebis ganxorcieleba. aseTi
proeqtebi negatiurad imoqmedebs biomravalferovnebaze, Tu ar iqna SemoRebuli efeqturi gzS
sistema da ar ganxorcieldeba adeqvaturi Semarbilebeli RonisZiebebi.
     dReisaTvis saqarTvelos erT-erT prioritets turizmis ganviTareba da saqarTvelos msoflio turistul
rukaze dabruneba warmoadgens. diagramaze 6.1 mocemulia saqarTvelos dacul teritoriebze
vizitorTa statistikuri monacemebi 2005-2010 wlebSi. SeimCneva zrdis tendencia da savaraudod,
saqarTvelos mdidari da unikaluri biomravalferovnebis gamo moTxovna eko-turizmze momdevno
wlebSi kidev ufro gaizrdeba. am aspeqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT biomravalferovnebis dacva daculi
teritoriebis Seqmnisa da gaZlierebis meSveobiT gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens.
     rogorc zemoT aRiniSna mdidari saxeobrivi Semadgenloba da endemizmis maRali done
kavkasiis eko-regions, saqarTvelos CaTvliT, aqcevs biomravalferovnebis mniSvnelovan

                                                                                                52
rezervuarad, da igi ganixileba, rogorc globaluri mniSvnelobis ‘biomravalferovnebis cxeli wertili’.
amdenad, mezobel qveynebTan momavali TanamSromloba da trans-sasazRvro daculi teritoriebis
Seqmna sakmaod aqtualuria. saqarTvelos sakonservacio teritoriebis da ekologiuri derefnebis
CarTva “kavkasiis eko-regionalur sakonservacio gegmaSi” qveyanas aZlevs SesaZleblobas
gaaZlieros Zalisxmeva biomravalferovnebis konservaciisa da dacvis mimarTulebiT.




diagrama 6.1. statistikuri monacemebi saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebis vizitorTa Sesaxeb

        biomravalferovnebis sferoSi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso konvenciebiTa da
regionaluri xelSekrulebebiT nakisri mravali valdebuleba gaaCnia. biomravalferovnebis konvenciis
mxareTa me-10 Sexvedraze (nagoia, iaponia, 2010 wlis oqtomberi) miRebul iqna konvenciis
strategia 2011-2020 wlebisaTvis da ganisazRvra biomravalferovnebis SenarCunebis miznebi 2020
wlisaTvis. saqarTvelo, rogorc biomravalferovnebis Sesaxeb konvenciis mxare, valdebulia
gansazRvros erovnuli amocanebi konvenciis 2020 wlis miznebis miRwevaSi wvlilis Sesatanad da
Sesabamisad ganaaxlos biomravalferovnebis dacvis erovnuli strategia da samoqmedo gegma.
    klimatis cvlilebis konvenciisTvis meore erovnuli Setyobinebis SemuSavebisas Catarebuli
Sefasebebis Sedegad gamovlinda saqarTveloSi klimatis cvlilebisadmi yvelaze mowyvladi ubnebi,
rogoricaa mdinare rionis da mdinare Woroxis SesarTavebi da rionis qveda weli (kaSxali-samtredias
segmenti), dedoflis wyaros regionis ariduli da semi-ariduli zonebi da qvemo svaneTi. jer-jerobiT ar
aris gansazRvruli biomravalferovnebaze klimatis cvlilebis zegavlenis saadaptacio RonisZiebebi
sanapiro zolisa da qvemo svaneTisaTvis. qarsafari zolebis reabilitacia dedoflis wyaroSi miiCneva
erT-erT prioritetul saswrafo qmedebad, rasac mxars uWers germaniis garemos dacvis, bunebis
konservaciisa da birTvuli usafrTxoebis saministro (BMU) da germaniis teqnikuri daxmarebis
sazogadoeba (GTZ) proeqtis “klimatisadmi mdgradi degradirebuli landSaftebis reabilitacia,
saqarTvelo” farglebSi (Climate Tolerant Rehabilitation of Degraded Landscapes, Georgia).


    6.5     grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

     dRevandeli da momavali Taobebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, erovnuli biomravalferovnebis
politikis grZelvadian mizans (20 weli) warmoadgens saqarTvelos unikaluri ekosistemebis,
saxeobaTa mravalferovnebis da genetikuri resursebis dacva, aRdgena da SenarCuneba. es
grZelvadiani mizani SeiZleba miRweul iqnas daculi teritoriebis efeqturi marTviTa da erTiani
sistemis SeqmniT, biologiuri resursebis mdgradi sargeblobiT da marTviT, da miRebuli sargeblis
samarTliani ganawilebiT.
     am ZiriTadi miznis misaRwevad unda Sesruldes Semdegi moklevadiani (5 wliani) miznebi:
mizani 1. gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi SerCeuli saxeobebis sicocxlisunariani
populaciebisa da habitatebis reabilitacia, dacva da konservacia

mizani 2. TevzWerisa da nadirobis menejmentis efeqturobis gazrda faunis resursebis mdgradi
sargeblobis uzrunvelsayofad


                                                                                                53
mizani 3. daculi teritoriebis erTiani efeqturi qselis Seqmna

mizani 4. daculi teritoriebis menejmentis efeqturobis gazrda administrciebis SesaZleblobebis
gaZlierebiT da finansuri mdgradobis meqanizmebis danergviT

mizani 5. biomravalferovnebis konservaciisa da biologiuri resursebis mdgradi marTvis
saTanado sainformacio uzrunvelyofa biomonitoringis erovnuli sistemis Camoyalibebis gziT

mizani 6. bio-usafrTxoebis erovnuli sistemis Seqmna genetikurad modificirebuli organizmebis
moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebis Tavidan acilebisaTvis/minimizaciisTvis.


   6.6     arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

    biomravalferovnebasTan       da    bunebrivi resursebiT      sargeblobasTan    dakavSirebuli
sakanonmdeblo baza, romelic SemuSavda 1996-2003 wlebSi, saWiroebs mniSvnelovan ganaxlebas
Tanamedrove samarTlebrivi moTxovnebisa da arsebuli realobis gaTvaliswinebiT. am mizniT ukve
SemuSavebulia ramdenime kanonproeqti. miuxedavad imisa, rom ufro moqnili da efeqturi
maregulirebeli aqtebi iqna miRebuli nadirobis, TevzWeris da zogierTi ara-merqnuli resursiT
sargeblobis sferoSi, biomravalferovnebis dacvisaTvis da biologiuri resursebis moxmarebis
regulirebisTvis saWiroa sakanonmdeblo bazis Semdgomi ganviTareba da am sferoebis
harmonizacia evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan. bio-teqnologiisa da bio-usafrTxoebis sferoebis
maregulirebeli erovnuli sakanonmdeblo baza dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi ar aris SemuSavebuli, rac
arTulebs cocxal modifificirebul organizmeban dakavSirebuli riskebis regulirebas.
    sakanonmdeblo naklovanebebi aferxebs agreTve daculi teritoriebis efeqtur marTvas.
aralegaluri miwaTsargebloba da miwis sakuTrebis sakiTxebi warmoSobs interesTa konfliqtebs
dacul teritoriebs, kerZo pirebs sxvadasxva institutebsa da dainteresebul pirebs Soris. aucilebelia
didi yuradReba mieqces sakanonmdeblo sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT arsebul xarvezebs imisaTvis,
rom miRweul iqnas daculi teritoriebis efeqturi marTva.




                                                                                               54
6.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi
grZelvadiani mizani - saqarTvelos unikaluri ekosistemebis, saxeobaTa mravalferovnebis da genetikuri resursebis dacvis da reabilitaciis
uzrunvelyofa.

          RonisZiebebi                                ganxorcie   pasuxismgebeli       daaxloebiTi         dafinansebis
                                                                                                 15
                                                      lebis       uwyeba                 biujeti            potenciuri                   indikatorebi
                                                      periodi                           (larebSi)             wyaro
          saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis dacvis       2011       garemos dacvisa da mcire                 GTZ / GEF       miRebulia ganaxlebuli NBSAP
          strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis                         bunebrivi resursebis
1         (NBSAP) ganaxleba biomravalferovnebis                   saministro (gdbrs)
          konvenciis 2020 miznebis gaTvaliswinebiT




     mizani 1. gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi SerCeuli saxeobebis sicocxlisunariani populaciebisa da habitatebis reabilitacia, dacva da konservacia

         RonisZiebebi                                 ganxorcie   pasuxismgebeli        daaxloebiTi biujeti dafinansebis
                                                      lebis       uwyeba                    (larebSi)         potenciuri                 indikatorebi
                                                      periodi                                                   wyaro
         mcenareTa      aramerqnuli   saxeobebis      2011-2012   gdbrs,                 mcire              donorebi       minimum 2500 saxeoba Sefasebulia IUCN-
         Sefasebis dasruleba (IUCN kriteriumebze                  Tbilisis botanikuri                                      is kriteriumebis Sesabamisad, Setanilia
         dayrdnobiT) da maTi saqarTvelos wiTel                    baRi da botanikis                                        cvlilebebi saqarTvelos wiTel nusxaSi (CR,
         nusxaSi Setana                                           instituti                                                EN da VU kategoriis saxeobebi Setanilia
                                                                                                                           wiTel nusxaSi)
1




15
  winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
aRemateba 500 000 lars



                                                                                                                                                               55
      irmis naxevrad veluri da efeqturad          2011-2015     gdbrs            maRali            donorebi        Seqmnilia irmis gamravlebadi populacia
2     gamravlebadi irmis populaciis Seqmna da                                                                      minimum or teritoriaze
      misi reintroduqcia istoriul arealSi
      biomravalferovnebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT     2013        gdbrs              400 000           saxelmwifo      SemuSavebulia daculi teritoriebis gareT
      mniSvnelovani adgilebis gamovlena.                                                           biujeti,        arsebuli biomravalferovnebisaTvis
                                                                                                   donorebi        mniSvnelovani teritoriebis gis rukebi;
      teritoriebis prioritetulobis gansazRvra
3     sxvadasxva kategoriis daculi teritoriebis                                                                    daculi teritoriebis gareT arsebuli
      daarsebis mizniT                                                                                             biomravalferovnebisaTvis mniSvnelovani
                                                                                                                   teritoriebi dacvis Taobaze miRebulia
                                                                                                                   saqarTvelos mTavrobis an parlamentis
                                                                                                                   gadawyvetileba
      Sida wylebis da Warbteniani teritoriebis      2012        gdbrs            saSualo           donorebi        Seqmnilia Warbteniani teritoriebis gis
      inventarizacia, gis monacemTa bazis                                                                          monacemTa baza;
4     momzadeba. konservaciisaTvis prioritetuli                                                                    momzadebulia saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis
      teritoriebis identificireba                                                                                  Warbteniani teritoriebis nusxaSi Sesatani
                                                                                                                   adgilebis nusxa
      miznobrivi jgufebisaTvis wiTeli nusxis      2011-2015 gdbrs                mcire             GTZ             saganmanaTleblo masalebi yovelwliurad
      saxeobebis Sesaxeb cnobierebis amaRlebis                                                                     vrceldeba 500 sajaro skolaSi (sajaro skolebis
5     mizniT kampaniebis ganxorcieleba                                                                             25%)




mizani 2. nadirobisa da TevzWeris marTvis efeqturobis amaRleba faunis resursebis mdgradi sargeblobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT
       RonisZiebebi                               ganxorcie pasuxismgebe daaxloebiTi biujeti
                                                                                                     dafinansebis
                                                  lebis      li uwyeba             (larebSi)                                        indikatorebi
                                                                                                  potenciuri wyaro
                                                  periodi
       Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis        2011-2012     gdbrs,                                              nadirobis marTvis Sesaxeb kanonmdebloba
       SemuSaveba da damtkiceba raTa                            parlamenti                                           SeTanxmebulia, damtkicebulia da
1      gaumjobesebul iqnas sasamonadireo                                       _                  _                  moqmedebs
       seqtoris marTva samonadireo standartebis
       CaTvliT




                                                                                                                                                          56
    sanadiro saxeobebis resursebis Sefasebisa
2   da kvotebis gansazRvrisaTvis meTodebis        2011-2012 gdbrs          mcire   GTZ        damtkicebulia meTodologia
    gaumjobeseba
                                                                                              saswavlo programa samonadireo
    saswavlo programis Sedgena monadireTa
                                                                                              ganaTlebisaTvis SeTanxmebulia
    bazisuri ganaTlebisaTvis minimalur
3                                                 2011-2015   gdbrs        mcire   GTZ        dainteresebul mxareebTan da
    saerTaSoriso standartze dayrdnobiT da
                                                                                              damtkicebulia
    samonadireo ganaTlebis danergva
                                                                                              ZalaSia SeTanxmebuli meTodologia,
                                                                                              sapiloto teritoria gansazRvrulia da
    satrofeo nadirobis dawyeba samonadireo
4                                                 2014-2015 gdbrs          mcire   GTZ        ganxorcielebulia satrofeo nadirobis
    turizmis mxardaWeris mizniT
                                                                                              dawyebisaTvis saWiro sakanonmdeblo
                                                                                              cvlilebebi
                                                                                              SemuSavebulia saswavlo programa da
    brakonierobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli                                                        masTan dakavSirebuli masalebi
5   RonisZiebebis gaZliereba/SesaZleblobebis      2011-2015   gdbrs        mcire   GTZ
    gaZliereba garemosdacviTi inspeqciisaTvis                                                 datreningebulia inspeqciis TanamSromlebis
                                                                                              raodenoba
    TevzWeris marTvis gaumjobesebisaTvis          2011        gdbrs                           cvlilebebi TevzWerasTan dakavSirebul
    saWiro sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis                                                          kanonmdeblobaSi SeTanxmebulia,
6                                                                          -       -
    SemuSaveba da damtkiceba, maT Soris                                                       damtkicebulia da moqmedebs
    marikulturis ganviTarebis xelSewyobisaTvis
    Tevzis resursebis Sefasebisa da TevzWeris                              mcire
7   kvotis      gansazRvris       meTodologiis    2011-2012   gdbrs                donorebi   meTodologia damtkicebulia
    gaumjobeseba
                                                              ekonomikisa
                                                              da mdgradi
    mdgradi    meTevzeobis           strategiis                                               TevzWeris seqtoris ganviTarebis strategia
8                                                 2012        ganviTarebis mcire   donorebi
    SemuSaveba                                                                                SemuSavebulia
                                                              saministro
                                                              (emgs), gdbrs
                                                                                              SemuSavebulia saswavlo programa da
    RonisZiebebis gaZliereba Sida wylebSi
                                                                                              masTan dakavSirebuli masalebi
    brakonierobis
9                                                 2011-2015   gdbrs        mcire   donorebi
    winaaRmdeg/SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba
                                                                                              datreningebulia inspeqciis TanamSromlebis
    garemosdacviTi inspeqciisaTvis
                                                                                              raodenoba




                                                                                                                                   57
                                                                     soflis
       Tevzisa     da      Tevzis  produqtbisaTvis                   meurneobis                                           sertificirebis sistema damtkicebulia da
10                                                      2014                         mcire             donorebi
       sasertifikacio sistemis Camoyalibeba                          saministro                                           moqmedebs
                                                                     (sms), gdbrs


mizani 3. efeqturi daculi teritoriebis qselis ganviTareba
       RonisZiebebi                                    ganxorciel   pasuxismgebeli       daaxloebiTi
                                                       ebis         uwyeba                  biujeti
                                                                                                         dafinansebis
                                                       periodi                            (larebSi)                                       indikatorebi
                                                                                                       potenciuri wyaro


       ekologiuri derefnebis qselis dagegmva da         2011-2015   gdbrs               saSualo        saxelmwifo         ekologiuri derefnebis daarsebis gegma
1      kanonproeqtis momzadeba                                                                         biujeti,           SemuSavebulia         da     momzadebulia
                                                                                                       donorebi           kanonproeqti
       gegmarebiTi daculi teritoriebis                  2011-2015   gdbrs               maRali         saxelmwifo         kanonproeqti daculi teritoriebis daarsebis
       daarsebisaTvis kanonproeqtis momzadeba                                                          biujeti,           Sesaxeb        momzadebulia;      daarsebis
       da daarsebulebis ganviTareba (centraluri                                                        donorebi           SemTxvevSi daculi teritoriebis menejmentis
       kavkasionis daculi teritoriebi, maWaxelas                                                                          gegmebi       SemuSavebulia    da    daculi
2
       daculi teritoriebi, fSav-xevsureTis daculi                                                                         teritoriebi funqcionirebs
       teritoriebi, javaxeTis daculi teritoriebi,
       samegrelos daculi teritorebi, eruSeTis
       daculi teritoriebi)
       damxmare         zonebSi     soc-ekonomikuri     2011-2015   gdbrs               maRali         saxelmwifo         buferul zonebSi ganxorcielebuli proeqtebisa
3      ganviTarebis      xelSewyoba        sxvadasxva                                                  biujeti,           da beneficiarTa raodenoba
       proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT                                                                       donorebi
       daculi    teritoriebis  gafarToebisaTvis         2011-2015   gdbrs               maRali         saxelmwifo         algeTis, yazbegis da mariamjvris daculi
       masalebis        momzadeba      (algeTi,                                                        biujeti,           teritoriebis gafarToebisaTvis momzadebulia
4      mariamjvari, yazbegi)                                                                           donorebi           Sesabisi masala. gafarToebis SemTxvevaSi
                                                                                                                          teritoriebi oficialurad gadacemulia daculi
                                                                                                                          teritoriebis sakuTrebaSi
       sazRvrebis dadgena da demarkacia daculi          2011-2015   gdbrs               maRali         saxelmwifo         daculi teritoriebis raodenoba dadgenili da
5      teritoriebisaTvis saWiroebisamebr                                                               biujeti,           oficialurad damtkicebuli sazRvrebiT
                                                                                                       donorebi




                                                                                                                                                                58
mizani 4. daculi teritoriebis efeqturobis amaRleba misi administraciis SesaZleblobis gaZlierebisa da finansuri mdgradobisaTvis meqanizmebis warmodgenis
saSualebiT

        RonisZiebebi                                    ganxorci   pasuxismgebeli     daaxloebiTi biujeti
                                                                                                              dafinansebis
                                                        elebis     uwyeba                 (larebSi)                                            indikatorebi
                                                                                                            potenciuri wyaro
                                                        periodi
        daculi teritoriebis Sesaxeb erovnuli           2011-2015   gdbrs, parlamenti, saSualo               saxelmwifo biujeti, Semcirebulia naklovanebebi
        kanonmdeblobis mimoxilva da                                saqarTvelos                              donorebi            kanonmdeblobaSi
   1    gaumjobeseba saerTaSoriso konvenciebis                     mTavroba
        da sxva saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebiT
        dakisrebuli valdebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT
        menejmentis gegmebis SemuSaveba da         2011-2015       gdbrs             saSualo                saxelmwifo          SemuSavebuli da damtkicebuli
        damtkiceba arsebuli da axali daculi                                                                 biujeti, donorebi   menejmentis gegmebis raodenoba
   2    teritoriebisaTvis saWiroebis mixedviT


        daculi teritoriebis farglebSi bunebrivi        2011-201    gdbrs             saSualo                saxelmwifo          daculi teritoriebis farglebSi bunebrivi
   3    resursebiT sargeblobis marTvis                                                                      biujeti, donorebi   resursebis marTvis meqanizmebi
        gaumjobeseba                                                                                                            integrirebulia daculi teritoriebis sistemaSi
        dacul teritoriebSi saxeobebis aRdgena da       2011-2015   gdbrs             maRali                 saxelmwifo          inicirebulia saxeobebis reintroduqcia
        konservaciis gaumjobeseba                                                                           biujeti, donorebi   (qurciki, niamori da sxva)
   4


        arsebuli da axali daculi teritoriebis          2011-2015   gdbrs             maRali                 saxelmwifo          gazrdilia saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebis
        infrastruqturis dagegmva da ganviTareba                                                             biujeti, donorebi   raodenoba ganviTarebuli da
   5
        saWiroebis mixedviT                                                                                                     gaumjobesebuli infrastruqturiT

        daculi teritoriebis eko-turizmis potencialis   2011-2015   gdbrs             saSualo                saxelmwifo          ekoturizmis gegmebis raodenoba;
        ganviTareba (ekoturizmis mravalmxrivi                                                               biujeti, donorebi   danergilia axali turistuli produqtebi;
        gegmis SemuSaveba, infrastruqturis                                                                                      daculi teritoriebis momsaxurebidan
   6
        ganviTareba, marketingi, momsaxurebis                                                                                   miRebuli Semosavlebi gazrdilia
        xarisxis gaumjobeseba, axali servisebis
        SeTavazeba)
        daculi teritoriebis TanamSromlebis             2011-2015   gdbrs             dabali                 saxelmwifo          datreningebuli personalis raodenoba
   7
        SesaZleblobis gaZliereba                                                                            biujeti, donorebi




                                                                                                                                                                  59
         daculi teritoriebis materialuri bazis     2011-2015     gdbrs           maRali                  saxelmwifo             daculi teritoriebis administraciuli
8        gaumjobeseba                                                                                    biujeti, donorebi      saWiroebebi Sefasebulia, administraciebi
                                                                                                                                aRWurvilia materialur-teqnikuri baziT.
         biomravalferovnebis inventarizacia da     2011-2015     gdbrs           maRali                  saxelmwifo             SemuSavebulia dacul teritoriebze
         ganaxlebadi monacemTa bazis                                                                     biujeti, donorebi      arsebuli biomravalferovnebis
         momzadeba da habitatebis Sefaseba                                                                                      monacemTa baza daculi teritoriebis
9
         daculi teritoriebis farglebSi                                                                                          farglebSi; Seqmnilia dacul teritoriebze
                                                                                                                                arsebuli habitatebis dazustebuli
                                                                                                                                monacemTa baza
      sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis amaRlebis   2011-2015 gdbrs                maRali             saxelmwifo                       SemuSavebuli da danergili cnobierebis
      programis SemuSaveba da danergva                                                         biujeti, donorebi                amaRlebis programebis raodenoba
10 (rogorc saganmanaTleblo
      dawesebulebebisaTvis ise
      sazogadoebisaTvis sxva jgufebisaTvis)
 mizani 5. biomravalferovnebis konservaciisa da biologiuri resursebis mdgradi marTvis saTanado sainformacio uzrunvelyofa biomonitoringis erovnuli
 sistemis Camoyalibebis gziT


            RonisZiebebi                         ganxorcie     pasuxismgebeli   daaxloebiTi biujeti
                                                                                                        dafinansebis
                                                 lebis         uwyeba               (larebSi)                                                indikatorebi
                                                                                                      potenciuri wyaro
                                                 periodi
            biomravalferovnebis monitoringis        2011        gdbrs           mcire                 GTZ                    meTodologia SemuSavebulia, damtkicebulia
            erovnuli indikatorebis Sesabamisi                                                                                da gamoqveynebulia biomravalferovnebis
    1
            monacemebis Segrovebisa da                                                                                       monitoringis yvela (26) indikatorisaTvis
            analizis meTodologiis SemuSaveba
            treningebis Catareba                 2011-2012      gdbrs           mcire                 GTZ                    pirTa raodenoba, romelTac gavlili aqvT
            biomravalferovnebis monitoringSi                                                                                 treningi
    2
            monawile organizaciebisa da
            saministros TanamSromlebisaTvis
            biomravalferovnebis monitoringis       2011         gdbrs           mcire                 GTZ                    biomravalferovnebis monitoringis
    3       saxelmZRvanelos momzadeba                                                                                        saxelmZRvanelo ganTavsebulia
                                                                                                                             biomravalferovnebis monitoringis veb-gverdze
            geo-informaciuli sistemebis (gis)      2011         gdbrs           mcire                 GTZ                    gis centri daarsebulia da funqcionirebs
            centris Seqmna
    4.
            biomravalferovnebis
            monitoringisaTvis



                                                                                                                                                                60
                                                      2011-2015      gdbrs         mcire                GTZ                 araumcires 15 indikatoris mixedviT
             SerCeuli indikatorebis mixedviT                                                                                monacemTa analizis Sedegebi ganTavsebulia
             monacemTa Segroveba da maTi                                                                                    biomravalferovnebis monitoringis veb-gverdze
    5
             analizi




mizani 6. biousafrTxoebis erovnuli sistemis ganviTareba genetikurad modificirebuli organizmebTan dakavSirebuli riskebis Tavidan acilebis/minimizebis mizniT

        RonisZiebebi                           ganxorciel    pasuxismgebeli     daaxloebiTi biujeti
                                                                                                        dafinansebis
                                               ebis          uwyeba                 (larebSi)                                            indikatorebi
                                                                                                      potenciuri wyaro
                                               periodi
        cocxali               modificirebuli
        organizmebis regulirebasTan da
                                                                                                                         kanonmdebloba SeTanxmebulia,
1       riskebis           minimizaciasTan     2011          gdbrs                         _                  -
                                                                                                                         damtkicebulia da moqmedebs
        dakavSirebuli      kanonmdeblobis
        SemuSaveba da miReba
        struqturuli erTeulis gansazRvra,
        romelic pasuxismgebeli iqneba                                                                                    struqturuli erTeuli gansazRvrulia, treningis
        biousafrTxoebis Sesaxeb oqmiT                        saqarTvelos                                                 programa da masalebi SemuSavebulia,
2                                              2011-2012                                   -                  -
        gansazRvruli valdebulebebis                          mTavroba                                                    TanamSromlebis raodenoba administraciuli
        Sesrulebaze da misi SesaZleblobis                                                                                organodan, romelTac gaiares treningebi
        gaZliereba
        SesaZleblobis gaZliereba
        Sesabamisi uwyebis
                                                                                                                         administraciuli organos TanamSromlebis
        TanamSromlebisaTvis saqarTvelos
3                                              2012          gdbrs                    mcire              donorebi        raodenoba, romlebic datreningebulia da
        biousafrTxoebis resurs-centrSi
                                                                                                                         iyeneben arsebul masalas
        monawileobis uzrunvelyofis
        mizniT
        Sesabamisi samecniero potencialis
        ganviTareba, laboratoriebis                          gdbrs/Sesabamisi
                                                                                                                         minimum 1 laboratoria aRWurvilia da 2
4       mowyoba da SesaZleblobis               2012-2014     samecniero              saSualo             donorebi
                                                                                                                         mecnierisaTvis uzrunvelyofilia treningi
        gaZliereba Sesabamisi                                organizaciebi
        personalisaTvis




                                                                                                                                                                   61
                                         Tavi 7. satyeo meurneoba
7.1. problemebis aRwera

         saqarTvelos tyeebi, amJamad mTlianad saxelmwifo sakuTrebis qveS aris moqceuli. saqarTvelos
mTeli teritoriis daaxloebiT 39,9% (2,77 mln ha) tyiTaa dafaruli. aqedan, arsebuli monacemebiT daaxloebiT
0,5 mln ha e.w. xeluxlebel tyeebs, 2,2 mln ha saxecvlil bunebriv tyeebs, xolo 0,06 mln ha ki xelovnurad
gaSenebul tyeebs ganekuTvneba. tyeebis (merqnis) saerTo maragi daaxloebiT 430 mln m3-s Seadgens, xolo
merqnis maragis saSualo wliuri Semateba 4,0 mln m3-ia. amasTan erTad, aRsaniSnavia, rom qveynis
teritoriaze tyeebi araTanabrad aris ganawilebuli – tyiT mdidar regionebTan erTad arseboben mTeli rigi
mciretyiani regionebic, sadac regionis saerTo farTobTan mimarTebaSi tyiT dafaruli farTobis xvedriTi wili 10
procents ar aRemateba. saqarTvelos tyis safari ilustrirebulia rukaze 7.1, damatebiTi informacia ki mocemulia
CanarTSi (ix. CanarTi 7.1).

ruka 7.1 saqarTvelos tyis safari




CanarTi 7.1

saqarTvelos tyeebi (tyis safari) didi mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva, rac dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Soris
klimaturi pirobebis sxvaobiT aris ganpirobebuli. magaliTad, naxevrad ariduli da ariduli tyeebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi
saerTod ar aris warmodgenili. qveynis dasavleT nawilSi mcenareuli safaris vertikaluri gavrcelebis oTxi ZiriTadi sartyeli
arsebobs: tyis sartyeli zRvis donidan 1900 metramde simaRleze, subalpuri sartyeli zRvis donidan 1900-2500 metramde
simaRleze, alpuri sartyeli zRvis donidan 2500-3100 metramde simaRleze da nivaluri sartyeli zRvis donidan 3100 metr
simaRleze zemoT. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi Semdegi eqvsi sartyelia gavrcelebuli: naxevrad udabnoebis, mSrali
mdeloebis, udabnoebisa da naTeli tyeebis (150-600 metri zRvis donidan); tyis (600-1900 metri zRvis donidan); subalpuri
(1900-2500 metri zRvis donidan); alpuri (2500-3000 metri zRvis donidan); subnivaluri (3000-3500 metri zRvis donidan)
da nivaluri (3100 metrze zemoT zRvis donidan). aRsaniSnavia, rom mTis tyeebsa da alpur zonaSic ki fragmentulad
gvxvdeba naxevrad udabnoebis ekosistemebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mcenareuloba. saqarTvelos tyeebi ZiriTadad
merqniani mcenareebis Semdegi saxeobebiT aris warmodgenili: foTlovani saxoebebidan - wifeli (1164000 ha – tyiT
dafaruli farTobis 42%), rcxila (298000 ha – tyiT dafaruli mTeli farTobis 11,8%), muxa (281000 ha – tyiT dafaruli farTobis
11,2%), muryani (200000 ha – tyiT dafaruli mTeli farTobis 7,2%), wabli (105000 ha – tyiT dafaruli farTobis 3,8%),
wiwviani saxeobebidan – soWi, naZvi da fiWvi (445000 ha – tyiT dafaruli farTobis 17,4%). tyeebis 22,3% gavrcelebulia
zRvis donidan 500 metr simaRlemde, 23,5% - zRvis donidan 501-1000 metr simaRlemde, 16,6% zRvis donidan 1001-
1500 metr simaRlemde, 17,4% zRvis donidan 1500-2000 metr simaRlemde, xolo 19,8% ki zRvis donidan 2001 metrze
zemoT simaRleze. tyeebis didi nawili didi da mcire kavkasionis kalTebzea gavrcelebuli. tyeebis 3,8% 0-10 daqanebis
                                                                                                                      62
ferdobebze, 16,4% 11-20 daqanebis ferdobebze, 17,0% 21-25 daqanebis ferdobebze, 18,6% 26-30 daqanebis
ferdobebze, 20,1% 31-35 daqanebis ferdobebze, xolo 24,1% ki 35 da meti daqanebis ferdobebzea gavrcelebuli.

         saqarTvelos tyeebi yvelaze mniSvnelovan bioms warmodgens biomravalferovnebis dacvisa da
SenarCunebis TvalsazrisiT – tyeebi moicavs mravali endemuri da reliqturi merqniani/balaxovani saxeobis
gavrcelebis arealsa da iSviaTi da globaluri masStabiT gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi cxovelis saxeobis
habitats.
         tye mravalferovani nedleulisa da sasargeblo/dacviTi funqciebis wyaros warmoadgens. amasTan, tyis
resursebi qveynis yvela regionis soflebis aTasobiT macxovreblisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobas atarebs.
mraval sasoflo dasaxlebasa da qalaqis tipis dabaSi saSeSe merqani asrulebs energiis miRebis ZiriTad
saSualebas (gaTbobisa da sakvebis momzadebisTvis). amgvari miznebisTvis soflad mcxovrebi komli
saSualod 15 m3 SeSas moixmars weliwadSi. mTlianad qveyanaSi daaxloebiT 2 mln m3 saSeSe merqani
moixmareba. tyeebi warmoadgenen samasale merqnuli nedleulis miRebis wyaros adgilobrivi bazrisTvis,
gansakuTrebiT samSeneblo da avejis warmoebis seqtorSi gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT. mniSvnelovani
odenobis samasale merqani eqsportis saxiT miewodeba agreTve ucxoeTis bazrebs.
         tyis aramerqnuli produqcia – kakal-nayofianebis, xil-kenkrovnebis, sokosa da samkurnalo
mcenareebis saxiT da agreTve kavkasiuri soWis (Abies nordmaniana) Tesli warmoadgens sasoflo
Sinameurneobebis Semosavlebis mniSvnelovan Semadgenel nawils. tyis fondis miwebi soflis mosaxleobis
mier gamoiyeneba agreTve saqonlis (msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvi, cxvari, Rori) Zovebis mizniT. nadirobas,
romelic turizmisa da rekreaciis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT Zalze mniSvnelovania, dReisaTvis garkveuli
odenobis pirdapiri Semosavali moaqvs saxelmwifo biujetisTvis. garda amisa, nadirobas arapirdapiri wvlili
Seaqvs adgilobrivi Sinameurneobebis Semosavlebis zrdis saqmeSi. tyeebis ekologiuri funqciebi
(gansakuTrebiT wyalSenaxviTi, wyalmaregulirebeli da niadagdacviTi funqciebi) Zalze did rols TamaSobs rogorc
sasoflo regionebis, aseve, mTlianobaSi erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
         tyeebis esoden mniSvnelovani ekologiuri Tu ekonomikuri funqciebis gaTvaliswinebiT saqarTveloSi
Seqmnilia daculi teritoriebi, romelic ZiriTadad tyis fondis miwebs moicavs da romelTa saerTo farTobi
qveynis mTeli teritoriis daaxloebiT 7.1 % Seadgens. dacul teritoriebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi ix. me-5
TavSi.
         miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo ganekuTvneba tyiT mdidari qveynebis ricxvs, tyeebis
mniSvnelovani nawili saSualo sixSire kritikul zRvramdea miyvanili. aRsaniSnavia, rom kritikul zRvrze dabali
sixSiris mqone tyeebs mkveTrad daqveiTebuli aqvT dacviTi funqciebis Sesrulebis unari da amasTan
mniSvnelovanwilad dakarguli aqvT TviTaRdgena-TviTganaxlebis unari, rac saSualo da grZelvadian periodSi
tyis ekosistemebis Seuqcevadi degradaciis mizezi SeiZleba gaxdes. dReisaTvis, saqarTvelos tyeebze
uaryofiT zegavlenas axdens agreTve aramdgradi meTodebiT ganxorcielebuli tyiTsargebloba, saqonlis
gadaWarbebuli (usistemo) Zoveba da garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT arasrulyofili satyeo-sameurneo praqtika.

mdgradi satyeo meurneobis meqanizmis ararseboba
       saqarTveloSi dReisaTvis arsebuli satyeo meurneobis sistema ar aris dafuZnebuli mdgradi
ganviTarebis proncipebze. saboloo jamSi, tyeebTan dakavSirebuli ekologiuri problemebis ganmapirobebel
sistemur faqtors qveyanaSi mdgradi satyeo meurneobis meqanizmis arqona warmoadgens. mdgradi
ganviTarebis principebs ar Seesatyviseba tyis resursebis dRes arsebuli aRricxvisa da dagegmvis meTodebi da
wesebi; praqtikulad ar arsebobs mdgradi satyeo meurneobis standartebi da indikatorebi, iseve rogorc maTi
Sesabamisi adekvaturi sakanonmdeblo baza; aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, gansakuTrebiT xazi unda gaesvas
im garemoebas, rom, arasakmarisi finansebis gamo ver xerxdeba tyis marTvis gegmebis SemuSaveba
saxelmwifo tyis fondSi arsebuli yvela tyisTvis, xolomoqmedi kanonmdebloba licenziantebisgan tyis fondis
xangrZliv sargeblobaSi gadacemis winapirobad moiTxovs mxolod tyiT sargeblobis gegmebis
SemuSavebasa da ganxorcielebas im pirobebSi, rodesac tyis marTvis gegmebi praqtikulad ar ganaxlebula
ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi.

aramdgradi tyiTsargebloba (tyis Wris aramdgradi meTodebis gamoyeneba) da tyiT dafarul farTobebze
gadaWarbebuli Zoveba
       aramdgradi tyiTsargeblobis (tyis Wris aramdgradi meTodebis gamoyenebis) sferoSi, misi
gamomwvevi mizezebisa da subieqtebis mixedviT, ori ZiriTadi saxeoba SeiZleba iqnes gamoyofili – Wrebi,
romlebic warmoebs samasale merqnis miRebis mizniT (adgilobrivi bazris moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad an
misi Semdgomi eqsportisaTvis) da Wrebi, romelTa mizanic aris saSeSe merqnis mopoveba (ZiriTadad,
sawvavis sxva alternatiuli wyaros gareSe darCenil adgilobriv soflis mcxovrebTa moTxovnilebis
                                                                                                         63
dasakmayofileblad). aramdgradi meTodebiT ganxorcielebuli Wrebi xSirad ukanono Wrebis (kanonmdeblobiT
gaTvaliswinebuli sanebarTvo dokumentaciis ararseboba da Wrebis ganxorcielebisTvis dadgenili procedurebis
darRveva) saxes atarebs. amasTan, aramdgradi Wrebi xSirad kanonieri Wris saxiTac xorcieldeba – magaliTad
maSin, rodesac xeebis WraSi daniSvnis dros mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba mdgradi satyeo meurneobis
principebi da sakuTriv tyis ekologiuri faseuloba. amgvari saxis aramdgradi Wrebi iwveven tyis koromebis
struqturis rRvevas (imdenad, ramdenadac samasale merqnis miRebis mizniT xdeba dasaSvebze meti
odenobiT teqnikuri simwifis asakSi myofi yvelaze ufro Rirebuli xeebis Wra) da tyeebis fragmentacias, rasac,
saboloo jamSi tyeebis kargva da ekologiuri funqciebis daqveiTeba mosdevs. Wris aramdgradi meTodebis
gamoyenebis Sedegad ziandeba zezemdgomi xeebi, niadagis safari da wylebi. arasrulyofilad dadgegmili da
ganxorcielebuli xe–tyis damzadebis procesi, romelsac Tan axlavs xe-tyis damzadebis teqnikurad da
ekologiurad miuRebeli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba, aseve, iwvevs mouWreli zezemdgomi xeebis, qvetyis,
balaxovani safarisa da niadagis dazianebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom xe-tyis damzadebis teqnologiebis potenciuri
mavne zemoqmedebis Sefasebas sistemuri xasiaTi ar gaaCnia – aseve, arasistemuri xasiaTi gaaCnia amgvari
zemoqmedebis Tavidan acilebis an Semcirebis RonisZiebebaTa dagemvasa da ganxorcilebas. Sedegad,
Wragavlil tyis koromebSi tyis bunebrivi ganaxlebis procesi xSirad uzrunvelyofili ar aris.
         dasaxlebuli punqtebis mimdebare tyeebSi Zovebis intensivobas, umetes SemTxvevebSi,
gadaWarbebuli xasiaTi gaaCnia – rac mniSvnelovnad aRemateba tyeebis bunebriv potencials.
gadaWarbebuli Zoveba iwvevs balaxovani safaris, qvetyisa da xe-mcenareebis aRmonacen-mozardis
dazianebas. Tavis mxriv, balaxovani safaris, qvetyisa da xe-mcenareebis aRmonacen-mozardis dazianeba
xels uwyobs niadagis eroziasa da mewyrul movlenebs, agreTve tyis habitatebis kargvas. gadaWarbebuli
Zovebis xelSemwyob faqtorebs ganekuTvneba alternatiuli Semosavlebis wyaroebis simcire da Sesabamisad,
siRaribis maRali done soflis mosaxleobaSi, iseve rogorc ekologiuri cnobierebis dabali done.
         zemoaRniSnul problemebs gamomwvevi mizezebis farTo speqtri ganapirobebs. ekonomikuri
sargeblis miRebaze orientirebuli xe-tyis produqciis sagareo da Sida bazarze moqmedi subieqtebi
yuradRebas ar aqceven (an minimalur yuradRebas uTmoben) maTi saqmianobis Sedegad gamowveul
uaryofiT garemosdacviT da socialur zemoqmedebas. garda amisa, maT ar SeuZliaT diferenciacia moaxdinon
mdgradi da aramdgradi meTodebiT damzadebul xe-tyis produqcias Soris. soflad mcxovreb mosaxleobas,
dabali gadaxdisunarianobis gamo ar SeuZlia saSeSe merqnis moxmarebis arsebuli donis Semcireba da/an
mesame piris mier damzadebuli da tyis ubnebidan transportirebuli saSeSe xe-tyis SeZena. ZovebisTvis tyis
fondis miwebis gamoyeneba ZiriTadad ukanono xasiaTs atarebs. tyis fondis marTvaze pasuxismgebeli da
makontrolebeli organoebi, Tavis mxriv, ganicdian finansuri da materialuri resursebis simcires, rac aucilebelia
tyis resursebis dacvisa da gamoyenebis saTanado doneze dagegmvisa da kontrolis sruli uzrunvelyofisTvis.

7.2. daintersebuli mxareebi

         centraluri xelisuflebis kompetentur organoebs (saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
saministro da mis sistemaSi Semavali satyeo saagento da daculi teritoriebis saagento, aseve, garemos
dacvis inspeqcia; ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro) gaaCniaT ZiriTadi uflebamosilebebi
tyiTsargeblobis odenobis dadgenisa da tyiTsargeblobaze kontrolis ganxorcielebis sferoSi. saxelmwifo tyis
fondis marTvaze uflebamosili saxelmwifo organoebi, moqmedeben ra saxelmwifos saxeliT, warmoadgenen
rogorc tyeebis mesakuTreebs, agreTve tyeebis marTvasa da kanonaRsrulebaze kontrolisa da
zedamxedvelobis ganmaxorcielebel pasuxismgebel subieqtebs. satyeo sferos instituciuri mowyobis
TvalsazrisiT, centraluri xelisufleba mdgradi da amave dros, mcirebiujetiani da TviTdafinansebaze
(mogebaze) orientirebuli modelis danergvis kurss uWers mxars.
         adgilobriv TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs (municipalitetebs) gaaCnia garkveuli uflebamosilebebi
adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis tyeebTan mimarTebaSi, Tumca, am uflebamosilebaTa zusti Sinaarsi da farglebi
srulyofilad ar aris gansazRvruli. adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis tyeebi (adgilobrivi tyis fondi) xSirad asocirdeba yofil
sakolmeurneo tyeebTan. dReisaTvis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis gamgeblobaSi adgilobrivi
mniSvnelobis tyeebis gadacemis procesi dawyebuli ar aris – imdenad, ramdenadac gansazRvruli ar aris
sargeblobasTan, ufleba-movaleobebTan da sxva sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi da teqnikuri
xasiaTis normebi. garda amisa, aRniSnul sferoSi, garkveulwilad, arsebobs samarTlebrivi normebis koliziis
problemac.
         satyeo sferoSi mniSvnelovnad dainteresebul mxareebs warmoadgenen soflad mcxovrebi komlebi
(sasoflo Sinameurneobebi) da kerZo seqtori (samewarmeo subieqtebi). qveynis mier damoukideblobis
mopovebis Semdgom, energetikul sferoSi kavSirebis gawyvetis gamo, sasoflo Sinameurneobebis didi nawili
mTlianad saSeSe merqanze (tyis resursebze) gaxda damokidebuli. saSeSe merqanze amgvari moTxovna
                                                                                                               64
tyeebze miniSvnelovani uaryofiTi zegavlenis gamomwvev faqtorad iqca. soflad mcxovrebi mosaxleoba
tyeebTan dakavSirebul garemosdacviT sakiTxebs ar miiCnevs mniSvnelovan problemad, rasac maTTvis
saSeSe merqanze mimdinare/gadaudebeli moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebisa da sxva ekonomikuri da socialuri
problemebis gadaWris prioritetuloba ganapirobebs. rac Seexeba kerZo seqtors, is warmodgenilia
mravalricxovani mcire sawarmoebis saxiT, romlebic Cabmuli arian xe-tyis damzadebisa da misi pirveladi
gadamuSavebis samuSaoebSi. amave sferoSi mxolod mcire raodenobis saSualo da didi sawarmo
moqmedebs da swored maTze modis xe-tyis produqciis eqsportis saerTo moculobaSi yvelaze didi xvedriTi
wili. kerZo seqtori, mTlianobaSi, maRali mwarmoeblurobiT gamoirCeva. amave dros, sawarmoebi
(msgavsad soflad mcxovrebi mosaxleobisa) mniSvnelobas ar aniWeben tyeebTan dakavSirebul
garemosdacviT sakiTxebs. mdgradi meTodebiT damzadebuli xe-tyis SeZenaSi aRniSnuli seqtoris mxridan
dainteresebis SemTxvevaSi, amgvari moTxovnis dakmayofileba SeuZlebeli iqneboda imdenad, ramdenadac
qveyanaSi ar arsebobs mdgradi da aramdgradi meTodebiT damzadebuli xe-tyis diferenciaciis meqanizmi.
        tyeebTan dakavSirebul Tematikaze muSaoben samoqalaqo sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi (rigi
garemosdacviTi arasamTavrobo organizaciebi), romlebic ZiriTadad satyeo profilis sapiloto (sacdeli)
proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT arian dakavebuli.

7.3. dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

        tyeebTan dakavSirebuli ekologiuri problemebis gadasaWrelad SemuSavebuli iqna RonisZiebebi,
romlebmac, sxvadasxva etapze, asaxva hpova programuli xasiaTis Semdeg dokumentebSi: saqarTvelos
garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnul programaSi (2000 w.); gaudabnoebasTan brZolis moqmedebaTa
erovnul programasa (2003 w.) da saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis dacvis strategiasa da moqmedebaTa
gegmaSi (2005 w.). Tumca, aRniSnul dokumentebSi tyeebTan dakavSirebul RonisZiebaTa finansuri
resursebiT uzrunvelyofa ar ganxorcielebula.
        2000 wlidan saqarTveloSi mimdinareobda saerTaSoriso donori organizaciebis (msoflio banki, gaero-
s sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis programa) mier dafinansebuli proeqtebi, romlebic mizand isaxvda satyeo
meurneobis restruqturizacias (reorganizacias) da agreTve erovnuli satyeo politikis SemuSavebas. mTeli rigi
mizezebis gamo, aRniSnuli proeqtebi an SeCerda an ar iyo warmatebuli mosalodnel Sedegebis TvalsazrisiT.
        2007-08 w.w.-Si saqarTvelos mTavrobam ganaxorciela satyeo seqtoris reforma, romelmac
diametralurad Secvala satyeo meurneobis marTvis struqtura da tyiTsargeblobis salicenzio/sanebarTvo
sistema. reformis mizani iyo tyeebis marTvaze pasuxismgeblobis simZimis centris sajaro sferodan kerZo
seqtorSi (grZelvadiani tyiTsargeblobis licenziebis mflobelebze) gadatana. Tumca uzrunvelyofili ar yofila
xsnebuli procesis mdgradi satyeo meurneobis principebTan Sesabamisoba, iseve, rogorc Sesabamisi
sakanonmdeblo bazis, instituciuri SesaZleblobebis, tyis resursebis aRricxvisa da dagegmvis meqnizmebisa
da sainformacio bankis Seqmna.
        zemoaRniSnulma ganapiroba is garemoeba, rom 2010 wlis meore naxevarSi saqarTvelos
mTavrobam daiwyo satyeo reformis axali etapis ganxorcieleba. kerZod, 2010 wlis 6 ivliss miRebuli iqna
saqarTvelos kanoni `sajaro samarTlis iuridiul piris - satyeo saagentos Sesaxeb” da, agreTve, Sesabamisi
cvlilebebi da damatebebi iqna Setanili saqarTvelos tyis kodeqsSi, romelTa mixedviTac moxda tyis marTvis
organos (saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros saxelmwifo saqveuwyebo
dawesebulebis - satyeo departamentis) struqturuli reorganizacia da misi sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pirad
Camoyalibeba, riTac saTave daedo tyis marTvis axali organos formirebas, romelmac, saboloo jamSi, unda
uzrunvelyos satyeo meurneobis sistemis finansuri da organizaciuli avtonomiuroba moqmedi
kanonmdeblobis farglebSi.


7.4. erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti

        arsebuli erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti arsebiTad ar ewinaaRmdegeba qveyanaSi
mdgradi satyeo meurneobis sistemis Camoyalibebas da, Sesabamisad, tyeebTan dakavSirebuli ekologiuri
xasiaTis problemebis aRmofxvras. amasTan, infrastruqturuli proeqtebis (milsadenebi, maRali Zabvis
eleqtrogadamcemi xazebi, hidroenergetikuli obieqtebi, magistraluri gzebi) ganxorcieleba, zogierT
SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa warmoadgendes damabrkolebel faqtors. amas garda, aRsaniSnavia, rom
ekonomikis ganviTarebisa da Sesabamisad gadaxdisunariani moTxovnis zrdis kvalobaze soflad mcxovrebi
mosaxleobis moTxovna saSeSe merqansa da zogadad tyis resursebze SeiZleba Semcirdes, rac, Tavis mxriv,
tyeebis dacvisa da SenarCunebis saqmeSi dadebiT rols iTamaSebs.
                                                                                                       65
7.5. grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

       grZelevadian (20 wlian) periodSi saqarTvelos satyeo meurneobis amocanas warmoadgens tyeebis
saerTo funqcionaluri (ekologiuri) mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba srulmasStabiani mdgradi satyeo
meurneobis sistemis danergvis safuZvelze.
aRniSnuli miznis misaRwevad dasaxulia Semdegi moklevadini (5 wliani) miznebi:

mizani 1. mdgradi satyeo meurneobis sistemis CamoyalibebisTvis winapirobebis Seqmna
        aRniSnuli mizani miRweuli unda iqnes satyeo sferoSi imgvari saxelmwifo politikisa da
kanonmdeblobis miRebiTa da ganxorcielebiT, romlebic orientirebuli iqneba mdgradi satyeo meurneobis
principebis danergvasa da tyeebis imgvari marTvis sistemis demonstrirebaze, rac uzrunvelyofs rogorc satyeo
meurneobis socialur sargeblianobas, aseve, ekonomikur sicocxlisunarianobas da tyeebis ekologiur
mdgradobas. amisaTvis, unda SemuSavdes saqarTvelos satyeo politikisa da grZelvadiani strategiis
ganmsazRvreli dokumenti, romelic, saTanado wesiT damtkicebamde, sajarod unda iqnes ganxiluli.
SemdgomSi, aRniSnuli dokumentis safuZvelze unda moxdes satyeo sferos maregulirebeli axali
sistematizirebuli sakanonmdeblo normatiuli aqtis (axali tyis kodeqsis) miReba. paralelurad, SemuSavebuli
unda iqnes mdgradi satyeo meurneobis principebis Sesabamisi normatiul-teqnikuri baza da satyeo
meurneobis marTvis arsebuli struqturis Semdgomi srulyofisTvis saWiro ekonomikuri meqanizmebi; unda
moxdes sademonstracio samodelo satyeo meurneob(eb)is dafuZneba (tyis mdgradi marTvis modelis
mixedviT) da grZelvadiani (10-15 welze gaTvlili) erovnuli programebis Sedgena tyeebis mavneblebisa da
daavadebebis winaaRmdeg brZolis, xanZarsawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebis, tyeebis gaSenebisa da aRdgenis
da swrafmozardi merqniani saxeobebis gamoyenebiT satyeo plantaciebis gaSenebis mimarTulebiT; unda
daiwyos tyis marTvis (10-wliani) gegmebis SemuSaveba (tyeTmowyobis Sesabamisi samuSaoebis
ganxorcielebis CaTvliT); agreTve, prioritetul ubnebze unda ganxorcieldes gadaudebeli satyeo-sameurneo
(tyis aRdgenis, xanZarsawinaaRmdego da tyeebis mavneblebisagan dacvis) RonisZiebebi.

mizani 2 – aramdgradi da ukanono tyiTsargeblobis Semcireba
       aRniSnuli miznis misaRwevad unda ganxorcieldes rigi RonisZiebebi, romlebic xels Seuwyoben
moklevadian periodSi aramdgradi tyiTsargeblobisa da tyiT dafarul farTobebze gadaWarbebuli Zovebis
Semcirebas. kerZod, saWiro iqneba informaciuli, saswavlo-meToduri, materialuri, instituciur
SesaZleblobaTa gaZlierebisaken mimarTuli da sxva saxis RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba.

7.6. arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

        satyeo sferos maregulirebeli kanonmdebloba mTeli rigi sakanonmdeblo da kanonqvemdebare
aqtebisagan Sedgeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom is normatiuli aqtebi, romlebic tyis resursebiT sargeblobis
dagegmvis sakiTxebs exeba, mdgradi satyeo meurneobis warmarTvis TvalsazrisiT araefeqturia. moqmedi
tyis resursebiT sargeblobis uflebis (licenzirebis) sistema ver uzrunvelyofs srulfasovan Tanabar sawyis
pirobebs potenciuri mosargebleebisTvis, xolo merqnul resursze faswarmoqmnis arsebuli meqanizmi
arasakmarisad efeqturia bunebrivi resursiT sargeblobisaTvis sruli ekonomikuri kompensaciis misaRebad.
Sesabamisad, ar xdeba resursiT sargeblobisaTvis (mosakreblis saxiT) potenciuri amonagebis optimaluri
odenobis miReba, rac SesaZlebels gaxdida miRebuli Semosavlis/amonagebis nawili warmarTuliyo tyeebis
dacvasa da kvlavwarmoebaze. ar arsebobs samarTlebrivi meqnizmi, romelic saSualebas Seqmnida
ganxorcielebuliyo: mdgradi satyeo meurneobis normatiuli Sinaarsis gansazRvra; mdgradi satyeo
meurneobis praqtikaSi danergva da monitoringi; aseve, mdgradi satyeo meurneobis politikisa da erovnuli
standartebis SemuSaveba da sxva dargobrivi politikis dokumentebis maTTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana.
garda amisa, satyeo sferos maregulirebeli moqmedi samarTlebrivi normebis (gansakuTrebiT im normebis,
romlebic tyeebis SenarCunebasa da sxva analogiur sakiTxebs Seexeba) xSir SemTxvevaSi srulad ar aris
praqtikaSi danergili, rac, saboloo jamSi, xels uSlis satyeo sferoSi sazogadoebrivi interesebis srulyofil
gaTvaliswinebas.
        1999 wels miRebuli da dReisaTvis moqmedi tyis kodeqsi (2010 wels miRebuli cvlilebebisa da
damatebebis CaTvliT) mTlianobaSi ver pasuxobs mdgradi satyeo meurneobisa da amave dros Tanamedrove
samarTlebrivi, politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri pirobebis moTxovnebs.

                                                                                                       66
        aqedan gamomdinare, moqmedi tyis kodeqsis axali sakanonmdeblo aqtiT (axali tyis kodeqsiT)
Canacvlebamde, miRebuli unda iqnes sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi, romlebic samarTlebrivad
moawesrigebdnen satyeo sferosTan dakavSirebul da dReisaTvis samarTlebrivi regulirebis gareSe darCenil
mTel rig sakvanZo sakiTxebs (mag., tyis fondis miwis, rogorc miwis ZiriTadi kategoriis myari iuridiuli
statusis, satyeo meurneobis sistemis miwaTsargeblobisa da sivrcul-teritoriuli dagegmarebis sistemebSi
integrirebis, tyis fondis miwebis arasatyeo-sameurneo daniSnulebiT aTvisebisas kompensaciis, tyis fondis
bunebriv-geografiul teritoriul erTeulebad dayofisa da amgvari erTeulebis statusis, tyis fondis miwebis
funqcionaluri zonirebis, tyis resursebiT sargeblobis grZelvadiani dagegmvis sistemis, mdgradi satyeo
meurneobis kriteriumebis da indikatorebis, mdgradi satyeo meurneobis erovnuli standartebis, garemoze
zemoqmedebis Sefasebis sistemis farglebSi tyis WriT gamowveuli zemoqmedebis minimizaciis, avtonomiuri
respublikebisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis mier satyeo meurneobis gaZRolis da tyeebis marTvis
detaluri wesebisa da sxva sakiTxebs).




                                                                                                     67
        cxrili 7.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi
       grZelvadiani mizani - tyeebis saerTo funqcionaluri (ekologiuri) mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba srulmasStabiani mdgradi satyeo meurneobis sistemis
danergvis gziT

        mizani 1 - mdgradi satyeo meurneobis sistemis CamoyalibebisTvis winapirobebis Seqmna

                                                                                             daaxloebiTi    dafinansebis
                                                             ganxorcielebis pasuxismgebeli            16
                          RonisZiebebi                                                        biujeti        potenciuri                    indikatorebi
                                                                periodi        uwyeba
                                                                                              (larebSi)        wyaro
1     saqarTvelos satyeo politikisa da grZelvadiani           2011-2013    gdbrs (sxva          mcire       donorebi       SemuSavebulia satyeo politikisa da
      strategiis ganmsazRvreli dokumentis SemuSaveba                       dainteresebul                    (FAO)          grZelvadiani strategiis dokumenti
                                                                           uwyebebTan
                                                                           urTierT-
                                                                           TanamSromlo
                                                                           biT)

2     satyeo sferos maregulirebeli axali sistematizirebuli    2011-2013    gdbrs                mcire       donorebi       SemuSavebuli da miRebulia satyeo sferos
      sakanonmdeblo normatiuli aqtis – tyis kodeqsis                                                        (mag., FAO,    maregulirebeli axali sistematizirebuli
      SemuSaveba (Sesabamis sakanonmdeblo paketTan                                                          UNDP)          sakanonmdeblo normatiuli aqti – tyis kodeqsi
      erTad)                                                                                                               (Sesabamis sakanonmdeblo paketTan erTad)

3    mdgradi satyeo meurneobis principebTan                   2012-2013    gdbrs               saSualo      donorebi       SemuSavebulia mdgradi satyeo meurneobis
     SesabamisobaSi myofi teqnikuri da meTodologiuri                                                        (mag., FAO,    principebis Sesabamisi teqnikuri da
     bazis Seqmna                                                                                           GTZ, UNDP)     meTodologiuri baza
     (mdgradi satyeo meurneobis teqnikuri da meTodologiuri
     dokumentaciis SemuSaveba)

4     tyis fondis miwebze uflebrivi zonirebisa da uflebaTa    2012-2013    gdbrs,               mcire       saxelmwifo     SemuSavebulia tyis fondis miwebze uflebrivi
      registraciis meTodologiis SemuSaveba                                 iusticiis                        biujeti        zonirebisa da uflebaTa registraciis
                                                                           saministro (is)                                 meTodologia




16
  winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
aRemateba 500 000 lars



                                                                                                                                                               68
5      satyeo meurneobis marTvis arsebuli struqturis                 2011-2012       gdbrs, is              mcire         saxelmwifo       SemuSavebulia satyeo meurneobis marTvis
       Semdgomi srulyofisTvis saWiro ekonomikuri                                                                          biujeti          arsebuli struqturis Semdgomi srulyofisTvis
                               17
       meqanizmis SemuSaveba                                                                                                               saWiro ekonomikuri meqanizmi (ekonomikuri
                                                                                                                                           modeli)

6      samodelo satyeo meurneob(eb)is dafuZneba (tyis                2011-2015       gdbrs                  maRali        donorebi         dafuZnebulia samodelo satyeo
       mdgradi marTvis modelis Seqmna)                                                                                    (mag., KfW,      meurneoba(ebi)
                                                                                                                          GEF)
7       grZelvadiani (10-15 welze gaTvlili) erovnuli                 2011-2015       gdbrs                 saSualo        donorebi          SemuSavebulia erovnuli programebi da
        programebisa        da    Sesabamisi      teqnikuri                                                               (mag., FAO,       Sesabamisi teqnikuri dokumentacia da
        dokumentaciisa da xarjTaRricxvis Sedgena Semdegi                                                                  GTZ)              xarjTaRricxva Semdegi sferoebisTvis:
        sferoebSi:
       a)     tyeebis  mavneblebisa     da    daavadebebis                                                                                 a) tyeebis mavneblebisa da daavadebebis
       winaaRmdeg brZola;                                                                                                                  winaaRmdeg brZola;
        b) xanZarsawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebi;                                                                                                b) xanZarsawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebi;
        g) tyeebis gaSeneba da aRdgena – tyeebis klimatis                                                                                   g) tyeebis gaSeneba da aRdgena – tyeebis
        cvlilebis mimarT adaptaciisa da mitigaciis                                                                                          klimatis cvlilebis mimarT adaptaciisa da
        RonisZiebebis CaTvliT;                                                                                                              mitigaciis RonisZiebebis CaTvliT;
        d) swrafmozardi merqniani saxeobebis gamoyenebiT                                                                                    d) swrafmozardi merqniani saxeobebis
       satyeo plantaciebis gaSeneba – saSeSe nedleulis                                                                                     gamoyenebiT satyeo plantaciebis gaSeneba –
       miRebis mizniT.                                                                                                                     saSeSe nedleulis miRebis mizniT.

8      tyis marTvis gegmebis SemuSaveba (tyeTmowyobis                2011-2015       gdbrs                  maRali        donorebi,        satyeo saagentos gamgeblobaSi arsebuli
       Sesabamisi samuSaoebis ganxorcielebis CaTvliT)                                                                     saxelmwifo       tyeebis (tyis fondis) 50%-sTvis SemuSavebulia
                                                                                                                          biujeti          tyis marTvis gegmebi (tyeTmowyobis
                                                                                                                                           Sesabamisi samuSaoebis ganxorcielebis
                                                                                                                                           CaTvliT)




17
   satyeo meurneobis marTvis imgvari ekonomikuri da organizaciul–struqturuli modelis Camoyalibeba, romelic orientirebuli iqneba xe-tyis damzadebis moculobaTa stabilizaciis pirobebSi
sakuTari Semosavlebis zrdasTan da saboloo jamSi dargis srulyofil dafinansebasa da funqcionirebasTan – am sferoSi saukeTeso saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT.




                                                                                                                                                                                 69
9   gadaudebel satyeo-sameurneo (tyis aRdgenis,             2011-2015     gdbrs               maRali      donorebi       prioritetul unebze ganxorcielebulia:
    xanZarsawinaaRmdego da tyeebis mavneblebisagan                                                        (UNDP,         a)tyis aRdgenis RonisZiebebi;
    dacvis) RonisZiebaTa ganxorcieleba prioritetul                                                        WWF, GTZ),     b) xanZarsawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebi;
    ubnebze                                                                                               saxelmwifo     g) tyeebis mavneblebisagan dacvis)
                                                                                                          biujeti        RonisZiebebi.




      mizani 2 - aramdgradi da ukanono tyiTsargeblobis Semcireba

                                                                                        daaxloebiTi
                                                         ganxorcielebi pasuxismgebeli                 dafinansebis
                       RonisZiebebi                                                        biujeti                                      indikatorebi
                                                           s periodi      uwyeba                    potenciuri wyaro
                                                                                         (larebSi)
1   satyeo sainformacio sistemis SemuSaveba da           2011-2013      gdbrs             saSualo    donorebi        Seqmnilia da testirebulia satyeo sainformacio
    testireba                                                                                        (mag.,          sistema
                                                                                                     UNDP/GEF,
                                                                                                     GTZ),
                                                                                                     saxelmwifo
                                                                                                     biujeti

2   tyis monitoringis sistemis SemuSaveba da testireba   2011-2013      gdbrs             saSualo      donorebi        SemuSavebuli da testirebulia tyis monitoringis
                                                                                                       (UNDP/GEF,      sistema
                                                                                                       GTZ),
                                                                                                       saxelmwifo
                                                                                                       biujeti

3   satyeo meurneobis muSakebisTvis swavlebisa da        2011-2012      gdbrs             saSualo      saxelmwifo      Seqmnilia swavlebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis
    kvalifikaciis amaRlebis centris (trening-centris)                                                  biujeti,        centri (trening-centri) satyeo meurneobis
    Seqmna                                                                                             donorebi        sistemaSi dasaqmebuli personalisaTvis
                                                                                                       (mag.,
                                                                                                       UNDP/GEF)

4   saswavlo-praqtikuli programis SemuSaveba da          2011-2015      gdbrs             saSualo      donorebi        SemuSavebuli da danergilia saswavlo-praqtikuli
    danergva satyeo kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi                                                            (mag., GTZ),    programa satyeo kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi
                                                                                                       saxelmwifo
                                                                                                       biujeti




                                                                                                                                                           70
5    satyeo sferoSi finansur, materialur-teqnikur da   2011        gdbrs        mcire     donorebi       Catarebulia satyeo sferoSi finansur, materialur-
     instituciur saWiroebaTa Sefaseba da                                                  (FAO),         teqnikur da instituciur saWiroebaTa Sefaseba da
     SesaZleblobaTa amaRlebis Sesabamisi                                                  saxelmwifo     SemuSavebulia SesaZleblobaTa amaRlebis
     moqmedebaTa gegmis SemuSaveba                                                        biujeti        Sesabamisi moqmedebaTa gegma

6.   satyeo saagnetos muSakebis aRWurva/ekipireba      2012-2015   gdbrs        maRali    donorebi,      satyeo saagentos muSakebi aRWurvili arian formis
     formis tansacmliTa da standartuli satyeo                                             saxelmwifo     tansacmliTa da standartuli saWiro
     mowyobilobebiTa da instrumentebiT                                                    biujeti        mowyobilobebiTa da instrumentebiT

7    tyis fondis miwebze saZovrebiT sargeblobis        2011-2012   gdbrs,       mcire     donorebi       SemuSavebulia tyis fondis miwebze saZovrebiT
     dagegmvisa da marTvis meTodologiis SemuSaveba                 soflis                 (mag., FAO),   sargeblobis dagegmvisa da marTvis meTodologia
                                                                   meurneobis             saxelmwifo
                                                                   saministro             biujeti
                                                                   (sms)
8    tyeebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sazogadoebis     2011-2015   gdbrs        saSualo   saxelmwifo     tyeebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sazogadoebis
     cnobierebis amaRlebis RonisZiebaTa sistematuri                                       biujeti        cnobierebis amaRlebis RonisZiebebis raodenoba
     ganxorcieleba




                                                                                                                                             71
                                 Tavi 8. miwis resursebi
8.1 problemebis aRwera
        istoriulad saqarTvelo agraruli qveyanaa da dReisaTvis, oficialur statistikur monacemebze
dayrdnobiT saqarTveloSi dasaqmebulTa 53% soflis meurneobis dargSia dakavebuli. miwisa da
niadagis resursebis saTanado movla-patronobis pirobebSi saqarTvelos aqvs potenciali awarmoos
maRali xarisxis soflis meurneobis produqcia, rac ukiduresad mniSvnelovania rogorc sakvebis
usafrTxoebis, aseve qveynis eqsportis SesaZleblobebis gazrdis kuTxiTac. Sesabamisad, naTelia
miwis resursebis efeqtiani marTvis mniSvneloba qveynisaTvis ara marto garemosdacviTi, aramed
socialur-ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiTac.
         miwis degradacia, miwis resursebis arasakmarisad efeqtiani marTvis praqtika, SezRuduli
xelmisawvdomoba Sesabamis informaciasa da teqnologiebze da susti instituciuri kavSiri
sxvadasxva dainteresebul mxareebs Soris (rac gadawyvetilebis miRebis process naklebad efeqtians
xdis) is ZiriTadi problemebia, romlebic am sferoSi gvxvdeba.
miwis degradacia
         saqarTveloSi miwis resursebis sferoSi mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens miwis
degradacia. soflis meurneobis saministros 2006 wlis monacemebiT, saqarTvelos sasoflo-sameurneo
miwis 60% saSualo an dabali nayofierebiT xasiaTdeba. gadaWarbebuli da ukontrolo Zoveba, tyis
safaris kargva da teritoriebis daugegmavi aTviseba urbanuli ganviTarebis mizniT miwis degradaciis
gamomwvevi mTavari faqtorebia. niadagis erozia, romelic rig SemTxvevebSi bunebrivi movlenaa,
mwvavdeba adamianis mier niadagis aramdgradi gamoyenebiT. samSeneblo saqmianobebs,
infrastruqturul proeqtebs, Seusabamo sasoflo-sameurneo praqtikas wvlili Seaqvs niadagis nayofieri
zeda fenis kargvaSi. niadagis nayofiereba aseve mcirdeba niadagis damlaSebiT, gabicobebiTa da
damJavianebiT. niadagis damlaSeba gamowveulia Seusabamo sairigacio sistemebiT, xolo niadagis
damJavianebis mizezia mJavawarmomqneli azotovani sasuqebis gamoyeneba. garda amisa, xSiria
niadagis dabinZureba soflis-meurneobaSi sasuqebisa da Sxam-qimikatebis araswori gamoyenebiT,
navTobis daRvriT, sairigacio sistemebis mouwesrigebeli muSaobiTa da narCenebis ukontrolo
ganTavsebiT.
dagegmvisa da marTvis susti praqtika
         miwis degradacia SeiZleba Tavidan iqnes acilebuli/Serbilebuli efeqtiani miwis politikis
arsebobiT erovnul, regionul da adgilobriv doneebze. miuxedavad sivrciTi mowyobis
sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebis arsebobisa, saqarTveloSi sustia dagegmvis praqtika, ris gamoc ar aris
uzrunvelyofili miwis savargulebis Sesafer adgilebSi gamoyofa ganviTarebisa da samSeneblo
saqmianobebisaTvis ise, rom ziani ar miadges arc maRali sasoflo-sameurneo faseulobis mqone
teritoriebs da arc mniSvnelovan bunebriv ekosistemebs. mxolod yvela dainteresebuli mxaris
monawileobiT SemuSavebuli sivrciT-teritoriuli ganviTarebis gegmebis ganxorcielebiT SeiZleba
Seqmnas miwis resursebis mdgradi ganviTarebis safuZvlebi da Tavidan iqnes acilebuli konfliqtebi
sxvadasxva dargebs Soris.
SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba Sesabamis informaciasa da teqnologiebze
       miuxedavad imisa, rom sxvadasxva uwyebebi agroveben mTel rig sivrciT da statistikur
monacemebs miwis resursebis Sesaxeb, detaluri monacemebi degradirebuli miwebis, dabinZurebis
gavrcelebis arealebis Tu miwaTsargeblobis Sesaxeb ar moipoveba. Amwiri informaciis pirobebSi ki
ukiduresad rTulia, Tu SeuZlebeli ara, swori dagegmva da efeqtiani gadawyvetilebebis miReba.


susti instituciuri kavSiri sxvadasxva dainteresebul mxareebs Soris


                                                                                              72
        monacemTa urTierTgacvlis sakiTxebSi uwyebebs Soris TanamSromloba ar aris sakmarisi, ar
aris gansazRvruli maTi roli da pasuxismgebloba. uflebebi da pasuxismgeblobebi gafantulia
sxvadasxva adgilobriv da centralur struqturebs Soris. samecniero da aRmasrulebel instituciebs Soris
susti komunikaciis gamo, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi naklebad gamoiyeneba samecniero
codna da arsebuli gamocdileba, rac ukiduresad mniSvnelovania swori gadawyvetilebebis
misaRebad.


8.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
       dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi miwis resursebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze pasuxismgebloba
ganawilebulia garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis, soflis meurneobisa, ekonomikisa da
mdgradi ganviTarebis da iusticiis saministroebs Soris.
       saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros kompetencias
warmoadgens miwis resursebis marTvis saxelmwifo politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis
SemuSavebasa da ganxorcielebaSi monawileba, miwis resursebis dacviTi RonisZiebebis
uzrunvelyofa, miwis miznobrivi daniSnulebis SecvlasTan dakavSirebuli procedurebis ganxorcieleba,
niadagis nayofierebis gazrdis RonisZiebebis, saSiSi nivTierebebiTa da narCenebiT dabinZurebuli
miwebisa da niadagebis inventarizaciis ganxorcieleba.
        soflis meurneobis saministros funqciaa miwis konsolidaciis, niadagis xarisxobrivi Sefasebis
da maTi mdgomareobis Taobaze erTiani sainformacio bankis Seqmna, miwis racionalurad
gamoyenebis, nayofierebis aRdgenisa da SenarCunebis organizeba, aseve agroqimiis sferoSi,
erTiani saxelmwifo politikis SemuSaveba.
       saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro axorcielebs saxelmwifo
sakuTrebaSi arsebuli miwebis privatizebas da adasturebs privatizebul saxelmwifo miwaze
sakuTrebis uflebas. aseve, saministros amocanebSi Sedis qalaqebisa da sxva dasaxlebuli teritoriebis
ganviTarebis, miwaTsargeblobis dagegmvisa da uflebrivi zonirebis rukebis SemuSavebis
organizeba da am samuSaoTa meTodologiuri xelmZRvaneloba.
        iusticiis saministros sajaro reestris erovnuli saagentos mTavari mizania qveyanaSi uZravi
qonebis bazris ganviTarebis aucileblobidan gamomdinare Camoayalibos momxmarebelze
orientirebuli miwis gamWvirvale, usafrTxo, erTiani da Tanamedrove saregistracio sistema.
       mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs municipalitetebis adgilobrivi mmarTvelobebi, romlebic
pasuxismgeblebi arian sivrciT-teritoriuli ganviTarebis gegmebisa da miwaTsargeblobis generaluri
gegmis inicirebaze, momzadebaze, damtkicebasa da dagegmvaze, aseve uflebamosil
aRmasrulebel xelisuflebis Sesabamis uwyebasTan SeTanxmebaze. miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnulisa,
mxolod ramdenime municipalitets gaaCnia am saxis gegmebi. fermeruli meurneobebi da maTi
gaerTianebebi, adgilobrivi Temebi da Sinameurneebi, agreTve samecniero kvleviTi institutebi,
romlebic Seiswavlian miwis resursebisa da niadagis dacvis sakiTxebs warmoadgenen monawile
mxares miwis resursebis marTvis saqmeSi.




8.3 dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi
        dReisaTvis, miwis resursebis marTvisa da dacvis sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi miRebulia
mTeli rigi kanonebi, romelic aregulirebs am sferos. zogierTi es kanoni pirdapiraa dakavSirebuli
miwis resursebis dacvasTan, nawili ki miwis mflobelobasTan da miwaTsargeblobasTan. garda
amisa, saqarTvelo aris gaudabnoebasTan brZolis Sesaxeb gaeros konvenciis mxare. saqarTvelos
SemuSavebuli da miRebuli aqvs gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg brZolis moqmedebaTa erovnuli

                                                                                                73
programa (2003). erovnulma programam gansazRvra gaudabnoebis safrTxis winaSe myofi
prioritetuli regionebi, am teritoriebze gaudabnoebis procesze moqmedi ZiriTadi faqtorebi da
moklevadiani da saSualo vadiani periodisTvis gansaxorcielebeli qmedebebi (2003-2007ww)
gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad mosalodneli Sedegebisa da ganxorcielebis vadebis
miTiTebiT. aRniSnuli programiT gaTvaliswinebuli arc erTi RonisZieba ar ganxorcielebula mwiri
resursebis gamo. kidev erTi strategiuli dokumenti, romelsac mniSvnelovani Sedegebi SeiZleba
hqondes miwis resursebis mdgradi ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelos sanapiros integrirebuli
marTvis strategiaa, romelic SemuSavda 2008-2009 wlebSi. dokumenti SeTanxmebulia Sesabamis
uwyebebTan da mzadaa mTavrobis winaSe warsadgenad.
       niadagis nayofierebis gaumjobesebis mizniT soflis meurneobis saministros mier zogierT
municipalitetSi ganxorcielda kvlevebi. ramdenime ukve dasrulebuli da mimdinare proeqtebis
farglebSi, SerCeul regionebSi (mag. aWaris avtonomiur respublika, dedofliswyaros municipaliteti)
Catarda niadagis eroziisagan dacvis Semarbilebeli RonisZiebebi.


8.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
        izrdeba interesi, saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva infrastruqturul an samrewvelo proeqtebSi
investiciebis ganxorcielebis mizniT. dagegmilia qveynis infrastruqturis ganviTarebisa da reabilitaciis
proeqtebis ganxorcieleba. mSeneblobisa da privatizaciis procesSi, bunebrivia, izrdeba moTxovna
miwis resursebze. qveynis ganviTarebisTvis saWiro msgavsi iniciativebis ganxorcieleba gazrdis
niadagis eroziisa da dabinZurebis riskebs, ramac marTvis da gadawyvetilebis miRebis dRes arsebuli
praqtikis pirobebSi, mosalodnelia, gamoiwvios miwis resursebis Semdgomi degradacia.
       sxvadasxva bunebriv faqtorebTan erTad klimatis cvlileba warmoadgens kidev erT faqtors,
romlis zemoqmedebac iwvevs miwis resursebis degradacias. gansakuTrebiT, aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos landSaftebi mgrZnobiareni arian Tanamedrove klimatis cvlilebis mimarT. amitom
saWiroa ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvildes aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mimdinare gaudabnoebis
procesebze.


8.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi
      miwis resursebis marTvis sferoSi grZelvadian mizans warmoadgens saukeTeso SesaZlo
miwaTsargeblobis praqtikis danergva miwis resursebis mdgradi marTvis gziT.
        aRniSnuli grZelvadiani miznis gansaxorcieleblad saWiroa, miwis resursebis marTvis arsebuli
midgomebis Secvla miwis resursebis mdgradi integrirebuli marTviT, raTa xeli Seewyos
saqarTveloSi sivrciT teritoriul dagegmvas, zonirebas, rac uzrunvelyofs miwis resursebis saukeTeso
gamoyenebis miRwevasa da mdgrad sargebels, garemosdacviTi, socialuri da ekonomikuri
interesebis optimaluri dabalansebis gziT. agreTve, gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos iseTi sakiTxebi
rogoricaa teritoriebis konservacia, kerZo sakuTrebis uflebebi, adgilobrivi mosaxleobisa da Temebis
interesebi.
zemoaRniSnuli grZelvadiani miznidan gamomdinare, miwis resursebis marTvisa da dacvis
moklevadiani miznebi Semdgomi 5 wlis perspeqtivaSi Semdegnairad SeiZleba iyos Camoyalibebuli:
mizani 1 -   dagegmvis, marTvis da Sefasebis sistemebis gaumjobeseba da gaZliereba miwis
resursebTan mimarTebaSi
miwis     marTvis     efeqturi    sistemebis     arseboba      xels   Seuwyobs     aucilebeli
ganviTarebis/ganaSenianebis miznebisaTvis miwis savargulebis saTanado adgilebSi gamoyofas da
maRali sasoflo-sameurneo faseulobis mqone savargulebis teritoriebze ganviTarebis Tavidan
acilebas an garkveul SezRudvas. agreTve, uzrunvelyofs sxvadasxva seqtorebs Soris konfliqtebis
                                                                                                   74
Tavidan aridebas. aseTi sistemebis arsebobiT miRweuli iqneba mdgradi miwaTsargeblobis
praqtika, sadac gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba garemosdacviTi, socialuri, demografiuli da ekonomikuri
sakiTxebi.
mizani 2 -   degradirebuli miwebis farTobebis Semcireba, niadagis xarisxis gaumjobeseba
da dabinZurebis minimizacia.
am miznis miRweva uzrunvelyofs miwis resursebis (maT Soris daculi landSaftebis) moxmarebis
iseTi donis miRwevas, romelic uzrunvelyofs garemos mdgradobas da xels Seuwyobs gaeros
gaudabnoebasTan brZolis konvenciis farglebSi nakisri saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis Sesrulebas.
mizani 3 -      miwis sivrculi informaciuli sistemis ganviTarebisaTvis arsebuli SesaZleblobebis
gaZliereba da miwaTsargeblobis sistemebis ganviTareba Tanamedrove teqnologiebisa da
instrumentebis gamoyenebis gziT (rogoricaa distanciuri zondireba, geografiuli informaciuli
sistemebi da a.S.).


8.6 arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba
       zogadad, miwis privatizaciis procesi saqarTveloSi ganixileba, rogorc mniSvnelovani da
warmatebuli reforma. Tumca, jer kidev bevri sakiTxi saWiroebs gaumjobesebas. sakanonmdeblo da
maregulirebeli garemos CamoyalibebiT, miwis sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi miRweuli iqna
mniSvnelovani warmatebebi. Tumca, ufro farTo xedvis politikis amsaxveli dokumenti, miwis
resursebis sferoSi erTiani saxelmwifo politikis Sesaxeb jer kidev ar arsebobs.
       zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, qveynis kanonmdeblobas miwis resursebis
sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi esaWiroeba gadaxedva da ganaxleba, raTa Seiqmnas miwis resursebis
mdgradi marTvisTvis Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo safuZveli, sxvadasxva seqtorebis interesebis
Sesabamisi integraciisa da axali partnioruli urTierTobebis SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebis gziT.
ganaxlebulma kanonmdeblobam, miwaTsargeblobis praqtikaSi, agreTve unda uzrunvelyos kanonis
saTanado aRsruleba da kontroli.




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8.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi
grZelvadiani mizani - saukeTeso SesaZlo miwaTsargeblobis praqtikis danergva miwis resursebis mdgradi marTvis gziT
mizani 1. dagegmvis, marTvis da Sefasebis sistemebis gaumjobeseba da gaZliereba miwis resursebTan mimarTebaSi
     RonisZiebebi                                             ganxorcielebis    pasuxismgebeli      daaxloebiTi dafinansebis
                                                                                                             18
                                                                 periodi           uwyeba            biujeti     potenciuri                 indikatorebi
                                                                                                     (larebSi)     wyaro
1    axali kanonis SemuSaveba miwis resursebisa da            2011-12          gdbrs / parlamenti       _            _         axali kanoni ZalaSia
     niadagis mdgradi gamoyenebisa da dacvis Sesaxeb
2    miwis resursebis mdgradi marTvisa da dacvis sferoSi      2011-14                                 mcire       donorebi     miRebulia samarTlebrivi aqtebi,
     instituciuri reformebis ganxorcieleba da marTvis iseTi                    garemos dacvisa                                 romliTac ganaxlebulia struqtura da
     sistemebis Seqmna, romelic dafuZnebuli iqneba                             da bunebrivi                                    funqciebi
     miwis resursebis integrirebuli marTvis principebis                        resursebis
     ganxorcielebaze.                                                          saministro (gdbrs)


3    miwaTsargeblobis gegmebis momzadebisaTvis                2011-15          gdbrs                  mcire       donorebi     SemuSavebuli meTodologia
     meTodologiebis SemuSaveba ekologiuri principebis
     gaTvaliswinebiT da miwaTsargeblobis marTvisaTvis
     miwis resursebis mdgradi da integrirebuli marTvis                                                                         garemos dacvisa dacvisa da bunebrivi
     saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli midgomebze dayrdnobiT                                                                            resursebis saministro
4    miwis degradaciis saerTaSoriso indikatorebis             2012-13          gdbrs                  mcire       donorebi     SemuSavebulia erovnuli indikatorebi
     mimoxilva da mecnierulad dasabuTebuli erovnuli
     indikatorebis SemuSaveba.
5    saZovrebis inventarizacia, saZovrebis marTvis            2011-15          gdbrs, soflis          maRali      donorebi     inventarizaciis angariSi
     gegmebis     momzadebisTvis       meTodologiis                            meurneobis
                                                                                                                               saZovrebis raodenoba, romelTac
     SemuSaveba da saZovrebis marTvis gegmebis                                 saministro (sms)
                                                                                                                               gaaCniaT saZovrebis marTvis gegma
     momzadeba

6    gaudabnoebasTan brZolis moqmedebTa programis             2012-13          sms, gdbrs                mcire     donorebi    programa SemuSavebulia
     ganaxleba
mizani 2- degradirebuli miwebis farTobebis Semcireba, niadagis xarisxis gaumjobeseba da dabinZurebis minimizacia
1    niadagis degradaciis riskis Sefasebis kriteriumebis      2012-14          sms, gdbrs            saSualo      donorebi     SesaZlo riskis mqone teritoriebis
     SemuSaveba da SesaZlo riskis mqone teritoriebis                                                                           gansazRvrulia

18
  winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
aRemateba 500 000 lars
                                                                                                                                                               76
    identificireba
2   dabinZurebuli niadagis identificirebis kriteriumebis   2012-14     gdbrs             dabali    donorebi   kriteriumebi SemuSavebulia
    gansazRvra, inventarizacia da dabinZurebuli
                                                                                                              SemuSavebulia dabinZurebuli
    niadagebis reabilitaciis strategiis SemuSaveba.
                                                                                                              niadagebis aRdgenis strategia.
3   niadagis nayofieri fenis SenarCunebis, Senaxvis,       2012-14     gdbrs, sms         mcire    donorebi   danergilia niadagis zeda fenis dacvis
    dabinZurebisagan da eroziisagan dacvis                                                                    saTanado sistema da igi
    saxelmZRvanelo dokumentis SemuSaveba am                                                                   Seesabameba saerTaSorisod
    kuTxiT saerTaSorisod gamocdili da aprobirebuli                                                            aRiarebul principebs.
    praqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT
4   degradirebuli miwebis aRdgenis pilot proeqtebis        2013-15     sms, gdbrs        saSualo   donorebi   ganxorcielebulia degradirebuli miwis
    ganxorcieleba                                                                                             reabilitaciis samuSaoebi SerCeuli
                                                                                                              teritoriisTvis.
5   SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba miwis resursebis dacvis,    2011-15     sms, gdbrs         mcire    donorebi   personalis raodenoba, romelTac
    miwaTsargeblobis, niadagis dabinZurebisgan dacvis                                                         gaiares treningi
    sferoSi
mizani 3 - miwis sivrculi informaciuli sistemis SesaZleblobebis ganviTareba
1   miwis sivrculi informaciuli sistemis (LIS) Seqmna,     2011-2015   gdbrs             saSualo   donorebi   Seqmnilia miwis sivrculi informaciuli
    romelic moicavs miwis dafarulobisa da                                                                     sistema (LIS) romelic moicavs
    miwaTsargeblobis informaciuli sistemebis                                                                  miwaTmoqmedebis,
    ganviTarebas Tanamedrove gis da distanciuri                                                               miwisdafarulobis, niadagis tipebis,
    zondirebis teqnologiebisa da instrumentebis                                                               hidrologiuri qselis da sxva sivrcul
    gamoyenebis gziT.                                                                                         monacemebs.
2   treningebis Catareba Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gis     2011-15     gdbrs, usticiis    mcire    donorebi   personalis raodenoba, romlebmac
    da distanciuri zondirebis instrumentebis                           saministro (is)                        gaiares treningi gis da distanciuri
    gamoyenebaSi, miwis informaciuli sistemis                                                                 zondirebis instrumentebis
    Semdgomi ganviTarebisa da operirebis mizniT.                                                              gamoyenebaSi da damoukideblad
                                                                                                              muSaoben miwis informaciuli sistemis
                                                                                                              ganviTarebaSi.




                                                                                                                                               77
                                 Tavi 9. Mmineraluri resursebi
       winamdebare Tavi moicavs sasargeblo wiaRiseulisa da miwisqveSa wylebTan dakavSirebul
sakiTxebs.

9.1 problemis aRwera

        saqarTvelo mdidaria wiaRiseuli resursebiT. am resursebis umetesoba konkurentunariania msoflio
bazarze. kerZod,      oqro, spilenZi, manganumi, ceoliti da miwisqveSa wylebi interesis sagans
warmoadgenen saerTaSoriso vaWrobis TvalsazrisiT. mineraluri resursebis mopoveba qveynis ekonomikur
ganviTarebas uwyobs xels, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom maTma mopovebam SesaZloa seriozuli ziani
miayenos garemos da gamoiwvios misi degradacia arsebuli samTo mopovebiTi samuSaoebis aramdgradi
praqtikis gamo. gansakuTrebiT sayuradsaReboa mitovebuli sabadoebi.
        miwisqveSa wylebis resursebis racionaluri aTviseba da dacva saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis sakiTxia,
vinaidan am wiaRiseulis swori marTva Zalian mniSvnelovania rogorc saqarTvelos mosaxleobis
janmrTelobis, aseve qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiTac. miwisqveSa wylebis erovnuli
mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, problemur sakiTxad rCeba miwisqveSa wylebis monitoringi da aramdgradi
marTvis praqtika.

mitovebuli sabadoebi
       mitovebuli sabadoebi iwvevs mraval garemosdacviT problemas, radgan am sabadoebidan
CamoJonili qimiuri nivTierebebi (magaliTad, dariSxani da vercxliswyali) abinZureben niadagsa da
(miwisqveSa)wylebs. am damabinZureblebma SeiZleba pirdapiri ziani miayenon axlomdebare
dasaxlebebsa da mdinareTa qveda dinebis auzSi mcxovreb adamianTa janmrTelobas, wylis
momxmareblebsa da axlomdebare Temebze. mitovebuli sabadoebis mepatroneebi xSirad ucnobia da
amitom saxelmwifos uxdeba sakmaod Zvirad Rirebuli gawmendis RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba. xSir
SemTxvevaSi, es adgilebi safrTxes uqmnis regionis biomravalferovnebasa da sxva bunebriv resursebsac.

aramdgradi samTo-mopovebiTi parqtika
         araswori samTo-mopovebiTi praqtikisa da Sesabamisi politikis ararsebobis gamo wiaRiseulis
mopovebis damkvidrebuli praqtika safrTxes uqmnis garemos. moZvelebuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba,
qimiuri nivTierebebis Ria wesiT moxmareba, wiaRiseuli narCenebis yovelgvari dacvis normebis gareSe
ganTavseba aramdgradi samTo-mopovebiTi parqtikis mxolod ramdenime magaliTia. aseTi praqtika iwvevs
miwis degradacias, rogorc zedapiruli aseve miwisqveSa wylisa da niadagis dabinZurebas. aseve xdeba
geologiuri garemos mdgomareobis Secvla, izrdeba teqnogenuri katastrifebis riski da maxinjdeba bunebrivi
landSaftebi. aramdgradi mopovebiTi samuSaoebi xels uwyobs, agreTve, wiaRiseulis mopovebisas
garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis (gzS) angariSis momzadebaze iuridiuli valdebulebis ararseboba.
teqnikuri angariSi, romelic unda aRwerdes wiaRiseulis mopovebis process, rogorc wesi, iqmneba mxolod
licenziis gacemis Semdeg, rac ar iZleva garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebis saSualebas konkretuli
samTo-mopovebiTi samuSaos procesis dagegmarebis adreul etapze.
         sayuradReboa, agreTve, mdinareebis da Rvarcofuli xevebis kalapotebSi dagrovili inertuli masalis
problemac, aRniSnuli inertuli masalisagan xevebis gawmenda, erTis mxriv, xels Seuwyobs mdinareTa
kalapotebSi bunebrivi pirobebis aRdgenas, xolo meores mxriv, samSeneblo miznebisTvis saWiro masalis
mdgrad mopovebas.

miwisqveSa wylebis arasakmarisi monitoringi
       15 welze metia praqtikulad ar mimdinareobs miwisqveSa wylebis monitoringi, ris gamoc ar
arsebobs sruli informacia miwisqveSa wylebis formirebaze misi reJimis cvlilebebze da xarisxobriv



                                                                                                     78
maCveneblebze. Sesabamisad ar aris gansazRvruli Tu ra RonisZiebebis Catarebaa saWiro imisaTvis, rom
SenarCunebuli an gaumjobesebuli iyos wylis xarisxobrivi da raodenobrivi mdgomareoba.

miwisqveSa wylebis aramdgradi marTvis praqtika
        saqarTveloSi amJamad damkvidrebuli mtknari miwisqveSa wylebis resursebis gamoyenebisa da
dacvis praqtika ar iZleva sabadoebis eqspluataciisas sistemuri, stacionaruli reJimuli dakvirvebebisa da
monitoringis Catarebis SesaZleblobas. aqedan gamomdinare ver xerxdeba mtknari miwisqveSa wylebis
resursebis racionalurad gamoyeneba, maTi raodenobisa da xarisxis swori aRricxva da SenarCuneba.
marTvis arsebuli sistema aseve ar iZleva ekologiuri pirobebis dacvisa da gaumjobesebis saqmeSi mtkice
saxelmwifoebrivi disciplinis uzrunvelyofis SesaZleblobas. es imdenadac aris mniSvnelovani, rom mtknari
miwisqveSa wylebi, myari wiaRiseulebisagan gansxvavebiT, xasiaTdeba specifikurobiT, raodenobrivi da
xarisxobrivi TvalsazrisiT resursebis mkafiod gamoxatuli dinamiurobiT, anu droSi kanonzomieri
ganaxlebadobiT, da, Sesabamisad, gamoirCeva maRali sensitiurobiT bunebriv-ekologiuri da teqnogenuri
pirobebis cvalebadobis mimarT. xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac alaznis, qarTlisa da kolxeTis arteziul auzebSi
gaWrili mravali WaburRilidan zedapirze iRvreba wylebi, romlebic abinZureben da aWaobeben garemos da
qmnian malariis wyaroebs.

9.2    ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi

         am seqtorSi politikis SemuSavebasa da mis ganxorcielebaze pasuxsimgebelia garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministro. kerZod, am struqturis pasuxismgeblobaSi Sedis mineraluri resursebis
maragebis Sefaseba da aRricxva, agreTve mineraluri resursebis moxmarebis licenziis pirobebis Sesrulebaze
zedamxedveloba. ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros funqciaa wiaRiT sargeblobis
licenzireba da samTo-teqnikuri proeqtebis damtkiceba.. kidev erT mTavar dainteresebul mxares
warmoadgens licenziis maZiebeli da licenziis mflobeli kerZo kompaniebi, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian
mineraluri da miwisqveSa wylebis maragebis daZiebasa da saxelmwifo geologiur fondebSi hidrogeologiuri
angariSebis warmodgenaze. bolos, qveyanaSi Seqmnilia da funqcionirebs maragebis saxelmwifo komisia,
romelic amtkicebs mineraluri da miwisqveSa wylebis resursebis maragebs.


9.3    dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

mineraluri resursebi

    dReisaTvis geologiuri kvlevebi Catarebulia saqarTvelos TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze. Sedgenilia
sxvadasxva masStabis geologiuri rukebi, romelic iZleva saqarTvelos teritoriaze mineraluri resursebis
maragebis gamovlenisa da kvelvis safuZvels. am droisaTvis saqarTveloSi Seswavlilia 1500-ze meti dadgenili
maragis mqone sabado da madangamovlineba (potenciuri samrewvelo mniSvnelobis mqone geologiuri
obieqti). am 1500-idan 675 ukve eqspluataciaSia. maTgan saqarTvelosaTvis strategiuli mniSvneloba aqvs
oqros, oqro-spilenZs, manganums, samSeneblo mosapirkeTebel masalebs da ceoliTebs, aseve miwisqveSa
mtknar da mineralur wylebs.

miwisqveSa wylebi
        dReis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi daZiebuli da damtkicebulia saeqspluatacio maragebis mxolod
29%. yvelaze ukeT aris daZiebuli alaznis, wyaltubos, qarTlis, marneuli-gardabanisa da kodoris arteziuli
auzebi, xolo yvelaze arasakmarisadaa Seswavlili didi da mcire kavkasionis mTiswineTis saeqspluatacio
resursebi (4,01%). UaRsaniSnavia, rom momavalSi Ziebis aqcenti unda gakeTdes mtknari wneviani
miwisqveSa wylebis resursebze, miT umetes, rom isini ekologiurad ufro saimedod arian daculni.



                                                                                                      79
9.4     erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti

     saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesi swrafi tempebiT mimdinareobs. Semosavlebis zrdam
mosalodnelia gazardos moTxovna iseT samSeneblo masalebze, rogoricaa qviSa-xreSi, Tixa, marmarilo,
RorRi da carci. interesi da moTxovna mineralur resursebze gamoiwvevs maTi mopovebis gaaqtiurebas.
mopovebiTi samuSaoebis gaaqtiureba da am sferoSi kerZo kompaniebis axali sainvesticio
gadawyvetilebebi Seqmnis mopovebis Tanamedrove pratqikebis da axali teqnologiebis danergvis
SesaZleblobebs. Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom sasargeblo wiaRiseulze gazrdilma moTxovnam SesaZlebelia
gamoiwvios ukanono mopovebac, rasac jerovani yuradreba unda mieqces.
     saerTaSoriso interesis gamo oqroze, manganumze da ceoliTze SesaZlebelia moxdes am mineralebis
saerTaSoriso bazarze gadineba. igive SeiZleba iTqvas miwisqveSa wylebzec. dasavleT evropeli
myidvelebisTvis ki Zalian mniSvnelovania mopovebis mdgradi praqtikis arseboba. aseTive moTxovnebi
arsebobs saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebisa da savaWro sadazRvevo kompaniebis mxridanac.
     aranairi saerTaSoriso SeTanxmeba ar arsebobs wiaRiseuli resursis mopovebisas garemoze
zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb. Tumca orhusis konvencia (romlis mxaresac warmoadgens saqarTvelo) iZleva
Zalian mkafio gansazRvrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom samTo saqmianoba Sefasebul unda iqnas misi garemoze
zemoqmedebis xarisxis mixedviT da unda iyos sazogadoebis gansjis sakiTxi, rasac saqarTveloSi dRes adgili
ar aqvs.


9.5     grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi
    mineraluri resursebis sferoSi grZelvadian mizans warmoadgens  garemosa da adamianTa
janmrTelobis dacva mineraluri resursebis mopovebisas garemoze miyenebuli uaryofiTi
zemoqmedebisagan. xolo miwisqveSa wylebis sferoSi grZelvadian mizania saqarTvelos mTeli
mosaxleobis usafrTxo da xarisxiani sasmeli wyliT uzrunvelyofa da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis
xelSewyoba am produqtiT saerTaSoriso bazarze Sesvlis gziT.

      am miznebis misaRwevad saWiroa Semdegi moklevadiani (5 wliani) miznebis ganxorcieleba:

      mizani 1 – mitovebuli sabadoebis gawmenda

    prioriteti unda mieniWos sabadoebs, romlebic uSualo zians ayeneben adamianTa janmrTelobas da
axlomdebare dasaxlebul punqtebs. gansakuTrebuli riskis Semcveli obietqebis SemTxvevaSi, unda moxdes
dabinZurebis gavrcelebis SezRudva dabinZurebis wyarodan.

      mizani 2 –axali da arsebuli sabadoebis mdgradi marTvis praqtikis danergva

     qveyanaSi unda SemuSavdes garkveuli marTvis meTodologia (an normebi) sasargeblo wiaRiseulis
mdgradi mopovebisaTvis, romelic Seqmnis resursiT sargeblobis licenziebis gacemis safuZvels. marTvis
gegmebi unda moicavdes wiaRiseulis mopovebis da sabados marTvis mdgradi praqtikis danergvisTvis
saWiro RonisZiebebs. licenziaSi ki miTiTebul unda iqnes rekultivaciis aucilebloba, radgan mewarmis
saqmianobis dasrulebis Semdeg kvlav ar moxdes mitovebuli sabadoebis mier garemoze da adaminaTa
janmrTelobaze zianis miyeneba. moqmedi licenziiT mopovebiTi samuSaoebis warmoebis saxelmwifo
inspeqtireba unda iyos efeqturi zemoaRniSnuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

      mizani 3 - miwisqveSa wylebis monitoringis sistemis gaumjobeseba

    Sesabamisi monitoringis ararsebobis pirobebSi SeuZlebelia gvqondes naTeli warmodgena
miwisqveSa wylebis raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi maCveneblebis Sesaxeb. Aam monacemebis gareSe ki
                                                                                                     80
rTulia, daigegmos miwisqveSa wylebis racionaluri moxmarebis RonisZiebebi erovnuli saWiroebebisa da
saerTaSoriso bazarze am produqtis gatanis gaTvaliswinebiT.

      mizani 4 - miwisqveSa wylebis mopovebis mdgradi praqtikis danergva.

   miwisqveSa wylebis aramdgradma marTvis praqtikam SeiZleba gamoiwvios maragebis Semcireba da
gamolevac ki. aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTveloSi mtknari miwiqveSa wylis maragebis SesanarCuneblad
mdgradi marTvis praqtikis danergvas Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs.


9.6     arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

     kanoni wiaRis Sesaxeb (1996), romelic aregulirebs wiaRiseulisa da miwisqveSa wylebis marTvas,
Sesworebebs saWiroebs, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes am resursebis mdgradi mopoveba adamianTa
janmrTelobis dacvis, aseve garemosdacvTi da saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. kanonma
aseve SeiZleba Seqmnas am interesebis licenziis pirobebSi gaTvaliswinebis iuridiuli safuZveli. aseve
aucilebelia Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo bazis arseboba miwisqveSa wylebis monitoringisaTvis, rac xels
Seuwyobs miwisqveSa wylebis dacvas.
     sasurvelia, orhusis konvencia aisaxos erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi, ris Sedegadac axali sabados
aTvisebis SemTxvevaSi kanoniT iqneba gansazRvruli garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis angariSis
momzadebis moTxovna am saqmianobisTvis, rac SeiZleba gaxdes resursTsargeblobaze licenzirebis
proceduris nawili.




                                                                                                 81
     9.7. miznebi da RonisZiebebi

     grZelvadiani mizani 1. garemosa da adamianTa janmrTelobis dacva mineraluri resursebis mopovebisas garemoze miyenebuli uaryofiTi zemoqmedebisagan
     grZelvadiani mizani 2. saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleobis usafrTxo da xarisxiani sasmeli wyliT uzrunvelyofa da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis xelSewyoba am
     produqtiT saerTaSoriso bazarze Sesvlis gziT

          mizani 1. mitovebuli sabadoebis gawmenda
                           RonisZiebebi                            ganxorcielebi     pasuxismgebeli           daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                  19             dafinansebis
                                                                     s periodi          struqtura          biujeti (larebSi)                                indikatorebi
                                                                                                                               potenciuri wyaro
                                                                                   garemos dacvisa da      saSualo
                                                                                   bunebrivi resursebis
    mitovebuli samTo-mopovebiTi adgilebis/sabadoebis
                                                                                   saministro (gdbrs),
    inventarizaciis ganaxleba da am adgilebidan                                                                                saxelmwifo         inventarizaciisa da Sefasebis
1                                                                   2011-2013      Sromis,
    adamianebis janmrTelobasa da garemoze SesaZlo                                                                              biujeti            angariSebi
                                                                                   janmrTelobisa      da
    riskebis Sefaseba
                                                                                   socialuri      dacvis
                                                                                   saministro (Sjsds)
                                                                                                           mcire
    maRali riskis Semcveli adgilebis prioritetizacia gadaudebeli                                                               saxelmwifo
2                                                                   2012-2014      gdbrs                                                          prioritetebis amsaxveli sia
    RonisZiebebis dagegmvis mizniT                                                                                             biujeti

                                                                                                           maRali              saxelmwifo
    gamovlenil prioritetuli adgilebis konservaciisaTvis saWiro
3                                                                   2013-2015      gdbrs                                       biujeti,           konservirebuli adgilebi
    RonisZiebebis gatareba
                                                                                                                               donorebi
                                                                                   gdbrs, ekonomikisa                                             gamovlenilia Warbi
    mdinareebis da Rvarcofuli xevebis kalapotebSi dagrovili
                                                                                   da           mdgradi    saSualo             saxelmwifo         akumulaciuri adgilebi,
5   inertuli masalis adgilebis agegmva da etapobrivi                2011-2015
                                                                                   ganviTarebis                                biujeti            Sefasebulia maragebi da
    gawmenda (licenzirebiT)
                                                                                   saministro (emgs)                                              gawmendilia kalapotebi




           mizani 2. axali da arsebuli sabadoebis mdgradi marTvis praqtikis danergva


     19
       winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
     aRemateba 500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                        82
                            RonisZiebebi                          ganxorcielebi     pasuxismgebeli             daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                                    dafinansebis
                                                                    s periodi          struqtura             biujeti (larebSi)                                 indikatorebi
                                                                                                                                  potenciuri wyaro
     wiaRis Sesaxeb kanonis ganaxleba
1                                                                  2011-2012      gdbrs, parlamenti      -                         -                 kanoni ZalaSia

     kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis gatareba wiaRiseulis                             gdbrs, parlamenti,
2    mopovebis samuSaoebis orhusis konvenciasTan                   2011-2012      saqarTvelos            -                         -                 cvlilebebi ZalaSia
     SesabamisobaSi moyvanis mizniT                                               mTavroba
                                                                                                                                   saxelmwifo
     wiaRiseulis mdgradi mopovebis marTvis meTodologiis (an                       emgs, gdbrs
3                                                                  2011-2012                             mcire                     biujeti,          dokumenti damtkicebulia
     normebis) dokumentis SemuSaveba
                                                                                                                                   donorebi

                                                                                                                                                     salicenzio pirobebSi asaxulia
     marTvis meTodologiis (an normebis) dokumentSi gawerili
4                                                                  2013           emgs                   -                         -                 mineraluri resursebis mdgradi
     principebis gaTvaliswineba licenzirebis procesSi
                                                                                                                                                     mopoveba

                                                                                                         mcire
     salicenzio pirobebis aRsrulebis gaumjobeseba                                                                                  saxelmwifo        inspeqtirebis raodenoba
5                                                                  2013           gdbrs
                                                                                                                                   biujeti           weliwadSi



      mizani 3. miwisqveSa wylebis monitoringis sistemis gaumjobeseba

#   RonisZiebebi                                                 ganxorciele pasuxismgebeli            daaxloebiTi               dafinansebis
                                                                 bis periodi struqtura                 biujeti (larebSi)           potenciuri             indikatorebi
                                                                                                                                     wyaro
1   sakanonmdeblo bazis momzadeba miwisqveSa wylebis              2011-2012    gdbrs, parlamenti       mcire                     saxelmwifo     momzaddeba mqw-is
    hidromonitoringuli kvlevebis warmoebis Sesaxeb                                                                               biujeti        hidromonitoringuli kvlevebis
                                                                                                                                                warmoebi sakanonmdeblo baza

2   geologiur fondebSi daculi hidrogeologiuri angariSebis da      2011-2013    gdbrs,                  mcire                     saxelmwifo     Seqmnili baza xelmisawvdomia
    faqtiuri masalebis analizis safuZvelze erTiani eleqtronuli                                                                   biujeti        dainteresebuli pirebisaTvis
    sainformacio bazis Seqmna




                                                                                                                                                                          83
3   ZebniTi savele hidrogeologiuri marSrutebis Catarebis gziT      2011-2015   gdbrs,              saSualo       saxelmwifo     Sedgeba mqw-is bunebrivi da
    dazustebuli sayrdeni wyalpunqtebisa da saTanado                                                              biujeti        saeqspluatacio resursebis
    katalogebis monacemTa safuZvelze miwisqveSa wylebis                                                                         specialuri hidrogeologiuri rukebi
    bunebrivi da saeqspluatacio resursebis specialuri                                                                           da resursuli potencialis
    hidrogeologiuri rukebisa da Sesabamisad, maTi resursuli                                                                     ganawilebis eleqtronuli versia.
    potencialis ganawilebis eleqtronuli versiis Sedgena.




     mizani 4. miwisqveSa wylebis mopovebis mdgradi praqtikis danergva
    RonisZiebebi                                     ganxorcielebis pasuxismgebeli                 finansuri
                                                     periodi         struqtura                     saWiroebebi     dafinansebis
                                                                                                                                             indikatorebi
                                                                                                   (larebSi)/    potenciuri wyaro

1   hidrogeologiuri raionebisa da struqturebis farglebSi        2011-2015      gdbrs, regionuli    mcire         saxelmwifo          mosaxleoba da
    miwisqveSa wylebis damaxasiaTebeli                                         ganviTarebisa da                  biujeti             sawarmoebi srulad iqneba
    (reprezentatiuli) sayrdeni wyalpunqtebis (wyaroebi,                        infrastruqturis                                       uzrunvelyofili sasmeli wyliT
    Webi, WaburRilebi, sabadoebi) SerCeva, romlebic                            saministro (rgis)
    uzrunvelyofen mosaxleobis da sawarmoebis wyliT
    srul momaragebas
2   yovelwliuri miwisqveSa wylebis hidromonitinguli             2011-2015      gdbrs               mcire         saxelmwifo          Sedgeba yovelwliuri
    kvlevebis warmobis Sedegebis analizi da                                                                      biujeti,            sainformacio biuleteni
    ganzogadoeba

3   miwisqveSa wylebis racionaluri gamoyenebis Sesaxeb          2013-2015      gdbrs               mcire         saxelmwifo          adamianebis da
    cnobierebis amaRlebis treningis warmarTva                                                                    biujeti, donorebi   kompaniebis raodenoba,
    mosaxleobisTvis da samrewvelo seqtorisaTvis                                                                                      romlebic garkveuli periodis
                                                                                                                                     ganmavlobaSi daeswrnen
                                                                                                                                     trenings




                                                                                                                                                            84
                                           Tavi 10. katastrofebi
       winamdebare Tavi moicavs bunebrivi stiqiuri movlenebiTa da samrewvelo avariebiT gamowveul
problemebs, romlebic mniSvnelovan ekonomikur zarals ayeneben qveyanas da arcTu iSviaTad adamianur
msxverplsac iwveven.
10.1        problemis aRwera
        bunebrivi katastrofebi
      saqarTvelos rTuli reliefisa da specifikuri geografiuli mdebareobis gamo qveyanaSi bunebrivi stiqiuri
movlenebi masStaburia, maTi ganmeorebadoba aris xSiri, xolo saSiSroebis riski ki maRali. saqarTvelo am
movlenebiT gamowveuli negatiuri Sedegebis masStabebiT, msoflios mTian qveynebs Soris erT-erTi
gamorCeulia.
         bolo aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi, globaluri klimatis cvlilebis fonze, garemoze adamianis
zemoqmedebis (gansakuTrebiT samTamadno mrewveloba, hidroteqnikur nagebobaTa mSenebloba,
tyeebis ukanono gaCexva, saZovrebis gadaZoveba, teritoriebis usistemo urbanizacia, mdinareTa auzebSi
unebarTvo sameurneo saqmianobis warmoeba, klimaturi da hidrologiuri TvalsazrisiT samSeneblo
normebisa da wesebis ugulvebelyofa, saTanado winaswari Sefasebis gareSe miwebis sainJinro aTviseba da
sxva) gaaqtiurebis gamo, saqarTveloSi stiqiuri hidrometeorologiuri da geologiuri xasiaTis movlenebis
sixSirisa da intensivobis SesamCnevi zrda SeiniSneba. saqarTvelos teritoriaze sxvadasxva wels aRricxuli
mewyrul-gravitaciuli movlenebi ilustrirebulia diagramaze 10.1.




diagrama 10.1:. saqarTvelos teritoriaze sxvadasxva wels kartirebuli mewyrul-gravitaciuli movlenebi.
        saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli ZiriTadi stiqiuri movlenebi (wyaldidoba-wyalmovardna, mewyeri,
Rvarcofi, napirebis garecxva, Tovlis zvavebi, setyva, Tavsxma wvimebi, Zlieri qarebi, gvalva da sxva)
azaralebs sasoflo sameurneo-savargulebs, Senobebs, gzebs da sxva infrastruqturul nagebobebs da
Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovan zarals ayenebs qveynis ekonomikas. saqarTveloSi calkeul wlebSi stiqiuri
movlenebiT miyenebuli ekonomikuri zaralisa da adamianTa msxverplis Sesaxeb mokle informacia
mocemulia CanarTSi (ix. CanarTi 10.1.)
CanarTi 10.1. informacia stiqiuri movlenebiT miyenebuli ekonomikuri zaralisa da adamianTa msxverplis Sesaxeb

          1967-2009 wlebis periodSi geologiuri da hidrometeorologiuri xasiaTis stiqiam moicva qveynis
teritoriis TiTqmis 70%. stiqiis riskis arealSi aRmoCnda 3 aTasze meti dasaxlebuli punqti, sxvadasxva
xarisxiT daingra an dazianda 400 aTasze meti sacxovrebeli saxli da nageboba, 1,5 milioni heqtari miwis
savarguli, 550 km-ze meti sigrZis saavtomobilo gza. ekomigrantebis statusiT gadasaxlebul iqna 60
aTasamde ojaxi.
aRniSnul periodSi momxdarma stiqiurma movlenebma qveyanas 14 miliard aSS dolarze meti Rirebulebis
zarali miayena, daiRupa aTasze meti, maT Soris 1987 wlidan dRemde - 600-mde adamiani.

      qveyanaSi bunebrivi katastrofebis Tanmdevi uaryofiTi Sedegebi umeteswilad gamowveulia
mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb adreuli Setyobinebis Tanamedrove sistemis ararsebobiT,

                                                                                                               85
    arasakmarisi napirdamcavi sainJinro samuSaoebis warmoebiT wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebis da mewyruli
    movlenebis mimarT mowyvlad ubnebze da zogierT stiqiur movlenaze xelovnuri zemoqmedebis
    samuSaoebis SewyvetiT, da bolos, stiqiuri saSiSroebis SemTxvevaSi gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebisa da
    mosaxleobis arasakmarisi cnobierebiT, rac gamoixateba mosalodneli katastrofebis Sesaxeb mosaxleobisa
    da pasuxismgebeli pirebis arasakmaris informirebaSi, aseve katastrofebis riskebis marTvis Sida
    saxelmwifoebrivi politikis Camoyalibebisa da marTviTi meqanizmebis arasrulyofilebaSi.


    mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb adreuli Setyobinebis gamarTuli sistemis ararseboba
             dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi saTanado doneze ar funqcionirebs mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis
    Sesaxeb adreuli Setyobinebis gamarTuli sistemebi. adreuli Setyobinebis sistema moicavs, pirvel rigSi
    katastrofebis arsebuli donis bazisur Sefasebas, regularul monitorings, prognozirebas da mosalodneli
    stiqiuriMmovlenebis Sesaxeb       Sesabamisi gafrTxilebebis gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebamde da
    masmediis saSualebebamde operatiulad dayvanas. es ki Tavis mxriv, iZleva saWiro prevenciuli
    RonisZiebebis droulad gatarebis da riskebis Serbilebis saSualebas. adreuli Setyobinebis sistemis efeqturad
    funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebelia Sesabamisi monacemebis arseboba, rac DdReisaTvis garemoze arsebuli
    dakvirvebis pirobebSi ar aris SesaZlebeli. kerZod, saTanado doneze ar funqcionirebs amindis, hidrologiuri
    da geologiuri saSiSroebis prognozebis Sedgenis sistemebi. Zalze gaiSviaTebulia standartul
    hidrometeorologiur da stiqiuri geologiuri movlenebis parametrebze dakvirvebis stacionaluri qseli, saerTod
    ar warmoebs specializirebul hidrometeorologiur parametrebze distanciuri dakvirvebebi, mniSvnelovnad
    Semcirebulia hidrometeorologiur procesebze eqspediciuri dakvirvebebis sixSire da moculoba, srulyofilad ar
    aris danergili amindis da hidrologiuri prognozebis Tanamedrove modelebi da mravalwliuri
    hidrometeorologiuri da geologiuri saSiSroebebis monacemebis statistikuri damuSavebis Tanamedrove
    teqnologiebi. aseve arasakmarisad xorcieldeba geologiuri movlenebis monitoringis samuSaoebi.


gaxSirebuli wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebi
           amJamad aRricxulia saqarTvelos mdinareTa sanapiroebis 670-ze meti avariuli ubani, romelTagan
    100-mde gansakuTrebiT mwvave obieqtadaa miCneuli. mZime mdgomareobaa Savi zRvis sanapiroebzec,
    gansakuTrebiT grigoleTis, qobuleTis foTis, adlias, miusera-axali aTonis da sxva monakveTebze.
    Sesabamisad, ukiduresad mniSvnelovania am mimarTulebebiT maRali riskis mqone ubnebis gamovlena,
    maTi prioritetizacia da am ubnebze napirsamagri samuSaoebis droulad Catareba. diagrama 10.2-ze
    naCvenebia saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRricxuli wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebis dinamika 1961-2009 wlebSi.




                                                                                                                 86
diagrama 10.2. saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRricxuli im wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebis SemTxvevaTa raodenobis dinamika,
romlebmac gansakuTrebuli ziani miayenes qveynis ekonomikas 1961-2009 wlebSi


calkeuli saxis stiqiur movlenebze xelovnuri zemoqmedebis samuSaoebis Sewyveta
        saqarTveloSi arsebobs setyvasaSiSi Rrublebis xelovnurad daSlis, Tovlis zvavebis da naleqebis
xelovnurad gamowvevis samuSaoebis warmoebis mravalwliani gamocdileba. dReisaTvis aseTi samuSaoebi
qveyanaSi aRar mimdinareobs. aseTi saxis saqmianobebi prevenciul xasiaTs atarebs da SeuZlia
zemoaRniSnuli stiqiuri movlenebiT qveynisadmi miyenebuli ekonomikuri zaralis mniSvnelovani Semcireba,
xolo calkeul SemTxvevebSi maTi Tavidan acileba. aseTi samuSaoebi Zalian efeqturia da maRali ukugeba
aqvT.


       samrewvelo avariebi
        saqarTveloSi dReisaTvis funqcionirebs aTasobiT sxvadasxva funqciuri daniSnulebis mqone msxvili,
saSualo da mcire sawarmo. moqmed sawarmobSi momxdar SesaZlo avariebs mniSvnelovani zianis
miyeneba SeuZliaT garemosa da mosaxleobisaTvis. garda amisa arsebobs mravali gaCerebuli sawarmo,
romlebic xSir semTxvevaSi, yovelgvari usafrTxoebis zomebis dacvis gareSe ukontrolod aris mitovebuli.
unda aRiniSnos, rom bevri maTgani sawarmoo procesebSi iyenebda navTobproduqtebsa da sxvadasxva
saxis qimiur nivTierebebs, romelTa garkveuli maragi narCenebis saxiT, yovelgvari Senaxvis normebis dacvis
gareSe darCa sawarmos teritoriaze. Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva bunebrivi Tu anTropogenuli faqtorebis
moqmedebis Sedegad iqmneba am sawarmoebidan avariuli dabinZurebis saSiSroeba.
          moqmedi sawarmoebidan gansakuTrebiT maRali riskis matarebelia navTobproduqtebis, qimiuri,
plastmasis, mineraluri da saSeni masalebis, aseve metalurgiuli produqciisa da liTonis mza nakeTobebis
warmoeba da samTo mrewveloba. saqarTveloSi moqmedi ramodenimo sawarmo obieqti, rogoricaa baqo-
Tbilisi-jeihani, sufsis terminali, engurhesi da sxva, maTi masStabisa da adgilmdebareobis gaTvaliswinebiT,
avariis SemTxvevaSi riskis qves ayeneben ara marto saqarTvelos mosaxleobasa da ekosistemebs, aramed
seriozul safrTxes uqmnian mezobel saxelmwifoebsac.
       samrewvelo avariebi SeiZleba ganpirobebuli iqnes sawarmoo procesebTan dakavSirebuli riskebis
araswori identifikaciiTa da marTviT, Sida monitoringis sistemis ararsebobiT, sawarmoebis amortizirebuli
teqnikuri aRWurvilobiT, arasrulyofili sakanonmdeblo baziTa da arasakmarisi kvalifikaciis mqone personaliT.
samrewvelo avariebis likvidacia rTuldeba sawarmoebSi avariuli situaciebis lokalizacia/likvidaciis
Tanamedrove meTodologiiT Sedgenili gegmebis ararsebobis gamo.



10.2         ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi


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         saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro, kerZod ki saministros garemos
erovnuli saagento, warmoadgens mTavar saxelmwifo struqturas mosalodneli katastrofebis Sesaxeb
winaswari gafrTxilebebis gacemis uzrunvelyofis da calkeul SemTxvevebSi katastrofebis Tavidan acilebisTvis
saWiro prevenciuli RonisZiebebis gatarebis sferoSi. konkretulad, garemos erovnuli saagento mTeli qveynis
masStabiT awarmoebs stiqiur movlenebTan dakavSirebul sxvadasxva donis geomonitoringul kvlevebs,
aseve stiqiis eqstremaluri gaaqtiurebisas forsmaJorul pirobebSi situaciis operatiul Sefasebas da
RonisZiebebis dasaxvas. es struqtura aseve pasuxismgebelia stiqiur hidrometeorologiur movlenebze
regularuli dakvirvebebis warmoebaze, maT prognozirebaze, Sesabamisi gafrTxilebebis momzadebasa da
gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebamde da masmediis saSualebebamde operatiulad dayvanaze, calkeuli
saxeobis stiqiur hidrometeorologiur movlenebze (setyva, Tovlis zvavebi, atmosferuli naleqebis deficiti)
aqtiur zemoqmedebaze, agreTve wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebis mimarT maRali riskis mqone regionebSi
prevenciuli napirsamagri samuSaoebis organizebasa da rig SemTxvevebSi maT uSualod ganxorcielebaze.
garemos erovnuli saagento aseve pasuxismgebelia niadagebis, zedapiruli wylebisa da atmosferuli haeris
avariuli qimiuri dabinZurebis monitoringze. garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros garemos
dacvis inspeqciis erT-erTi funqciaa sawarmoebis mier garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis
ganxorcielebis da salicenzio-sanebarTvo pirobebis Sesrulebis kontroli.
       mosalodneli bunebrivi katastrofebiTa da anTropogenuri mizezebiT gamowveuli sesaZlo uaryofiTi
Sedegebis Tavidan acilebis an Serbilebis, agreTve momxdari katastrofebis likvidaciis RonisZiebebaTa
koordinacias Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi axorcielebs saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros
sagangebo situaciebis marTvis departamenti.
       saqarTvelos infrastruqturisa da regionuli ganviTarebis, soflis meurneobis da energetikis
saministroebi, aseve adgilobrivi municipalitetebi mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb Setyobinebis
miRebis an momxdari bunebrivi da anTropogenuri katastrofebis SemTxvevaSi, monawileobas iReben am
movlenebiT gamowveuli SesaZlo adamianTa msxverplis da materialuri zaralis Tavidan acilebis an Serbilebis
samuSaoebis ganxorcielebaSi TavianTi kompetenciis farglebSi. saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis saavtomobilo
gzebis dasacavad napirsamagr da geologiuri stiqiisagan dacvis sxva saxis samuSaoebs koordinacias
ukeTebs infrastruqturisa da regionuli ganviTarebis saministro, xolo adgilobrivi sameurneo infrastruqturis
aRdgena Seadgens adgilobrivi municipalitetebis komptencias.
        saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros teqnikuri da samSeneblo inspeqcia
warmoadgens mTavar saxelmwifo struqturas samrewvelo usafrTxoebis politikisa da kontrolis sferoSi. es
struqtura valdebulia saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobisa da kontrolis meSveobiT uzrunvelyos mometebuli
teqnikuri safrTxis Semcveli obieqtebis eqspluataciis wesebTan Sesabamisoba da am gziT daicvas adamianis
sicocxele, janmrTeloba, sakuTreba da garemo teqnikuri safrTxisgan.
        mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb prognozebisa da gafrTxilebebis operatiulad gavrcelebaSi
mniSvnelovan rols asruleben masmediis saSualebebi. mniSvnelovan dainteresebul mxares warmoadgens
aseve saerTaSoriso (humanitaruli) organizaciebi.
         bunebis stiqiuri procesebis kvleva-Sefasebas garemos erovnuli saagentos garda awarmoeben
mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis saministros geografiis, hidrometeorologiisa, goefizikis da wyalTa meurneobis
institutebebi. garda amisa, am sferoSi garkveul kvlevebs awarmoeben calkeuli arasamTavrobo
organizaciebi.


10.3        dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi
       bunebrivi katastrofebi
       bunebrivi da anTropogenuli mizezebiT gamowveuli katastrofebis marTvis sferoSi dRemde mravali
RonisZiebaa gatarebuli. kerZod, Seswavlilia da Sesabamisi masStabis rukebzea datanili yvela saxis
geologiuri riski; mosaxleobisaTvis gansakuTrebulad saSiS 100-ze met ubanze Catarebulia detaluri sainJinro-
geologiuri kvlevebi da ganxorcielebulia saTanado dacviTi RonisZiebebi da damuSavebulia saqarTveloSi

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mewyrebis, Rvarcofebisa da zRvis napirebis warecxvis grZelvadiani prognozebi. unda iTqvas isic, rom
saWiroebis miuxedavad, bunebrivi katastrofebis grZelvadiani prognozebi 2000 wlis Semdeg aRar
gakeTebula. aRsaniSnavia, rom yovelwliurad muSavdeba geologiuri katastrofebis mdgomareobisa da
mosalodneli saSiSroebis erTwliani prognozebi da saTanado Semarbilebeli da prevenciuli RonisZiebebi.
        rigi RonisZiebebia gatarebuli agreTve hidrometeorologiuri stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb winaswari
gafrTxilebis sistemis etapobrivi reabilitaciisa da ganviTarebis misaRwevad. kerZod, Sesabamisi profilis
saerTaSoriso organizaciebis da donori qveynebis mier aRmoCenili daxmarebebis, agreTve saxelmwifo
biujetidan gamoyofili saxsrebis meSveobiT ganxorcielda hidrometeorologiuri dakvirvebis qselis
gafarToeba, misi avtomatizacia, dakvirvebis monacemTa erovnul da saerTaSoriso doneebze Sekreba-
gavrcelebis, agreTve amindis msoflio prognostikuli centrebidan sinoptikuri produqciis miRebisa da
vizualizaciis Tanamedrove teqnologiebis danergva. Aaseve ganxorcielda SezRuduli teritoriisTvis amindis da
hidrologiuri modelebis danergvis, agreTve hidrometeorologiuri saqmianobis sferoSi kadrebis kvalifikaciis
amaRlebis samuSaoebi.
         zemoxsenebuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad SedarebiT gaumjobesda amindis da
hidrologiuri prognozebis xarisxi. hidrometeorologiuri informaciiT ukeT gaSuqda saqarTvelos teritoriis
calkeuli regionebi.
        wyalmovardnebisgan mosaxleobisa da sainJinro-sameurneo obieqtebis, aseve sasoflo-sameurneo
savargulebis dacvis mizniT 2008-2010 wlebSi Catarda mTeli rigi napirsamagri samuSaoebi. kerZod,
napirdacviTi samuSaoebi gaxorcielda 12 avariul obieqtze da 54 dasaxlebuli punqtis mimdebared. garda
amisa Seswavlilia daG mdinareTa sanapiro zonis avariuli obieqtebis monacemTa bazaSi Setanilia 700-mde
avariuli ubani. adgilze mokvleulia 80-ze meti obieqti, romelTaTvisac SemuSavebulia prevenciuli
RonisZiebebis winadadebebi.


       samrewvelo avariebi
       2008 wels saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT damtkicda bunebrivi da teqnogenuri xasiaTis
sagangebo situaciebze erovnuli reagirebis gegma, gegmaSi gansazRvrulia sxvadasxva saxelmwifo
organoebis funqciebi sagangebo situaciebis dros. aRniSnuli gegma warmoadgens ZiriTad samoqmedo
dokuments sagangebo situaciebis marTvis sferoSi, romelic moicavs samrewvelo avariebsac.
         garda amisa transasazRvro avariebis prevenciis mizniT saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis
teritoriebze germanuli mxaris teqnikuri daxmarebiT Seiqmna adreuli Setyobinebis saerTaSoriso centrebi
mdinare mtkvris auzisTvis. saqarTveloSi es centri ganTavsebulia garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
saministros garemos erovnul saagentoSi. Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom am centris muSaoba ar aris
damakmayofilebeli da ganaxlebas saWiroebs.
         aRsaniSnavia, rom SemuSavda da 2010 wels prezidentis brZanebulebiT damtkicda saqarTvelos
safrTxeebis Sefasebis 2010-2013 dokumenti. garda amisa, momzadda garkveuli sakanonmdeblo baza am
sferoSi. kerZod, 2010 wels ZalaSi Sevida kanoni „teqnikuri safrTxis kontrolis Sesaxeb“, romlis Tanaxmadac
kanonis amoqmedebidan 6 Tvis vadaSi saqarTvelos mTavrobam unda uzrunvelyos mometebuli safrTxis
Semcveli obieqtebis saxelmwifo reestris warmoebis wesis gansazRvra.


10.4       erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
        klimatis globaluri cvlilebis fonze bunebrivi katastrofebis gaaqtiureba, agreTve saqarTvelos swrafi
ekonomikuri ganviTareba mosalodnels xdis garemoze teqnogenuri zewolis gazrdas (ixileT, agreTve, me-12
Tavi klimatis cvlilebis Sesaxeb). saTanado prevenciuli RonisZiebebis gautareblobis SemTxvevaSi Aam
procesebma SesaZloa qveyanaSi mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi Sedegebi gamoiwvios ekonomikuri zaralisa da
adamianTa msxverplis CaTvliT.
        saqarTveloSi amindis da hidrologiuri da geologiuri pirobebisadmi mgrZnobiare dargebis
(gansakuTrebiT hidroenergetikis, soflis meurneobis, sahaero, sazRvao da saxmeleTo transportis,

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mSeneblobis, turizmis) ganviTarebam gazarda moTxovnebi hidrometeorologiuri da geologiuri informaciis
mimarT. aRniSnuli dargebis swrafi tempiT ganviTarebis pirobebSi Seiqmneba drosa da sivrceSi ufro metad
detalizebuli stiqiuri movlenebis prognozebis da mravalwliuri specifiuri monacemebis momzadebisa da
miwodebis aucilebloba. garda amisa, turizmis industriis ganviTarebasTan erTad gaizrdeba moTxovna
janmrTelobisaTvis usafrTxo garemoze. am gadasaxedidan, bunebrivi da teqnogenuri (samrewvelo)
katastrofebis prevencia/likvidaciis RonisZiebebis gatareba gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens.
         aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo aqtiurad aris CarTuli saerTaSoriso procesebSi, romlebic mimarTulia
katastrofebis riskebis Semcirebisa da Sedegebis Serbilebisken. am procesebidan unda gamoiyos
gaerTianebuli erebis egidiT Catarebuli 2002 wlis iohanesburgis (samxreT afrikis respublika) msoflio samiti
da 2005 wlis hiogos (iaponia) saerTaSoriso konferencia. AaRniSnul konferenciebze miRebuli
gadawyvetilebebi qmnian adreuli Setyobinebis efeqturi sistemis SemuSavebis, katastrofebis drosa da
sivrceSi prognozirebisa da riskebis Semcirebis safuZvels.
         mniSvelovania, rom katastrofebis riskis Semcireba „saqarTvelosa da gaeros gegma ganviTarebis
xelSewyobisaTvis 2011-2015“ (UNDAF) dokumentSi gamokveTil sam prioritetSi Sedis. dokumentSi
dasaxulia katastrofebis riskis Sesamcireblad erovnul doneze gansaxorcielebeli samomavlo amocanebi
dainteresebuli mxareebis monawileobiT hiogos CarCo samoqmedo programidan gamomdinare.
         saqarTvelo warmoadgens msoflio meteorologiuri organizaciis wevr qveyanas, rac xels uwyobs
hidrometeorologiuri saqmianobis ganxorcielebas saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad. Aamave dros es
organizacia saqarTvelos uwevs rogorc pirdapir daxmarebas hidrometeorologiuri saqmianobis sferoSi, aseve
Suamdgomlobs sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan da donor qveynebTan daxmarebis aRmoCenis mizniT.
         unda aRiniSnos isic, rom saqarTveloSi mimdinareobs muSaoba gaeros evropis ekonomikuri
komisiis „samrewvelo avariebis transsasazRvro zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb“ konvenciis ratificirebisTvis.
konvenciis ratificireba qveyanas saSualebas miscems danergos erovnul doneze samrewvelo avariebis
prevenciisaTvis saWiro Tanamedrove midgomebi erovnul doneze.


10.5        grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi
        katastrofebis marTvis sferoSi grZelvadian mizans warmoadgens am movlenebiT gamowveuli
adamianuri msxverplis Tavidan acileba, adamianis janmrTelobasa da ekosistemebze SesaZlo zianis da
ekonomikuri zaralis minimumamde dayvana. es gulisxmobs pirvel rigSi katastrofebis prevencias, xolo
aseTis SemTxvevaSi, maT mier gamowveuli uaryofiTi Sedegebis gavrcelebis droul likvidacias da Serbilebas.
       grZelvadiani miznis misaRwevad unda moxdes Semdegi 5-wliani moklevadiani miznebis realizeba:
         mizani 1. mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb winaswari (mokle, saSualo da
grZelvadiani) gafrTxilebis sistemis srulyofa/modernizacia.
       mizani 2. saqarTvelos mdinareTa auzebSi, wyaldidobebis-wyalmovardna-Rvarcofebis da
napirebis garecxvis uaryofiTi Sedegebis Tavidan acileba/Semcireba
     mizani 3. calkeuli saxeobis stiqiur movlenebze (setyva, gvalva, Tovlis zvavi,) xelovnurad
zemoqmedebis samuSaoebis aRdgena.
       mizani 4. samrewvelo avariebis riskebis Semcireba


10.6       arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

       saqarTveloSi katastrofebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi regulirdeba saqarTvelos konstituciiT, 1993-
2009 wlebSi miRebuli sxvadasxva kanonebiTa da kanonqvemdebare aqtebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom
aRniSnuli normatiuli dokumentebi aregulirebs bunebriv-teqnogenuri katastrofebis gamomwvevi
mizezebisa Tu Sedegebis Serbilebis garkveul aspeqtebs, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arsebuli sakanonmdeblo
baza ar aris sakmarisi katastrofebis marTvis efeqturi sistemis danergvisaTvis qveyanaSi. aucilebelia
Seiqmnas sakanonmdeblo baza, raTa daregulirdes arasasoflo daniSnulebis miwebis dakanoneba
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asaTvisebeli farTobebisa da momijnave sivrceebis geologiuri saSiSroebis riskis winaswari Sefasebis
gaTvaliswinebiT. aseve aucilebelia specialuri kanonis miReba hidrometeorologiuri saqmianobis Sesaxeb,
romliTac mkafiod ganisazRvreba calkeuli saministroebisa Tu sxva strutqurebis, maT Soris masmediis
funqciebi da daregulirdeba urTierTobebi hidrometeorologiuri saqmianobiT dakavebul iuridiul da fizikur
pirebs Soris.
        gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa iseTi sakiTxebis daregulireba, romlebic Seamcirebs garemoze
anTropogenuli zemoqmedebis uaryofiT Sedegebs, Seqmnis bunebrivi stiqiuri movlenebis riskebis
Semcirebis da am movlenebiT gamowveuli uaryofiTi Sedegebis drouli likvidaciis safuZvels. samrewvelo
avariebis prevencia/likvidaciasTan mimarTebaSi, kanonmdeblobaSi xSiria sxvadasxva saxelmwifo
struqturebis funqciaTa paralelizmi, rigi kanonebisa ki aRar Seesabameba arsebul realobas da cvlilebebis
Setanas saWiroebs. moqmedi normatiul-teqnikuri aqtebisa da wesebis umravlesoba sabWoTa kavSiris
droindelia da Sesabamisad, mwvaved dgas samrewvelo usafrTxoebis sferoSi axali, evropul analogebTan
harmonizebuli erovnuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmnis sakiTxi.




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    10.7     miznebi da RonisZiebebi

    grZelvadiani mizani – katastrofebiT gamowveuli adamianuri msxverplis Tavidan acileba, adamianis janmrTelobasa da ekosistemebze SesaZlo
    zianis da ekonomikuri zaralis minimumamde dayvana

    mizani 1: mosalodneli stiqiuri movlenebis Sesaxeb adreuli Setyobinebis sistemis srulyofa-modernizacia


                                                                                      daaxloebiTi
                                                                                               20
#               RonisZiebebi                ganxorcielebi     pasuxismgebeli           biujeti          dafinansebis
                                                                                                                                           indikatorebi
                                              s periodi          uwyeba                (larebSi)      potenciuri wyaro


1   sakanonmdeblo bazis analizi da           2011-2012      garemos dacvisa da     mcire                  saxelmwifo     katastrofebis marTvis efeqturi sistemis
    ganaxleba/srulyofa evrokavSiris                         bunebrivi resursebis                            biujeti,     danergvisaTvis saWiro sakanonmdeblo baza
    moTxovnebis Sesabamisad                                 saministro (gdbrs),                            donorebi      SemuSavebulia
    katastrofebis marTvis efeqturi                           Sinagan saqmeTa
    sistemis Seqmnis mizniT                                   saministro (Sss),
                                                                  regionuli
                                                             ganviTarebisa da
                                                               infrastruqturis
                                                              saministro (rgis)
2    arsebuli geologiuri katastrofebis       2011-2015                             maRali                 saxelmwifo     Seiqmneba eroziuli da mewyrul-Rvarcofuli
     monacemebis damuSaveba,                                                                                biujeti,     movlenebis saSiSroebis riskebis rukebi gis
     eleqtronuli bazis Seqmna da maT                               gdbrs                                   donorebi      sistemaSi
     safuZvelze grZelvadiani prognozis
     (20-25 wliani periodisaTvis)
     SemuSaveba
3   saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze             2011-2015             gdbrs           saSualo             saxelmwifo        qselis aRdgena, mzaddeba yovelwliuri
    geomonitoringuli yovelwliuri                                                   (yovelwliurad)      biujeti,          sainformacio biuleteni
    kvelevebis reJimuli sadamkvirveblo                                                                 donorebi
    qselis aRdgena/gafarToeba


4   geologiuri stiqiis eqstremaluri          2011-2015             gdbrs           mcire                saxelmwifo       mosaxleobis da dasaxlebuli punqtebis
    gaaqtiurebisas forsmaJorul pirobebSi                                           (yovelwliurad)       biujeti          raodenoba, romelTa usafrTxoebac uzrunvelyofili
    situaciis operatiuli Sefaseba,                                                                                       iqneba


    20
      winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
    aRemateba 500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                92
        saSiSorebis riskis gansazRvra, stiqiis
        maRali saSiSroebis arealSi moxvedrili
        mosaxleobis usafrTxoebisa da
        sagangebo situaciebis samsaxurisaTvis
        geologiuri rekomendaciebis micema
    5   gansakuTrebiT saSiS ubnebze dataluri       2011-2012           gdbrs      saSualo            saxelmwifo        gegma SemuSavebulia
        sainJinro geologiuri kvlevebis                                                               biujeti,
        warmoeba da etapobrivi samoqmedo                                                             donorebi
        gegmis SemuSaveba
    6   adreuli Setyobinebis meTodikis             2011-2013           gdbrs      maRali             donorebi          meTodika SemuSavebulia,
        SemuSaveba da gansakuTrebuli riskis                                                                            sainformacio kampaniebis raodenoba
        regionebSi mosaxleobis cnobierebis
        amaRleba stiqiuri procesebTan
        dakavSirebiT
7       meteorologiuri da hidrologiuri                                            maRali            saxelmwifo         gaxsnili meteorologiuri da hidrologiuri
        gamzomi saSualebebis SeZena da                                                              biujeti,           sadgurebisa da saguSagoebis raodenoba
                                                 2011-2015     gdbrs
        danergva                                                                                    saerTaSoriso
                                                                                                    organizaciebi,
                                                                                                    donorebi


8.      amindis,    hidrologiuri, sazRvao-       2011-2015             gdbrs      saSualo            saerTaSoriso      danergilia hidrometeorologiuri prognozebis
        hidrometeorologiuri da klimaturi                                                             organizaciebi,    modelebi
        prognozebis Tanamedrove modelebis                                                              donorebi        gazrdilia prognozebis gamarTlebadoba
        SeZena da danergva



9       mravalwliuri hidrometeoro-logiuri        2011-2013     gdbrs              saSualo             saxelmwifo       Seqmnilia mravalwliur hidrometeorologiur
        monacemebis statistikuri damuSaveba                                                         biujeti,saerTaSo   monacemTa srulyofili eleqtronuli bazebi,
                                                                                                           riso        saqrTvelos teritoriaze aRricxuli stiqiuri
                                                                                                     organizaciebi,    hidrometeorologiuri movlenebis kadastrebi da
                                                                                                    donori qveynebi    maTi ganawilebis rukebi gis teqnologiebis
                                                                                                                       gamoyenebiT
10.     bunebriv-teqnogenuri marTvis sruli       2012 -2015    gdbrs, Sss,        maRali                donorebi,      bunebriv teqnogenuri katastrofebis marTvis sruli
        ciklis pilotireba aWaris regionSi                      adgilobrivi                             saxelmwifo      ciklis modeli Seqmnilia da funqcionirebs aWaraSi
                                                               municipalitetebi                          biujeti



         mizani 2: mdinareTa auzebSi wyaldidoba-wyalmovardnebis uaryofiTi Sedegebis Tavidan acileba/Semcireba
                                                                                                                                                             93
                                                                                        daaxloebiTi
#                  RonisZiebebi                 ganxorcielebis    pasuxismgebeli           biujeti      dafinansebis
                                                                                                                                                indikatorebi
                                                   periodi           uwyeba              (larebSi)    potenciuri wyaro


1    saqarTvelos mdinareTa auzebSi                                                                                           mdinareTa auzebSi potenciuri datborvis da
     wyalmovardnebis da Rvarcofebis            2011-2015         gdbrs                    saSualo       saxelmwifo           Rvarcofebis saSiSroebis qveS myofi dasaxlebuli
     riskebis dazusteba                                                                                   biujeti,           punqtebis, sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis,
                                                                                                       saerTaSoriso          infrastruqturuli nagebobebis da sxva daniSnulebis
                                                                                                       organizaciebi,        obieqtebis gamovlena
                                                                                                      donori qveynebi

2    aWarisa da kolxeTis dablobis sanpiro      2011-2012                 gdbrs        saSualo         saxelmwifo             agegmvis detaluri masalebi
     zolis monitoringi, wyalqveSa ferdisa da                                                          biujeti,
     plaJis detaluri agegmva                                                                          donorebi
3    ZiriTadi mdinareebisAauzebis              2012-2014                 gdbrs        saSualo         saxelmwifo             generaluri sqemebi adgilzea
     napirdacviTi RonisZiebebis generaluri                                                            biujeti
     sqemebis Sedgena
4    mdinareTa napirebze arsebuli avariuli     2011-2015                 gdbrs        maRali          saxelmwifo             Sesrulebulia napirsamagri samuSaoebi 50-60
     ubnebis agegmva, napirdacviTi                                                    yovelwliurad    biujeti                dasaxlebis mimdebared mdinareTa napirebze
     saproeqto samuSaoebis Sesruleba.                                                                                        arsebul avariul ubanze




      mizani 3: calkeuli saxeobis saSiS hidrometeorologiur movlenebze (setyva, gvalva, Tovlis zvavi) xelovnurad zemoqmedebis samuSaoebis aRdgena
                                                                                          daaxloebiTi
                   RonisZiebebi                 ganxorcie-lebis     pasuxismgebeli            biujeti         dafinansebis
                                                                                                                                            indikatorebi
#                                                   periodi             uwyeba              (larebSi)       potenciuri wyaro

1.   saqarTvelos teritoriaze zvavsaSiSi                                                  mcire         saxelmwifo biujeti,       Seqmnilia saqarTvelos terito-riaze arsebuli
     sensitiuri ubnebis gamovlena da           2012-2015           gdbrs                               saerTaSoriso              zvavsaSiSi kerebis rukebi zvavebis
     kartireba                                                                                         organizaciebi,            moqmedebis zonaSi arsebuli sacxovrebeli
                                                                                                       donorebi                  saxlebis, sasoflo-sameurneo savar-gulebis,
                                                                                                                                 infrastruqturuli nagebobebis da sxva
                                                                                                                                 daniSnulebis obieqtebis CvenebiT


2    mcxeTa-yazbegi-larsis saerTa-Soriso          2012-2015        gdbrs, Tavdacvis      maRali        saxelmwifo biujeti        gudauri-kobis saavtomobilo gzis monakveTze

                                                                                                                                                                 94
     daniSnulebis saavtomo-bilo gzis                                   saministro (Ts)                          daintersebuli           danergilia zvavebis xelovnurad CamoSvebis
     gudauri-kobis monakveTze zvavebis                                                                          qveynebi                samuSaoebi
     xelovnurad gamowvevisTvis saWiro
     teqnikuri da teqnologiuri saSualebebis
     SeZena da zvavebis CamoSvebis
     praqtikuli samuSaoebis warmoeba

3    saqarTvelos teritoriaze maRali riskis          2014-2015          gdbrs                  maRali            sadazRvevo              setyviT miyenebuli zaralis Semcireba kaxeTis
     setyvasaSiS – kaxeTis regionSi setyvis                                                                     kompaniebi, kerZo       regionSi
     sawinaaRmdego samuSaoebis                                                                                  seqtori, saxelmwifo
     organizeba da ganxorcieleba                                                                                biujeti

4    naleqebis deficitiT gamorCeul –                2014-2015          gdbrs                  maRali            sadazRvevo              atmosferuli naleqebis zrda dedofliswyaros da
     dedofliswyaros da siRnaRis raionebis                                                                       kompaniebi, kerZo       siRnaRis raionebSi
     teritoriebze naleqebis xelovnurad                                                                          seqtori, saxelmwifo
     stimulirebis samuSaoebis organizeba da                                                                     biujeti
     ganxorcieleba




      mizani 4: samrewvelo avariebis gamomwvevi riskebis Semcireba

                                                                                                  daaxloebiTi
#               RonisZiebebi                  ganxorcielebis periodi        pasuxismgebeli           biujeti          dafinansebis
                                                                                                                                                         indikatorebi
                                                                               uwyeba              (larebSi)        potenciuri wyaro


1.   sakanonmdeblo bazis daxvewa                   2011-2013             gdbrs, sxva            saSualo            donorebi,              SemuSavebuli da miRebulia evrokavSiris
     samrewvelo avariebis marTvis                                        Sesabamisi                                saxelmwifo biujeti     standartebTan harmonizebuli normatiuli
     sistemis gaumjobesebis mizniT                                       struqturebi                                                      baza
     evrokavSiris standartebis
     gaTvaliswinebiT

2    momatebuli safrTxis mqone                     2011-2013             gdbrs, ekonomikisa     saSualo            donorebi,              reestri Seqmnilia
     obieqtebis reestris Seqmna                                          da mdgradi                                saxelmwifo biujeti
                                                                         ganviTarebis
                                                                         saministro (emgs),
                                                                         sxva Sesabamisi
                                                                         struqturebi



                                                                                                                                                                        95
3   avariuli situaciebis lokalizacia   2012-2014   gdbrs, Sss, emgs   saSualo   donorebi,            meTodologia SemuSavebulia
    likvidaciis RonisZiebaTa gegmis                                             saxelmwifo biujeti
    meTodologiis SemuSaveba


4   garemos dacvis inspeqciis          2011-2015   gdbrs              saSualo   donorebi,            sawarmoTa inspeqtirebisaTvis aucilebeli
    SesaZleblobaTa gaZliereba                                                   saxelmwifo biujeti   meTodologia SemuSavebuli da danergilia;
                                                                                                     garemos dacvis inspeqtorebisaTvis
                                                                                                     saxelmZRvanelo principebi momzadebulia




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                           Tavi 11. birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoeba

       11.1 problemis aRwera
        birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis mizania mosaxleobis da garemos dacva maionebeli gamosxivebis
mavne zemoqmedebisgan. saqarTvelos kanonSi `birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~ (1999)
`maionebeli gamosxiveba~ Semdegnairadaa ganmartebuli: gamosxiveba, romelic miiReba birTvuli
gardaqmnebisas an nivTierebaSi damuxtuli nawilakebis damuxruWebisas da romlis zemoqmedebis Sedegad
fizikur an biologiur sxeulSi warmoiqmneba sxvadasxva niSnis ionebi~. maionebeli gamosxiveba unda
ganvasxvavoT aramaionebeli gamosxivebisgan, romelsac warmoqmnis fiWuri kavSiris, qselebi, maRali
Zabvis gadamcemi xazebi da sxva generatorebi.

       maionebel gamosxivebas maRali energia aqvs. mas SeuZlia atomidan eleqtronebis amogdeba an
       qimiuri kavSiris gawyveta da eleqtrulad damuxtuli ionebis warmoqmna. maionebeli gamosxivebis
       nimuSebia rentgenisa da gama-sxivebi.

       maionebeli gamosxiveba cocxali organizmebisaTvis saSiSia _ intensiur ionizacias mosdevs cocxali
       qsovilebis dazianeba da funqciis dakargva, rac SeiZleba dasruldes organoTa unarebis daqveiTebiT,
       genetikuri cvlilebebiT, zogjer _ sikvdiliT. amitom SemuSavebulia radiaciuli usafrTxoebis normebi,
       romelTa dacva uzrunvelyofs SesaZlo zianis Tavidan acilebas.




                radioaqtiuri izotopebi: maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebriv wyaroebs ganekuTvnebian
       dedamiwis qerqSi bunebrivad gabneuli izotopebi (urani-235, urani-238, Toriumi-232, kaliumi-40 da
       sxva), romlebic mzis sistemis formirebis droidan arian SemorCenili. am izotopebs didi naxevraddaSlis
       periodi aqvT da maTi bunebrivi daSla xangrZlivi procesia. daSlisas isini gardaiqmnebian sxva
       nivTierebis izotopebad, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba radiaqtiuri iyvnen _ amaTgan gansakuTrebiT
       aRsaniSnavia radoni-222. garda amisa, maionebeli gamosxivebis bunebriv wyaroebs (mag.,
       naxSirbadi-14) kosmosuri sxivebic warmoqmnian, Tumca SedarebiT naklebi raodenobiT.




            bunebrivi sacxovrebeli garemo moicavs gamosxivebis e.w. bunebriv wyaroebs da isini qmnian
e.w. “fonur” gamosxivebas. cocxali organizmebi adaptirebulni arian “fonur” gamosxivebasTan da is ar
ganixileba zianis momtanad.

              anTropogenuli wyaroebi miiReba adamianis qmedebis Sedegad. mravali radioaqtiuri izotopi
     iwarmoeba an pirdapiri saWiroebisaTvis, an rogorc teqnologiuri ciklis Tanaproduqti (tritiumi, iodi-129, iodi-
     131, ceziumi-137, stronciumi-90, teqneciumi-99, plutoniumi-239 da a.S.). zogi maTgani bunebrivi saxiT
     garemoSi praqtikulad ar arsebobs. garda amisa, adamianebi iyeneben maionebeli gamosxivebis iseT
     generatorebsac, romlebic ar Seicaven radioaqtiur wyaroebs (mag., rentgenis aparatebi). anTropogenuli
     wyaroebisagan da generatorebisagan momdinare maionebeli gamosxiveba ukontrolobis SemTxvevaSi
     seriozul risks warmoadgens adamianisa da garemosaTvis.

             maionebeli gamosxiveba mraval seqtorSi gamoiyeneba (energetika, medicina, warmoeba,
mecniereba, Tavdacva da a.S.). es aris gamosxivebis e.w. teqnogenuri an anTropogenuli wyaroebi.
teqnogenuri wyaroebis gamoyeneba regulirdeba kanonmdeblobiT.
     zogierTi izotopi, magaliTad cezium-137(137Cs) da stroncium-90 (90Sr)ar warmoiqmneba bunebrivad,
Sesabamisad maTi nebismieri raodenobiT identificireba niSnavs dabinZurebas. maTi umetesi nawili
warmoiqmna meoce saukuneSi atmosferoSi ganxorcielebuli birTvuli iaraRis gamocdis Sedegad. zogierTi
teritoria, gansakuTrebiT dasavleT saqarTveloSi dabinZurebul iqna Cernobilis katastrofis Semdeg. 2000
wels Catarebulma Ziebam, rogorc mosalodneli iyo ipova teqnogenuri izotopebis kvali (maTi umetesoba
Cernobilis Sedegia). aRsaniSnavia, rom es koncentraciebi warmodgenilni arian umniSvleo raodenobiT-
yvela SemTxvevaSi gamosxivebis doza dasaSveb farglebSia.

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             saqarTvelo mdebareobs regionSi, sadac civi omis dros gamoiyeneboda radioaqtiuri masalebis
didi raodenoba samxedro, agraruli Tu samecniero miznebiT. am masalebis mniSvnelovani raodenoba
(gansakuTrebiT sabWoTa, Semdeg ki ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis kuTvnileba) ar iqna gatanili da arc
saqarTvelos mTavrobas gadaeca. xSirad ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis samxedro nawilebi ar inaxavden
Sesabamisi usafrTxoebis wesebis dacviT. amis Sedegad ver moxerxda zogierTi masalis aRricxva. magaliTad
arsebobs informacia gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis daswayisSi gamdidrebuli uranis dakargvis Sesaxeb
erTerTi samecniero organizaciidan, romelic ganlagebuli iyo afxazeTSi, saqarTvelo.
             amasTan naTlad Cans kriminaluri jgufebis mcdelobebi, gamoiyenon saqarTvelos teritoria
birTvuli masalebis aralegaluri mimoqcevisaTvis. saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministrom ukanaskneli 10
wlis ganmavlobaSi aRkveTa gamdidrebuli uranis aralegaluri mimoqcevis cxra mcdeloba (zogierTi
gamdidrebis xarisxiT birTvuli iaraRisaTvis SeiZleboda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli). gamdidrebuli uranis
dakavebis bolo SemTxveva dafiqsirda 2010 wlis martSi.
             rusuli jarebis mier okupirebuli saqarTvelos regionebi afxazeTi da cxinvalis raioni/samxreT oseTi
amJamad daxurulia erovnuli da saerTaSoriso kontrolis meqanizmebisaTvis, rac xels uSlis saqarTvelos
mTavrobis da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mcdelobas miaRwios misaReb birTvul usafrTxoebas regionSi.
    yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT
Zalian mniSvnelovania seqtoris saxelmwifo marTvisa da regulirebis, aseve mosaxleobis da garemos
radiaciuli usafrTxoebis gaZliereba.

seqtoris saxelmwifo marTvisa da regulirebis gaZlierebis saWiroeba
        sabWoTa kavSiris daSlamde arsebobda birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis centralizebuli sistema,
romelic moskovidan imarTeboda. damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg arsebuli mZime situaciis fonze am
sferoSi marTvis organizeba saqarTveloSi dagvianda, rac mTeli rigi incidentebis mizezi gaxda. realuri
gaumjobeseba sakanonmdeblo da organizaciuli gardaqmnebi sferoSi saxelmwifo kontrolis damyarebis
mizniT daiwyo 1990-iani wlebis bolos. arasakmarisi adamianuri da finansuri resursebis gamo problemebi jer
kidev arsebos zogierT qveseqtorSi.

mosaxleobis da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis gaZlierebis saWiroeba
       amJamad saqarTveloSi rogorc saxelmwifos, aseve partniori qveynebisa da organizaciebis
Zalisxmevis Sedegad Seqmnilia pirobebi birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis sabazo moTxovnebis
dasamayofileblad da aralegaluri mimoqcevasTan brZolisaTvis gaZlierebulia institucionaluri da teqnikuri
SesaZleblobebi. amasTanave arsebobs problemuri mimarTulebebi: savaraudod zogierTi upatrono wyaro
darCenilia ukontrolod, radioaqtiuri narCenebis marTva gasaumjosebelia, limitirebulia maregulirebeli
SesaZleblobebi, zogierTi kanoni da normatiuli aqti moiTxovs cvlilebebs, razec seriozuli moculobis samuSao
iqneba Casatarebeli.

11.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi

        qveyanaSi birTvuli da radiaciuli saqmianobis maregulirebeli roli eniWeba saqarTvelos garemos
dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros. saministros struqturaSi am mizniT daarsebulia birTvuli da
radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuri.
        regulirebis mTavar instruments warmoadgens birTvuli da radiaciuli saqmianobis licenzireba da
nebarTvebis gacema garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mier. saministros birTvuli da
radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuri axorcielebs birTvuli da radiaciuli saqmianobiT dakavebuli iuridiuli pirebis
winasalicenzio da gegmiur inspeqciebs. samsaxuris specialistebi aRniSnul organizaciebs aZleven
rekomendaciebs radiaciuli usafrTxoebis normebis dacvisaTvis Casatarebeli RonisZiebis Sesaxeb da
amowmeben maT Sesrulebas. samsaxuri flobs monacemebs am organizaciaTa personalis mier muSaobis
procesSi dagrovili efeqturi dozebis Sesaxeb.
        Sinagan saqmeTa saministro ganaxorcielebs aucilebel RonisZiebebs raTa aRkveTos birTvuli da
radiaciuli masalebis aralegaluri mimoqceva.
        amasTan, TavianTi kompetenciebi gaaCniaT saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis
saministros, saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros, saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis
saministros da saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros. unda aRiniSnos, rom birTvuli da
radiaciuli usafrTxoebisa da (gansakuTrebiT) uSiSroebis sfero permanentuli saerTaSoriso interesis sagania.

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Sesabamisad, saerTaSoriso irganizaciebi, pirvel rigSi ki atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento (aess),
CarTulia am procesebSi sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebisa da teqnikuri TanamSromlobis farglebSi
erovnuli da regionuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebis gziT.
        saqarTveloSi regulirdeba ramodenime aseuli organizaciis saqmianoba, romlebic gamoiyeneben
maionebeli gamosxivebis generatorebs, ramodenime aTeuli ki flobs radioaqtiur wyaroebs da Sesabamis
teqnologiebs.


11.3. dRemde ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi

        birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis sakanonmdeblo uzrunvelyofis mizniT garemos dacvisa da
bunebrivi resursebis saministros birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuris (maregulirebeli organo) mier
SemuSavebulia “birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis axali, Tanamedrove
varianti da SeTanxmebulia partniorebis (atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos, evrokavSirisa da
amerikis Seertebuli Statebis) eqspertebTan. kanoni mzadaa gansaxilvelad. aseve SemuSavebulia ori sxva
sakanonmdeblo dokumentisa da qvenormatiuli aqtebis proeqtebi.
        2010 wlis ianvrisTvis saqarTveloSi registrirebuli iyo radiaciuli saqmianobiT dakavebuli 640
organizacia. aRricxuli iyo maionebeli gamosxivebis 1 145 generatori, 1 537 e.w. `daxuruli21~ da 762 “Ria”
wyaro, romelTa aqtivoba milikiuridan 35 000 kiurimde icvleba. amaTgan 826 wyaro amoRebulia
xmarebidan da inaxeba specialur centralizebul droebiT SesanaxSi saxelmwifo meTvalyureobis qveS. Ria
wyaroebi, rogorc wesi, mcire aqtivobisaa da samecniero miznebisaTvis gamoiyeneba.
        gamoyenebaSi myof wyaroebTan mopyroba da maTi Senaxva specialur wesebs eqvemdebareba.
gamousadegar wyaroebs eZlevaT radioaqtiuri narCenis statusi da Senaxuli unda iqnen droebiT SesanaxSi.
birTvuli xleCadi masalebi mkacri kotrolis qveS inaxebian da garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis
saministros saTanado samsaxuri atarebs maT periodul monitorings.
        saqarTveloSi arsebuli erTaderTi samecniero-kvleviTi birTvuli reaqtori muSaobda gasuli saukunis 60-
iani wlebidan 90-ian wlebamde. amJamad igi daxurulia da aess-s daxmarebiT gadis dekomisirebas. aseve
daxurulia radioaqtiuri narCenebis samarxi Tbilisis aRmosavleTiT, romelic funqcionirebda sabWoTa
periodSi. gazomvebis Tanaxmad, radiaciuli foni normaSia orive obieqtis teritoriaze.
        kvlav grZeldeba sabWoTa droidan SemorCenili ukontrolo da eqspluataciis gareSe darCenili
radioaqtiuri wyaroebis moZieba, gauvnebelyofa da usafrTxo Senaxvis adgilze ganTavseba. maTi
umravlesoba an daikarga, an gadayares yofili sabWoTa armiis (mogvianebiT rusuli) bazebidan da sxva
dawesebulebebidan sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis wina da uSualod Semdgom periodSi. sul napovnia 300-mde
aseTi wyaro. 2007-2009 wlebis ganmavlobaSi moiZiebul da gaauvnebelyofil iqna 45 ukontrolo radioaqtiuri
wyaro. muSaoba am mimarTulebiT momavalSic gagrZeldeba.
        birTvuli da radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis ukanono gamoyenebis an tranzitis aRkveTisa da
prevenciisaTvis 2008-2009 wlebSi praqtikulad dasrulda saqarTvelos sasazRvro-gamtari punqtebis aRWurva
portaluri deteqtorebiT. Sinagan saqmeTa saministro atarebs aucilebel RonisZiebebs birTvuli da radioaqtiuri
nivTierebebis ukanono gamoyenebis an tranzitis aRkveTisa da prevenciisaTvis. dResdReobiT mTeli legaluri
tvirTnakadi kontroldeba birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT.
        2007 wels eqsploataciaSi Sevida radioaqtiuri narCenebis droebiTi Sesanaxi (aSS daxmarebiT),
ramac am etapisaTvis gadaWra Senaxvis usafrTxoebis problema. radioaqtiuri narCenebis am SesanaxSi
gadasatanad samsaxurma didi samuSao Caatara, Tumca igi jerjerobiT bolomde araa miyvanili. narCenebis
grZelvadiani strategia jer kidev SemuSavebis procesSia.


11.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti

       1996 wlidan saqarTvelo warmoadgens aess-s wevr qveyanas. es garemoeba avaldebulebs
saqarTvelos xelisuflebas gaataros birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis sferoSi am saagentos mier
rekomendebuli politika da daeyrdnos Sesabamis standartebs.
21
 daxuruli wyaro – radioaqtiuri wyaro, romelic ganusazRvreli vadiTaa moTavsebuli kafsulaSi an Sereuli araradioaqtiur
masalasTan ise, rom radioaqtiuri masalis SemTxveviT gaJonva an gamocalkeveba Tavidan iqnes acilebuli.

                                                                                                                 99
           gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovani sakiTxia birTvuli iaraRis gauvrceleblobis xelSekrulebis, misi
  garantiebis SeTanxmebisa da damatebiTi oqmis (2003) moTxovnaTa sruli Sesruleba. saerTaSoriso
  valdebulebaTa Sesabamisad samsaxuri periodulad amzadebs da agzavnis aess-Si (sagareo saqmeTa
  saministros meSveobiT) Sesabamis angariSebs qveyanaSi birTvuli masalebis garantiebis Sesrulebis
  Sesaxeb. 2010 wlis maisis mdgomareobiT qveyanas ar gaaCnia angariSgebis davalianeba an mimdinare
  problema.
           saqarTvelo monawileobda birTvuli uSiSroebis samitSi (2010 wlis marti, vaSingtoni) da aiRo
  valdebuleba iTanamSromlos samitis deklarirebuli miznis –globaluri birTvuli uSiSroebis – miRwevisaTvis.
           2009 wlis oqtomberSi vada gaugrZelda “saqarTvelosa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris
  masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis gavrcelebis Tavidan acilebis sferoSi TanamSromlobisa da TavdacviTi da
  samxedro kavSirebis gaRrmavebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas” (daido 1997 wels, pirvelad gagrZelda 2002
  wels), romlis safuZvelzec mzaddeba aSS energetikis departamentsa da saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da
  bunebrivi resursebis saministros Soris e.w. ganmaxorcielebeli SeTanxmeba, romelic iTvaliswinebs
  TanamSromlobis gaZlierebas saqarTvelos radioaqtiuri wyaroebis uSiSroebis gaumjobesebisaTvis.
  ganmaxorcielebeli SeTanxmebis bazaze moxdeba konkretuli proeqtebis Sesruleba aSS-s dafinansebiT da
  saqarTvelos adamianuri resursebiT.
           mimdinareobs muSaoba sxva partniorebTan – evrokomisia, didi britaneTi, SvedeTi. partniorTa
  moqmedebebis koordinirebisaTvis Catardeba erToblivi samuSao Sexvedrebi.
           saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis saSualebiT saqarTvelo monawileobs globaluri birTvuli usafrTxoebis
  miRwevaSi, Zlierdeba aralegalur mimoqcevasTan brZolis erovnuli SesaZleblobebi da izrdeba usafrTxoebis
  kultura.


  11.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi

         birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoeba da gansakuTrebiT uSiSroebis seqtori saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis
  mudmivi yuradRebis centrSia. maSasadame am seqtoris xangrZlivadiani (20 wlis perspeqtiviT) mizania
  adamianis da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa. ukanaskneli moicavs birTvuli masalebis,
  xelsawyoebis da teqnologiebis mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyenebas, gauvrceleblobis reJimis
  ganxorcielebas, aralegaluri mimoqcevis aRkveTas. saqarTvelos kanonebisa da saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis
  Sesabamisad uzrunvelyofil unda iqnes usafrTxoeba maionebeli gamosxivebis wyaroebTan dakavSirebuli
  nebismieri saxis qmedebisas.
         sferoSi misaRwevi miznebi 5 wlis perspeqtiviT Semdegia:

mizani 1. sferos saxelmwifo marTvisa da regulirebis srulyofa

mizani 2. adamianisa da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa


      11.6    arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba

  seqtoris strategiuli mizania mosaxleobis da garemos dacva maionebeli gamosxivebis zianis momtani
  zemoqmedebisgan. am miznis misaRwevad aucilebelia saxelmwifo aRricxvis da kontrolis sistemis (saks)
  danergva.
          saqarTveloSi birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis sferos regulirebis safuZvlebia: saqarTvelos
  konstituciis 37-e muxli; saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi (pirvel rigSi - saerTaSoriso xelSekruleba
  birTvuli iaraRis gauvrceleblobis Sesaxeb); saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba – kanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb
  (1996) da kanoni birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb (1999), garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
  resursebis saministrosa da birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuris debulebebi, Sesabamisi
  saerTaSoriso praqtika.
          sferos politikis safuZvlebs gansazRvravs saqarTvelos kanoni `birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis
  Sesaxeb~. am kanonis Tanaxmad qveyanaSi birTvuli da radiaciuli saqmianobis maregulirebeli roli eniWeba
  saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros. saministros struqturaSi am mizniT


                                                                                                        100
daarsebulia birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuri. Tumca bolo wlebSi aess-s da sxva saerTaSoriso
eqspertTa mier saqarTveloSi Catarebuli ramdenime misia afiqsirebs, rom birTvuli masalebis aRricxvisa da
kontrolis saxelmwifo sistemis (State System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials) organizaciuli
mxare saWiroebs Semdgom srulyofas. kerZod, 2008 wels Catarebuli aess “aRricxvisa da kontrolis
saxelmwifo sistemis saerTaSoriso sakonsultacio misia” (e.w. ISSAS) rekomendacias iZleva ganxilul iqnes
birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis samsaxuris arsebuli statusis amaRlebis SesaZlebloba saministros
farglebSi damoukidebel birTvul maregulirebel organod CamoyalibebisaTvis, da mkafiod ganisazRvros
birTvuli maregulirebeli organos struqtura da pasuxismgeblobebi CarCo-kanonis proeqtSi.




                                                                                                     101
11.7. miznebi da RonisZiebebi
grZelvadiani mizani - adamianis da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa.

mizani 1. saxelmwifo marTvis da regulirebis gaZliereba

                                                                                                           daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                               22               dafinansebis
                     RonisZiebebi                     ganxorcieleb      pasuxismgebeli uwyeba           biujeti (larebSi)                                    indikatorebi
                                                                                                                              potenciuri wyaro
                                                        is periodi

1.     kanonmdeblobis SemuSaveba                     2012-2015        garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi    mcire                  donorebi             CarCo kanoni ganaxlebulia
                                                                      resursebis saministro (gdbrs)
                                                                                                                                                  SemuSavebulia ori damatebiTi
                                                                                                                                                  kanoni
2.     atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos       2011-2013        gdbrs                           mcire                  saxelmwifo biujeti   birTvuli maregulirebeli organos
       (aess) rekomendaciebis Sesabamisad                                                                                                         struqtura- birTvuli da radiaciuli
       aRricxvis da kontrolis saxelmwifo sistemis                                                                                                 usafrTxoebis samsaxuri
       Seqmna - birTvuli da radiaciuli                                                                                                            daarsebulia aess-s
       usafrTxoebis samsaxuris struqturuli                                                                                                        rekomendaciebis Sesabamisad
       srulyofa                                                                                                                                   garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi
                                                                                                                                                  resursebis saministrosTan
3.     birTvuli da radiaciuli usafrTxoebis           2011-2013        gdbrs                           mcire                  donorebi (2011-      dasavleT saqarTveloSi
       samsaxuris dasavleT saqarTvelos                                                                                       2013), xolo 2013     daarsebulia erTi moqmedi
       regionaluri struqturuli erTeulis dafuZneba                                                                            wlis Semdeg-         struqturuli erTeli
       da operireba                                                                                                          saxelmwifo biujeti
4      licenzirebuli organizaciebis ricxvis gazrda   2011-2014        gdbrs                           saSualo                saerTaSoriso         100 procenti organizaciebisa,
       da Casatarebeli samuSaoebis arealis                                                                                   TanamSromloba        romlebic ewevian birTvul da
       gafarToeba                                                                                                                                 radiaciul saqmianobas aris
                                                                                                                                                  licenzirebuli
                                                                                                                                                  sul cota 20% licenziis mflobelebis
                                                                                                                                                  gadian inspeqcias yovelwliurad


mizani. 2 adamianisa da garemos radiaciuli usafrTxoebis gaumjobeseba


                                                                                                                              dafinansebis
                                                                                                          daaxloebiTi                                     indikatorebi
                                                                                                                            potenciuri wyaro
             RonisZiebebi                            ganxorcielebis           pasuxismgebeli uwyeba         biujeti

22
  winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic aRemateba
500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                            102
                                                           periodi                                       (larebSi)


1.   upatrono wyaroebis sistemuri moZiebis          mudmivi procesi   gdbrs                           saSualo        saxelmwufo
     gagarZeleba                                                                                                     biujeti, donorebi
2.   garemos radiaciuli monitoringis laboratoriis   2011-2014         gdbrs                           mcire          saxelmwifo          laboratoria daarsebulia da
     daarseba                                                                                                        biujeti             funqcionirebs
3.   radioaqtiuri narCenebis marTvis instituciuri   2011-2013         gdbrs, ganaTlebisa da           saSualo        saxelmwifo          radioaqtiuri narCenebis marTvis
     sakiTxebis mogvareba da xangrZlivvadiani                         mecnierebis saministro (gms),                  biujeti,            restruqturizacia ganxorcielebulia;
     strategiis SemuSaveba                                            Tbilisis municipaliteti                        donorebi            marTvis xangrZlivvadiani strategia
                                                                                                                                         SemuSavebulia.
4.   radioaqtiuri narCenebis marTvis                2011-2013         gdbrs,                          saSualo        saxelmwifo          saakaZis samarxi aRdgenili da
     gaumjobeseba                                                     Tbilisis municipaliteti, gms                   biujeti,            modernizebulia;
                                                                                                                     donorebi            mcxeTis kvleviTi reaqtori
                                                                                                                                         dekomisirebulia da teritoria
                                                                                                                                         gasufTavebulia
5.   qveyanaSi radiologiur avariebze reagirebis     2011-2015         gdbrs, Sinagan saqmeTa          mcire          donorebi,           procedurebi miRebulia
     gegmis gaumjobeseba                                              saministro (Sss)                               saxelmwifo          verifikaciisaTvis
                                                                                                                     biujeti


6.   atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentosTan     2011-2015         gdbrs, sxva Sesabamisi          maRali         aess, (5%)          10 erovnuli proeqtis dizaini,
     (aess) teqnikuri TanamSromlobis gagrZeleba                       saministroebi                                  Tanadafinanseba     SeTanxmebulia da ganxorcieleba
                                                                                                                     saxelmwifo          2011-2013 da 2013-2015 wlebSi
                                                                                                                     biujetidan

7.   mosaxleobis informireba                        2011-2015         gdbrs                           mcire          saxelmwifo          yovelwliuri gegmebi mosaxleobis
                                                                                                                     biujeti,            informirebisaTvis momzadebulia
                                                                                                                     donorebi




                                                                                                                                                                    103
                                        Tavi 12. klimatis cvlileba

12.1    problemis aRwera
        klimatis cvlileba da misi uaryofiTi gavlena ekosistemebsa da ekonomikaze seriozuli safrTxea, romelsac
saqarTvelo ganixilavs mdgradi ganviTarebis konteqstSi. klimatis cvlilebis procesi, romlis niSnebi saqarTveloSi
me-20 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan SeimCneva, mkveTrad gamZafrda saukunis bolodan. ukanaskneli 10 wlis
ganmavlobaSi haeris saSualo wliuri temperaturis matebam dasavleT saqarTvelos calkeul raionebSi 0.7 0C,
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos calkeul raionebSi ki 0.60C-s miaRwia. naleqebis Sesaxeb sakmao saimedoobiT SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom me-20 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan dRemde dasavleT saqarTvelos umetes raionebSi dafiqsirda
naleqebis umniSvnelo kleba, Tumca calkeul lokalizebul teritoriebze (magaliTad foTi da lentexis raioni)
naleqebma imata. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi aRiniSneba naleqebis umniSvnelo mateba (maqsimum 6%-iT).
        am cvlilebebis Sedegad, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSiA gaizarda globaluri daTbobiT gamowveuli
eqstremaluri movlenebis intensivoba da sixSire; gaxSirda gvalvebi da gazafxulis qarebi semiaridul regionebSi,
Savi zRvis sanapiro zonaSi gaZlierda napiris eroziisa da Carecxvis procesi. garda amisa didi kavkasionis
ramdenime myinvarze Tanamgzavruli dakvirveba aCvenebs, rom myinvarTa ukandaxevis saSualo siCqare Sead-
gens 8 m/weli, xolo myinvarTa farTobma daiklo 6-9%-iT. kavkasiis myinvarebi ukan ixeven da toveben qvebis,
kldis namsxvrevebisa da talaxis uzarmazar masebs, romlebic Tavsxma wvimebis Sedegad warmoqmnili
Rvarcofebis saxiT Tavs atydeba mosaxleobas. aRniSnuli movlenebi riskis qveS ayenebs ara marto mosaxleobis
usafrTxoebas, aramed did zians ayenebs qveynis ekonomikas.
    dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi klimatis cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebidan unda gamoikveTos rTuli
mdgomareoba klimatis cvlilebis mimarT am etapze gamovlenil gansakuTrebulad mowyvlad regionebSi da
naTeli suraTis arqona klimatis cvlelebis SesaZlo gavlenis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos sxva regionebsa Tu seqtorebze.

mdgomareoba dReisaTvis Seswavlil klimatis cvlilebisadmi gansakuTrebulad mowyvlad regionebSi
         gaeros klimatis cvlilebis CarCo konvenciisdmi saqarTvelos meore erovnul Setyobinebis farglebSi
gakeTebuli Sefasebebis safuZvelze gamoikveTa is regionebi, sadac naTelia klimatis cvlilebis negatiuri
zemoqmedeba. klimatis cvlilebis mimarT gansakuTrebiT mowyvladia Savi zRvis sanapiro zona, semiariduli
regionebi, gansakuTrebulad ki aq arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebi da saZovrebi, da maRalmTiani
regionebi.
         sanapiro zona ganicdis sxvadasxva procesebis (teqtonikuri moZraobebi, zRvis donis aweva, Stormuli
modenebi, wyaldidoba, zRvis wyalqveSa dinebebi, sedimentacia mdinareTa SesarTavSi da sxv.)
zemoqmedebas, romelTagan zogierTi klimatis cvlilebis zegavleniT mkveTrad mwvavdeba.
         saqarTvelos semiaridul regionebSi klimatis cvlilebis negatiuri zemoqmedeba vlindeba gvalvebis sixSirisa
da siZlieris zrdis, temperaturuli reJimisa da naleqebis raodenobisa da xasiaTis cvlilebisa da sxva mravali movlenis
saxiT. am movlenebis Sedegad mkveTrad daeca marcvleulisa da qveynisaTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani sxva
kulturebis mosavlianoba. mosavlianobis mkveTrma Semcirebam SeiZleba seriozuli safrTxe Seuqmnas
“sasursaTo usafrTxoebas”, romelic erovnuli usafrTxoebis erT-erT mTavar komponents warmoadgens. klimatis
cvlilebis mimarT mowyvladobis Sesafaseblad da klimatis cvlilebasTan saadaptacio RonisZiebebis
SesamuSaveblad, rogorc “pilot regioni” SerCeul iqna dedofliswyaros raioni, romlis teritoriebi gaudabnoebis
saSiSroebis qveS imyofeba. es raioni istoriulad xasiaTdeba mSrali klimatiT da midrekilia miwis degradaciisken.
bolo periodSi temperaturis matebis da Zlieri qarebis gaxSirebis gamo (raSic mniSvnelovani wvlili miuZRvis
klimatis cvlilebas), SeimCneva miwis degradaciis procesebis gaaqtiureba.
         maRalmTian regionebSi wyalmovardnebis, mewyrebisa da Rvarcofebis sixSirisa da intensivobis zrda
sagrZnoblad azaralebs soflis meurneobas, tyeebs, gzebsa da sxva komunikaciebs. qvemo svaneTi (lentexis
raioni) Seswavlil iqna rogorc globaluri daTbobis Sedegad sagrZnoblad gaaqtiurebuli eqstremaluri movlenebis
mimarT mowyvladi maRalmTiani “pilot regioni”. temperaturis prognozirebuli zrdis pirobebSi 2050 wlisTvis
mosalodnelia am raionSi mdebare myinvarebis gaqroba.
         klimatis cvlilebis sakiTxebis Sesaxeb dabali informirebulobis done da am sakiTxebis arasakmarisi
integracia sxvadasxva seqtorebis ganviTarebis gegmebSi arTulebs probelemebis gadaWris efeqturi gzebis
dasaxvasa da ganxorcielebas.

klimatis cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli sxva sakiTxebi, romlebic Seswavlili unda iqnes momavalSi

                                                                                                              104
        garda zemoCamoTvlili cvlilebebisa, romlebic gamowveulia globaluri daTbobiT, saqarTvelos teritoriaze
daikvirveba am movlenasTan dakavSirebuli sxva cvlilebebic, romlebic jer Seswavlili ar aris. aseve ar aris.
        aucilebelia saqarTvelos yvela danarCeni regionisaTvis klimatis mimdinare da mosalodneli cvlilebis
mimarT maTi socialuri, ekonomikuri da ekologiuri sistemebis mowyvladobis Sefaseba/dazusteba da Sesatyvisi
saadaptacio RonisZiebebis dagegmva da ganxorcieleba, aseve konkretuli programebisa da proeqtebis
ganxorcielebisaTvis dafinansebis wyaroebis moZieba da finansebis mozidva.
        Sesaswavlia myinvarebis dnobis dinamika da uaryofiTi gavlena mimdebare soflebze, wylis resursebsa da
hidroenergetikaze.
        klimatis cvlilebiT gamowveulma procesebma SesaZloa mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba
moaxdinon adamianis janmrTelobaze. saqarTveloSi ukve SeimCneva “siTburi talRebis” intensivobisa da sixSiris
zrdis tendencia, ris mimarTac gansakuTrebiT maRali riskis jgufs xandazmuli adamianebi warmoadgenen.
gaxSirda klimatis cvlilebis mimarT sarisko daavadebebi: malaria (kaxeTSi) da leiSmaniozi (TbilisSi). momavalSi,
temperaturis zrdis pirobebSi ar aris gamoricxuli am daavadebaTa sixSiris zrda. es sakiTxebi seriozul Seswavlas
da reagirebas moiTxovs.
        aseve Sesaswavlia tyis, rogorc naxSirorJangis mSTanmTqmeli saSualebis potenciali saqarTveloSi.

12.2 ZiriTadi dainteresebuli mxareebi
         klimatis cvlilebis procesSi ZiriTadi dainteresebuli anu monawile mxareebi pirobiTad sam kategoriad
SeiZleba daiyos: mxareebi, romlebsac wvlili SeaqvT globaluri daTbobis gamomwvevi saTburis gazebis emisiebis
zrdaSi; mxareebi, romlebic mowyvladi arian klimatis mimdinare da momavali cvlilebebis mimarT; da
gadawyvetilebis mimRebi mxareebi.
         klimatis cvlilebis CarCo konvenciis ganxorcielebaze da Sesabamisad, am sferoSi erovnuli politikis
SemuSavebaze pasuxismgebelia saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro. klimatis
cvlilebis mimarT ekosistemebisa da ekonomikis dargebis mowyvladobis Sefasebisa da saadaptacio/prevenciuli
RonisZiebebis momzadebis procesSi, garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros garda ZiriTadi
dainteresebuli mxareebia energetikis, soflis meurneobis, ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis, Sromis,
janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministroebi. aseve mniSvnelovania ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros
roli, radgan aucilebelia klimatis cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis CarTva saganmanaTeblo programebSi
sazogadoebis gaaqtiurebis mizniT.
         klimatis cvlilebis mimarT mowyvlad im regionebSi, sadac soflis meurneoba ekonomikis wamyvani
dargia, gansakuTrebiT maRalia adgilobrivi xelisuflebisa da fermerebis roli. adgilobrivi xelisufleba da msxvili
qalaqebis municipalitetebi mniSvnelovan dainteresebul mxareebs warmoadgenen sanapiro zonaSi.
         “dabalemisian” ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli roli ekisreba kerZo seqtors da klimatis
cvlilebis problemasTan mimarTebaSi am seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa cnobierebis amaRlebas.
         dainteresebul mxared ganixileba aseve mosaxleoba, rogorc, erTis mxriv, maRali riskis mqone mowyvladi
fena da meores mxriv, mxare, romelsac garkveuli wvlili Seaqvs klimatis cvlilebis procesebSi.



12.3 dRemde gatarebuli RonisZiebebi
        1994 wels saqarTvelom moaxdina gaeros klimatis cvlilebis CarCo konvenciis ratificireba da gaxda
konvenciis mxare, xolo 1999 wlis oqtomberSi qveyana miuerTda klimatis cvlilebis konvenciis kiotos oqms. 1997-
1999 wlebSi saqarTvelom moamzada klimatis cvlilebis mimarT qveynis pirveli erovnuli Setyobineba
(GEF/UNDP). pirveli erovnuli Setyobinebis momzadebis procesSi gamoikveTa mTeli rigi proeqtebi ganaxlebadi
energoresursebis xelSesawyobad. 1999-2001 wlebSi Sesrulda ramdenime proeqti (GEF/UNDP), romlebmac
Seiswavla Tbomomaragebis sistemebis da mcire hesebis reabilitaciis gzebi energoefeqturobis gazrdis pirobebSi.
am Seswavlebis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT daiwyo proeqti “ganaxlebadi energetikuli resursebis aTvisebis
xelSewyoba adgilobrivi energomomaragebis mizniT” (GEF/UNDP). proeqtis farglebSi Camoyalibda ganaxlebadi
energetikis sabrunavi fondi da 2010 wlidan daiwyo misi operireba. aRniSnuli fondi da zogadad, proeqti exmareba
am sferoSi moqmed potenciur kerZo seqtors biznes-gegmebis momzadebasa da proeqtebis sicocxlisunarianobis
SeswavlaSi. garda amisa, am proeqtis farglebSi raWis ramdenime maRalmTian sofelSi ganxorcielda mzis
energiisa da biogazis gamoyenebis proeqtebi.


                                                                                                           105
        2000 wlis Semdeg qveyanaSi ganxorcielda mTeli rigi proeqtebi, romlebmac mniSvnelovnad gazardes
adgilobrivi potenciali klimatis cvlilebis konvenciisa da kiotos protokolis gansaxorcieleblad. kerZod, Seqmna
sufTa ganviTarebis meqanizmis (sgm) proeqtebis ganxilvis procedura, gaumjobesda saTburis airebis
inventarizaciis xarisxi, momzadda adgilobrivi eqspertebi da Catarda cnobierebis amaRlebis kampaniebi
sxvadasxva samizne jgufebisTvis (adgilobrivi municipalitetebi, fermerebi).
        2006-2009 wlebSi saqarTvelom moamzada qveynis meore erovnuli Setyobineba klimatis cvlilebis CarCo
konvenciis mimarT. meore SetyobinebaSi aqcenti gakeTda klimatis cvlilebis mimarT sxvadasxva sistemebisa da
ekonomikis dargebis mowyvladobis Sefasebaze da saadaptacio proeqtebis da strategiebis SemuSavebaze. am
mimarTulebiT dReisaTvis germaniis mTavrobis dafinansebiT mimdinareobs proeqti, romelic iTvaliswinebs
dedofliswyaros regionSi degradirebuli miwebis reabilitacias, qarsafari zolebis aRdgenas da tyis koromebis
gaSenebas. amasTanave dawyebulia napirsamagri samuSaoebi baTumi–adlias monakveTze, garda amisa,
momzadda klimatis cvlilebis erovnuli strategia, romelis nawilia energetikis seqtorSi saTburis airebis Semcirebis
strategia Cveulebrivi biznesis scenarTan SedarebiT.
        bunebis dacvis msoflio fondis kavkasiis warmomadgenlobam germaniis mTavrobis finansuri
mxardaWeriT 2008-2010 wlebSi ganaxorciela proeqti “samxreT kavkasiaSi klimatis cvlilebiT gamowveuli
zemoqmedebis Semcirebis mizniT tyis landSaftebis aRdgena”. Sedegad, aRdgenili iqna Walisa da mTis tyeebi
lagodexisa (Wiauris tye) da xaragaulis (yofili sakolmeurneo tyeebi) municipalitetebis teritoriaze.



12.4 erovnuli da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis konteqsti
         saqarTvelos mTavroba did rols aniWebs qveynis funqciis gaZlierebas tranzitis, gansakuTrebiT ki
energomatareblebis tranzitis procesebSi. saqarTvelo CarTulia ramdenime strategiuli mniSvnelobis energetikul
proeqtSi, romelTa mizania Sua aziidan evropisaken nedli navTobisa da bunebrivi gazis transportireba
savaraudod, es proeqtebi ganapirobeben saTburis gazebis mniSvnelovan emisiebs, Tu ar iqna dagegmili da
gatarebuli am emisiebis SemzRudavi RonisZiebebi. saTburis gazebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani zrda mosalodnelia
saavtomobilo gadazidvebidan da bunebrivi gazis milsadenebidan (gazis gaJonvebi).
         aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom iseTi masStaburi proeqtebis dagegmarebisas, rogoricaa foTis portis
reabilitaciis proeqti, anakliis portis proeqti, foTis Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis proeqti da sxva, saTanadod unda
iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli klimatis cvlilebiT gamowveuli SesaZlo riskebi, romelTa ignorirebam SeiZleba Seamciros
am proeqtebis ekonomikuri efeqtianoba.
        qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebas aucileblad mohyveba emisiebis zrda. mniSvnelovani zrdaa
mosalodneli energetikis seqtorSi gaTboba-cxelwyalmomaragebis sistemebidan. savaraudod aseve
mniSvnelovnad gaizrdeba emisiebi transportis, mrewvelobisa da soflis meurneobis seqtorebidan. Sesabamisad,
miuxedavad imisa rom saqarTvelos, rogorc “kiotos oqmis” danarT B-Si ar CarTul qveyanas, ar aqvs nakisri 2008-
2012 wlebis periodisaTvis saTburis gazebis emisiebis Semcirebis raodenobrivi valdebuleba, mainc Zalian
mniSvnelovania saTburis gazebis emisiebis Semcirebisken mimarTuli meqanizmebis gamoyeneba da
Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba. saTburis gazebis emisiebis SemcirebiT rogorc erovnul doneze, aseve
mezobel qveynebSi, maTTvis saqarTveloSi nawarmoebi sufTa energetikis miwodebis gziT, saqarTvelos
mniSvnelovani wvlilis Setana SeuZlia klimatis cvlilebis mitigaciis procesSi. saqarTveloSi saTburi emisiebis
Sesaxeb informacia warmodgenilia CanarTSi 12.1
        qveyanaSi aRiniSneba pozitiuri tendenciebi, ramac SesaZloa momavalSi mniSvnelovnad SezRudos
saTburis gazebis emisiebi. TiTqmis dasrulebulia qveynis ZiriTadi hesebis reabilitacia. energetikis saministrom
(saxelmwifo programa “ganaxlebadi energia 2008”-is farglebSi) investorTa dasaintereseblad gamoacxada
“interesTa gamoxatva axali hesebis (80-mde mcire da saSualo hesi) mSeneblobis, operirebisa da flobis mizniT
energetikis seqtoris ganviTarebis 15 wlian gegmaSi mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba qaris energetikis wvlilis
gazrdas eleqtrogeneraciaSi. qveynis gazifikaciis programa, romelic umetes SemTxvevaSi Caanacvlebs wiaRiseul
sawvavsa da SeSas, sagzao magistralebisa da gzebis infrastruqturis ganviTarebis proeqti, daculi teritoriebis
farTobebis zrda da tyis menejmentis gaumjobesebisken mimarTuli saqmianobebi, savaraudod aseve Seamcirebs
saTburi airebis emisiebs. rogorc zemoT iqna aRniSnuli, dReisaTvis saqarTvelos ar aqvs saTburi airebis Semcirebis
konkretuli valdebuleba, magram SesaZloa momavalSi mas ukve daekisros aseTi saerTaSoriso valdebuleba da
zemoxsenebuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba axali valdebulebebisadmi qveynis mzadyofnis karg safuZvels qmnis.



                                                                                                             106
          CanarTi 12.1 saTburi gazebis emisiebi saqarTveloSi
           inventarizaciis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, 1990 wels
 saqarTvelos emisiebi Seadgenda daxloebiT 48 milion tona
                                                                                     30




                                                                      t o na CO2eq
 naxSirorJangis eqvivalents (CO2-eq), msoflio emisiebis (30.2
                                                                                     25
 miliardi tona CO2-eq) 0.16%-s, 2006 wels ki daaxloebiT 13
 milion tona CO2-eq-s, msoflio emisiebis (38.6 miliardi tona                         20

 CO2-eq) 0.03%-s. 1990 wels erT sul mosaxlis wilad mosuli                            15
 emisiebiT (8.85 tona CO2-eq) saqarTvelo iyo 57-e adgilze                            10
 (msoflios saSualo maCvenebeli iyo 5.78 tona CO2-eq), 2006                           5
 wels ki (2.81 tona CO2-eq) – 115-e
                                                                                     0
                                                                                      1990   1992    1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006

                                                                                      naxazi 1: saqarTvelodan saTburis gazebis
                                                                                      emisiebi 1990-2006 wlebSi.

adgilze (msoflios saSualo maCvenebeli iyo 5.84 tona CO2-eq). naxaz 1-ze mocemulia saTburis gazebis emisiebis trendi
1990-2006 wlebSi.
          emisiebis mkveTri Semcireba 1992-1996 wlebSi gamowveuli iyo ekonomikuri vardniT. bolo wlebSi SeiniSneba
ekonomikis gamococxleba da am procesis Tanmdevi emisiebis zrda (saSualod weliwadSi 6-7%iT).
          naxaz 2-ze naCvenebia saTburis gazebis emisiebi ekonomikis seqtorebidan 1990 wels (nax. 2a) da 2006 wels (nax.
2b). 2006 wels saTburis gazebis mTliani emisiebi 1990 welTan SedarebiT Semcirebulia daaxloebiT 3.6-jer, aqedan
energetikis seqtoridan Semcirebulia daaxloebiT 6.3-jer, transportidan – 3-jer, mrewvelobidan – 2.8-jer, soflis meurneobidan
1.1-jer da narCenebidan 1.6-jer.

                              2.0                                                              1.2
                      4.0
                              4%                                                               9%
                      8%
             5.4                                                                                                                    5.2
                                                                   3.5
             11%                                                                                                                    40%
                                                                   27%

            3.8
            8%                                       32.8
                                                     69%                                     1.9                   1.3
                                                                                             14%                   10%
          ener get i ka                t r anspo r t i              ener get i ka                                  t r anspo r t i
           r
          m ewvel o ba                              eur
                                       so f l i s m neo ba           r
                                                                    m ewvel o ba                                                eur
                                                                                                                   so f l i s m neo ba
          nar Cenebi                                                nar Cenebi
             a                                                         b
     naxazi 2 : saTburis gazebis emisiebi ekonomikis          naxazi 2 : saTburis gazebis emisiebi ekonomikis
     seqtorebidan 1990 wels (zeda ricxvi miuTiTebs emisias    seqtorebidan 2006 wels. (zeda ricxvi miuTiTebs
     milion tona CO2-eq-Si, qveda ki procentul wils mTlian    emisias milion tona CO2-eq-Si, qveda ki procentul
     emisiebSi).                                              wils mTlian emisiebSi).


12.5 grZelvadiani da moklevadiani miznebi
grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi (20 weli da meti) qveynis ZiriTadi mizania:
1. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa klimatis cvlilebis mimarT saadaptacio RonisZiebebis
gatarebis gziT;Dda
2. saTburis efeqtis mqone gazebis emisiebis Semcireba.
grZelvadiani miznebis misaRwevad saWiroa Semdegi moklevadiani (5-wliani) miznebis dasaxva da Sesabamisi
qmedebebis gatareba:
mizani 1. saadaptacio RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba klimatis cvlilebis mimarT mowyvlad regionebSi.

mizani 2. klimatis cvlilebis gavlenis dadgena sxva regionebsa da seqtorebze

mizani 3. saTburis gazebis emisiebis Semcirebis xelSemwyobi garemos Seqmna


                                                                                                                                               107
12.6 arsebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis Sefaseba
        saqarTvelos kanonebi garemos dacvis Sesaxeb da atmosferuli haeris dacvis Sesaxeb ganmartaven, rom
globaluri cvlilebisagan dedamiwis klimatis dacvis mizniT saqmianobis subieqti valdebulia daicvas atmosferoSi
saTburis efeqtis gamomwvevi gazebis gamoyofis (emisiis) normebi da ganaxorcielos maTi Semcirebis
RonisZiebebi. Tumca, rogorc konvenciis danarT I-Si arCarTul mxares, saqarTvelos ara aqvs saTburis gazebis
emisiebis Semcirebis saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi da Sesabamisad arc erovnuli normebia gansazRvruli am
droisaTvis. Mkanoni garemos dacvis Sesaxeb aseve ambobs, rom saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis farglebSi globaluri
cvlilebebisagan klimatis dacvis samarTlebriv reJims awesebs saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba, Tumca es
kanonmdebloba jer-jerobiT ar aris momzadebuli da miRebuli.
        miuxedavad imisa, rom energoefeqturobis amaRlebis xelSemwyobi sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmnis
moTxovnaa Cadebuli @saqarTvelos parlamentis mier damtkicebul dokumentSi “saqarTvelos energetikul
seqtorSi saxelmwifo politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi”, jer-jerobiT konkretuli gadawyvetilebebi araa miRebuli,
Sesabamisad dRemde ar arsebobs energoefeqturobis xelSemwyobi sakanonmdeblo baza.
        ar arsebobs aseve saadaptacio RonisZiebebis momzadebisa da ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro
sakanonmdeblo baza. Uim regionebSi, sadac klimatis cvlilebis gavlena yvelaze SesamCnevia da seriozuli
danakargebia mosalodneli, aucilebelia Seiqmnas monitoringsa da adaptaciaze pasuxismgebeli struqturebi da
ganisazRvros maTi ufleba-movaleobebi, rogorc mudmivi reJimis, aseve gansakuTrebuli safrTxeebis
SemTxvevaSi.
        kanonmdeblobiT ar aris daregulirebuli saTburis gazebis inventarizaciis perioduloba da ekonomikuri
saqmianobis monacemTa miwodeba erovnul doneze. imis gamo, rom ar arsebobs klimatis cvlilebis gavlenis
gaTvaliswinebis sakanonmdeblo moTxovna sxvadasxva seqtoris ganviTarebis gegmebSi, es sakiTxi xSirad
yuradRebis miRma rCeba. sasurvelia, ganaTlebis sistemaSi klimatis cvlilebis sakiTxebis swavlebis daregulireba
kanonmdeblobiT.




                                                                                                         108
    12.7 miznebi da RonisZiebebi
      grZelvadiani miznebi:
      1. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa klimatis cvlilebis mimarT saadaptacio RonisZiebebis gatarebis gziT;Dda
      2. saTburis efeqtis mqone gazebis emisiebis Semcireba.

    mizani 1. saadaptacio RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba klimatis cvlilebis mimarT mowyvlad regionebSi


#
                                                ganxorciele    pasuxismgebeli uwyeba         daaxloebiTi      dafinansebis potenciuri
                                                                                                 23                                               indikatorebi
                  RonisZiebebi                   bis periodi                              biujeti (larebSi)           wyaro


1   “adaptaciis erovnuli samoqmedo                 2011        garemos dacvisa da        saSualo              donorebi                  qveyanaSi arsebobs “adaptaciis
    programebis” SemuSaveba                                    bunebrivi resursebis                                                     erovnuli samoqmedo
                                                               saministro (gdbrs)                                                       programebi”
    RonisZiebebi Savi zRvis sanapiro zonaSi

2   wyaldidobebze monitoringis sistemis         2012-2013      gdbrs q. foTisa da        maRali               donorebi                  rionis deltaSi samtredia-foTis
    mowyoba mdinare rionis deltaSi                             samtrediis                                                               monakveTze mowyobilia
                                                               municipalitetebi.                                                        wyaldidobebze monitoringis
                                                                                                                                        sistema



3   napirsamagri samuSaoebis Catareba           2011-2015      saqarTvelos mTavroba,     maRali               saxelmwifo biujeti,       foTis sanapiroze Catarebulia
    mdinare rionis deltaSi klimatis cvlilebis                  adgilobrivi mTavroba                           klimatis cvlilebis        pirveladi napirdacviTi
    efeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT                                                                                   konvenciis fondebi,       samuSaoebi da momzadebulia
                                                                                                              saerTaSoriso              sanapiros riskebis marTvis
                                                                                                              daxmareba, Tavisufal      yovelwliuri gegma
                                                                                                              ekonomikur zonaSi
                                                                                                              Semosuli kerZo seqtori


4   dawyebuli napirsamagri samuSaoebis          2011-2015      saqarTvelos mTavroba,     maRali               saxelmwifo biujeti,       baTumi -adlias sanapiroze
    gagrZeleba baTumi – adlias                                 adgilobrivi mTavroba                           klimatis cvlilebis        Catarebulia pirveladi napirdacviTi
    monakveTze klimatis cvlilebis efeqtis                                                                     konvenciis fondebi,       samuSaoebi da momzadebulia

      23
        winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas, romelic
      aRemateba 500 000 lars.
                                                                                                                                                                 109
    gaTvaliswinebiT                                                                             saerTaSoriso               sanapiros riskebis marTvis
                                                                                                daxmareba                  yovelwliuri gegma

    RonisZiebebi dedofliswyaros raionSi

6   qarsafari tyeebis reabilitacia          2010-2015   gdbrs, dedofliswyaros                   germaniis teqnikuri        28 heqtarze gaSenebulia
                                                        municipaliteti, adgilobrivi             TanamSromlobis             qarsacavi zoli
                                                        fermerebi                               sazogadoeba – GTZ,
                                                                                                                           dawyebulia qarsafari tyeebis
                                                                                      maRali    saxelmwifo biujeti,
                                                                                                                           reabilitacia 1,700 heqtarze
                                                                                                klimatis cvlilebis
                                                                                                konvenciis fondebi,
                                                                                                saerTaSoriso
                                                                                                daxmareba adgilobrivi
                                                                                                biujeti

7   degradirebul da mitovebul miwebze       2011-2015   dedofliswyaros                saSualo   germaniis teqnikuri        dawyebulia 40 ha tyis koromebis
    tyeebis gaSeneba (”pilot proeqti”)                  municipaliteti, adgilobrivi             TanamSromlobis             gaSeneba degradirebul da
                                                        fermerebi, gdbrs                        sazogadoeba - GTZ,         mitovebul farTobebze.
                                                                                                klimatis cvlilebis         mikroklimati gaumjobesebulia,
                                                                                                konvenciis fondebi,        niadagebis degradacia
                                                                                                saerTaSoriso               SeCerebulia
                                                                                                daxmareba
                                                                                                (SesaZleblobis farglebSi
                                                                                                adgilobrivi biujeti)

8   dedofliswyaros raionSi sairigacio       2011-2015   dedofliswyaros                saSualo   saxelmwifo biujeti,        reabilitirebuli sairigacio
    sistemebis reabilitacia                             municipaliteti,                         klimatis cvlilebis         sistemebis aRsadgenad sapilote
                                                        adgilobrivi fermerebi,                  konvenciis fondebi,        proeqtebi ganxorcielebulia
                                                        soflis meurneobis                       saerTaSoriso
                                                        saministro (sms), gdbrs                 daxmareba
                                                                                                (SesaZleblobis
                                                                                                farglebSi adgilobrivi
                                                                                                biujetii), kerZo seqtori

    RonisZiebebi qvemo svaneTSi (lentexis raionSi)


9   mewyerSemakavebeli tyis (Txilis         2011-2015   adgilobrivi municipaliteti,   saSualo   saxelmwifo biujeti,        gaSenebuli
    kulturis) gaSeneba.                                 gdbrs, soflis meurneobis                klimatis cvlilebis         mewyerSemakavebeli tyeis
                                                        saministro (sms)                        konvenciis fondebi,        farTobi,
                                                                                                saerTaSoriso

                                                                                                                                                     110
                                                                                                            daxmareba, kerZo
                                                                                                            seqtori

10   klimatis cvlilebis negatiuri              2012-2015     gdbrs, Sromis,               saSualo           saxelmwifo biujeti,       jandacvisa da turizmis
     zemoqmedebis mimarT saadaptacio                         janmrTelobisa da socialuri                     klimatis cvlilebis        seqtorebisaTvis momzadebulia
     RonisZiebebis paketebis momzadeba                       dacvis saministro (Sjsds),                     konvenciis fondebi,       klimatis cvlilebis negatiuri
     jandacvisa da turizmis seqtorebisaTvis                  ekonomikisa da mdgradi                         saerTaSoriso              zemoqmedebis mimarT
                                                             ganviTarebis saministro                        daxmareba                 saadaptacio RonisZiebebis
                                                             (emgs)                                                                   paketebi da riskebis Serbilebis
                                                                                                                                      samoqmedo gegma




      mizani 2. klimatis cvlilebis gavlenis dadgena sxva regionebsa da seqtorebze

#
                                              ganxorciele                                   daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                          dafinansebis potenciuri
                  RonisZiebebi                 bis periodi   pasuxismgebeli uwyeba             biujeti                                           indikatorebi
                                                                                                                  wyaro
                                                                                             (larebSi)

1    klimatis cvlilebis SesaZlo gavlenis      2011-2015      gdbrs                        maRali
                                                                                                          saxelmwifo biujeti,       momzadebulia saadaptacio
     Seswavla aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
                                                                                                          klimatis cvlilebis        RonisZiebebis paketi TiToeuli
     semiaridul (naxevrad gvalvian)
                                                                                                          konvenciis fondebi,       Seswavlili regionisaTvis
     regionebSi da Sesabamisi
                                                                                                          saerTaSoriso
     saadaptacio RonisZiebebis paketebis
                                                                                                          daxmareba,
     momzadeba.

                                                             sms, gdbrs, raionebis                        saxelmwifo biujeti,       aRmosavleT saqarTvelos semiaridul
2    aRmosavleT saqarTvelos semiaridul         2011-2015                                  maRali
                                                             gamgeobebi, adgilobrivi                      klimatis cvlilebis        regionebSi sairigacio sistemebis
     regionebSi sairigacio sistemebis
                                                             fermerebi                                    konvenciis fondebi,       sareabilitaciod momzadebulia
     arsebuli mdgomareobis Seswavla da
                                                                                                          saerTaSoriso              teqnikuri dokumentacia da “biznes-
     sareabilitacio RonisZiebebis
                                                                                                          daxmareba                 gegmebi”.
     SemuSaveba (teqnikuri
                                                                                                          (SesaZleblobis
     dokumentaciisa da “biznes-
                                                                                                          farglebSi adgilobrivi
     gegmebis” momzadeba).
                                                                                                          biujetebi)
3    klimatis cvlilebis SesaZlo gavlenis      2011-2015      gdbrs, aWaris avtonomiuri    saSualo         saxelmwifo biujeti,       momzadebulia saadaptacio
     Seswavla maRalmTian regionebze                          respublikis mTavroba                         klimatis cvlilebis        RonisZiebebis paketi TiToeuli
     (xevi, aWara, zemo svaneTi) da                                                                       konvenciis fondebi,       Seswavlili regionisaTvis
     Sesabamisi saadaptacio RonisZiebebis                                                                 saerTaSoriso
     paketebis momzadeba.                                                                                 daxmareba

                                                                                                                                                                111
4       saqarTvelos myinvarebze klimatis         2012-2015       gdbrs, energetikis        maRali            saxelmwifo biujeti,        wylis resursebis marTvis saxelmwifo
        cvlilebis zemoqmedebis dadgena.                          saministro (es), sms                        saerTaSoriso               strategia SemuSavebulia
        klimatis cvlilebis Sedegad myinvarebis                                                               daxmareba
        transformaciis zegavlenis Seswavla
        wylis resursebze. wylis resursebis
        marTvis saxelmwifo strategiis
        SemuSaveba.


         mizani 3. klimatis cvlilebis Serbilebis qmedebebi (saTburis gazebis emisiebis Semcireba)



#
                                                 ganxorciele                                  daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                             dafinansebis potenciuri
                    RonisZiebebi                  bis periodi    pasuxismgebeli uwyeba           biujeti                                            indikatorebi
                                                                                                                     wyaro
                                                                                               (larebSi)


1       “dabalnaxSirbadiani ganviTarebis         2011-2012      gdbrs                       maRali           gaeros ganviTarebis        “dabalnaxSirbadiani ganviTarebis
        strategiis” SemuSaveba                                                                               programa, klimatis         strategia” SemuSavebulia
                                                                                                             cvlilebis konvenciis
                                                                                                             fondebi, saerTaSoriso
                                                                                                             daxmareba

    2   saTburis gazebis yovelwliuri             2014-2015                                  mcire            weliwadSi. saxelmwifo      yovelwliuri inventarizaciis angariSi
        inventarizacia                                                                      (yovelwliurad)   biujeti

    3   saqarTvelos sacxovrebel SenobebSi                       gdbrs                       maRali           globaluri garemos dacvis   “mwvane Senoba” agebulia.
        energoefeqturobis gazrda                                                                             fondi
        (samSeneblo kompaniebisa da dargis
        specialistebis gadamzadeba,
        wamaxalisebeli programebis
        Seqmna, Senobebis sertificireba,
        pilot proeqtis “mwvane Senoba”
        ganxorcieleba

4       saqarTveloSi biomasisgan                 2011-2015      gdbrs, kerZo seqtori        maRali           globaluri garemos dacvis   saqarTveloSi dawyebulia
        damzadebuli “peletebis” warmoebisa                                                                   fondi                      biomasisgan paletebis damzadeba
        da moxmarebis mxardaWera                                                                                                        da moxmareba. SemuSavebulia
                                                                                                                                        ganaxlebadi biomasis ganviTarebis

                                                                                                                                                                    112
                                                                                                                                           strategia

    5    qaris energiis aTvisebis                 2012-2014      gdbrs, es                      maRali          klimatis cvlilebis
         xelSesawyobad perspeqtiuli                                                                             konvenciis fondebi,
         mSeneblobis adgilebSi energetikuli                                                                     saerTaSoriso daxmareba
         potencialis dadgena qaris sazomi
         maRlivi anZebis dadgmiT,
         ekonomikuri da finansuri analizis
         Catareba, “ganxorcielebadobis
         Seswavla da biznes gegmebis
         momzadeba.

    6    “merebis SeTanxmebis” farglebSi q.          2011        q. Tbilisis municipaliteti,    saSualo         q.Tbilisis biujeti,        Sefasebulia emisiebis trendi q.
         TbilisisaTvis saTburis airebis                          gdbrs                                          evrokavSiris miznobrivi    Tbilisis teritoriidan da momzadebulia
         emisiebis Sefaseba 2020 wlisaTvis                                                                      fondebi.                   sabaziso donidan emisiebis
         Cveulebrivi biznesis gziT ganviTarebis                                                                                            Semcirebis strategia
         SemTxevaSi da Sefasebuli sabaziso
         donidan emisiebis Semcirebis
         strategiis SemuSaveba.

    7    strategiis ganxorcielebisa da masze      2012-2015      q. Tbilisis municipaliteti,                    Tbilisis biujeti,          mimdinareobs ganxorcieleba
         monitoringis dawyeba                                    gdbrs                                          evrokavSiris miznobrivi    konkretuli proeqtebis SesrulebiT
                                                                                                                fondebi.                   sxvadasxva seqtorebSi (transporti,
                                                                                                                                           sayofacxovrebo)
                                                                                    sxva RonisZiebebi


#
                                                                                                  daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                                dafinansebis potenciuri
                     RonisZiebebi                 ganxorcieleb     pasuxismgebeli uwyeba             biujeti                                           indikatorebi
                                                                                                                        wyaro
                                                    is periodi                                     (larebSi)


1       klimatis cvlilebis konvenciisadmi          2011-2014      gdbrs                         saSualo         globaluri garemos dacvis   2014 wels erovnuli Setyobineba
        saqarTvelos mesame erovnuli                                                                             fondi                      wardgenilia
        Setyobinebis momzadeba

2       qveynisaTvis saWiro garemosadmi              2011         gdbrs                         saSualo         globaluri garemos dacvis   angariSi, qveynisaTvis saWiro
        keTilganwyobili teqnologiebis                                                                           fondi                      teqnologiebisa da maTi Semotanis
        Sefaseba                                                                                                                           gzebis Sesaxeb. momzadebulia
                                                                                                                                           sapiloto proeqtebi


                                                                                                                                                                      113
3   klimatis cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli        2015      saqarTvelos parlamenti;        mcire    saxelmwifo biujeti       umaRles saswavleblebSi iswavleba
    sakiTxebis savaldebulo                               saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da                                       klimatis cvlilebesTan dakavSirebuli
    saganmanaTleblo programebSi                          mecnierebis saministro                                           sagnebi (klimatis cvlilebis
    asaxvis daregulireba kanonmdeblobiT.                 (sgms); umaRlesi                                                 mecniereba, klimatis cvlilebis
                                                         saswavleblebi, gdbrs                                             ekonomika, klimatis cvlilebis
                                                                                                                          teqnologiebi

4   ganviTarebis gegmebSi klimatis             2015      ministrTa kabineti; es, sms,   mcire    saxelmwifo biujeti       mTavrobis dadgenileba
    cvlilebis mosalodneli gavlenis                       regionuli ganviTarebisa da
    gaTvaliswinebis sakanonmdeblo aqtiT                  infrastruqturis saministro
    daregulireba                                         (rgis), gdbrs,
                                                         municipalitetebi

5   cnobierebis amaRleba klimatis            2011-2015   gdbrs, gms                     maRali   saxelmwifo biujeti,      eqspertTa bazaSi eqspertTa
    cvlilebis mosalodneli riskebis Sesaxeb                                                       klimatis cvlilebis       raodenobis zrda
    da adgilobrivi eqspertebis momzadeba                                                         konvenciis fondebi,
    am riskebis samarTavad                                                                       saerTaSoriso daxmareba




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                              Tavi 13. urTierTgadamkveTi sakiTxebi
        gdmep-2-Si ganxilul sferoebSi xuTi msgavsi problema gamoikveTa. es problemebia araefeqturi nebarTvis
gacemis sistema da kanonaRsruleba, arasakmarisi monitoringi, Sesabamisi samecnieri bazis nakleboba,
garemosdacviTi ganaTlebisa da cnobierebis amaRlebis saWiroeba da geoinformaciuli sistemebis gamoyenebis
aucilebloba monacemebis ganaxlebisa da analizisaTvis. es sakiTxebi ganixileba, rogorc urTierTgadamkveTi
sakiTxebi da maTi gaZliereba sargeblis momtani iqneba garemos dacvis yvela sferosaTvis.


13.1 garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvebi da kanonaRsruleba
        efeqturi kanonaRsruleba umniSvnelovanesia garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis regulirebisaTvis. kanonTan
Sesabamisobis gareSe ver moxdeba imis uzrunvelyofa, rom dadgenili garemosdacviTi moTxovnebi miaRweven
sasurvel Sedegebs. saqarTveloSi garemosdacviTi moTxovnebis aRsruleba regulirdeba garemoze zemoqmedebis
nebarTviT da garemosdacviTi teqnikuri reglamentebiT. kerZod, kanoniT dadgenili garkveuli saxis saqmianobebi,
romlebic garemoze mniSvnelovani zegavleniT xasiaTdebian, eqvemdebarebian garemoze zemoqmedebis
nebarTvas. is saqmianobebi, romlebic garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvas ar saWiroeben, unda akmayofilebdnen
garemosdacviT teqnikur reglamentebs, romlebic garemoSi dabinZurebis CaSvebis standartebs adgenen.
        nebarTvis proceduris aucilebeli da Zalian mniSvnelovani nawilia garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba (gzS).
gzS-s mizania gamoikvlios da gadawyvetilebis mimRebebs gadawyvetilebis miRebamde warudginos mocemuli
proeqtis garemoze yvela SesaZlo zegavlena. amrigad, gzS mniSvnelovani instrumentia informirebuli
gadawyvetilebis miRebisaTvis. imavdroulad, gzS uzrunvelyofs proeqtis grZelvadian mdgradobas, rac miiRweva
garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis moTxovnebis aRsrulebiT.
        garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis pirobebis da garemosdacviTi teqnikuri regulaciebis aRsrulebas
axorcielebs garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba, garemos dacvis
inspeqcia. sakanonmdeblo Seusabamobebis da resursebis simciris gamo, gegmiuri garemosdacviTi Semowmeba
am dromde praqtikulad ver xorcieldeboda. Tumca, bolodroindeli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Sedegad moxda
sakanonmdeblo xarvezebis aRmofxvra. garda amisa, inspeqcias mieniWa moqniloba misi kompetenciebis srulad
ganxorcielebisaTvis. Tumca, garemosdacviTi aRsruleba jer kidev gaZlierebas saWiroebs. gansakuTrebiT
problemuria adamianuri resursebis simcire, personalis rogorc raodenobis, kvalifikaciis TvalsazrisiT. amdenad,
Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom inspeqciis TanamSromlebs CautardeT regularuli treningebi inspeqtirebaSi. garda
amisa, aucilebelia amomwuravi meTodologiebis SemuSaveba riskis Sefasebis da inspeqtirebis procedurebisaTvis.
        imavdroulad, xarvezebia arsebul garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis gacemis sistemaSic. kerZod, arasrulia
da xistia kanoniT gansazRvruli im saqmianobebis CamonaTvali, romlebic nebarTvas da savaldebulo gzS-s
saWiroeben. garkveuli saqmianobebi, romlebic mniSvnelovan janmrTelobis da garemos riskebs ukavSirdebian, am
CamonaTvalSi gamotovebulia, maSin roca, naklebi zegavlenis mqone saqmianobebi gzS-s srul proceduras gadian.
garda amisa, arsebuli nebarTvis sistema ver uzrunvelyofs maRali xarisxis gzS-s angariSebis momzadebas da
saTanado sazogadoebis monawileobis proceduras. dabali xarisxis gzS-ebi problemas qmnis ufro gviandel,
garemosdacviTi Semowmebis da aRsrulebis etapzec. aseve, garemosdacviTi teqnikuri reglamentebis standartuli
midgoma ar iZleva saSualebas mxedvelobaSi miviRoT garemos sabaziso mdgomareoba da kumulatiuri efeqti.
arsebuli nebarTvis sistemis gaumjobeseba aucilebelia xarvezebis aRmosafxvrelad da sistemis efeqturobis
misaRwevad. am mxriv, mizanSewonilia msxvili sawarmoebisaTvis dawesdes integrirebuli nebarTva, xolo saSualo
da mcire sawarmoebisaTvis ufro gamartivebuli nebarTva.

13.2 monitoringi
       garemosdacviTi monitoringis monacemebi aucilebelia garemos mdgomareobis Sefasebisa da
saWiroebisamebr, gaumjobesebis adeqvaturi RonisZiebebis dagegmvisaTvis. garda amisa, garemosdacviTi
monitoringis informacia gamoiyeneba garemosdacviTi politikis da gatarebuli RonisZiebebis efeqturobis
Sesafaseblad. rogorc aRniSnulia meore erovnuli garemosdacviTi samoqmedo gegmis sxvadasxva TavebSi,
saqarTveloSi zogadad problemuria amomwuravi garemosdacviTi monitoringis monacemebis nakleboba. sabWoTa


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periodSi arsebuli garemosdacviTi monitoringis qseli moiSala. amJamad, monitoringi mxolod Zalian SezRuduli
masStabiT da SesaZleblobebiT warmoebs. sadamkvirveblo sadgurebis da wertilebis SezRuduli raodenoba ar iZleva
sakmaris monacemebs garmomcveli garemos mdgomareobis sruli suraTis Sesaqmnelad. garda amisa, arsebuli
gazomvis saSualebebis da meTodologiebis umravlesoba moZvelebulia. ar izomeba mTeli rigi mniSvnelovani
damabinZureblebisa, maT Soris janmrTelobis riskebTan dakavSirebuli nivTierebebi. garda amisa, ar arsebobs
monacemTa gadamuSavebis sistemebi, romlebic moaxdenda monitoringis pirveladi monacemebis interpretirebas
maTi Semdgomi gamoyenebis mizniT.
       garkveuli Zalisxmeva daixarja arsebuli monitoringis qselis gasaumjobeseblad. kerZod, sami axali haeris
monitoringis sadguri damontaJda Tbilissa da rusTavSi; wylis analizis samive laboratoria aRiWurva Tanamedrove
mowyobilobebiT da sxv. Tumca, es ar aris sakmarisi. saWiroa sadamkvirveblo sadgurebis/wertilebis raodenobis
gazrda. aseve, mniSvnelovania gazomvad nivTierebaTa nusxas daematos adamianis janmrTelobis riskebTan
dakavSirebuli mniSvnelovani damabinZureblebi. garda amisa, aucilebelia adeqvaturi monacemTa interpretirebis
sistemebis Seqmna, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes monitoringis monacemebis gamoyeneba Semdgom garemosdacviT
dagegmvaSi. aseve, saWiroa sinjebis aRebis da gazomvebis Tanamedrove meTodologiebis danergva.

13.3 samecniero baza
        samecniero kvlevebis Sedegebi Zlier safuZvels qmnian garemosdacviTi problemebis gadaWrisa da
dagegmvis procesisaTvis. garemos dacvis sfero Zalian rTulia da sxva seqtorebTan mWidrodaa gadajaWvuli. mxolod
mecnierulad dasabuTebluli monacemebisa da daskvnebis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli dadgindes kavSirebi sxvadasxva
procesebs Soris da moiZebnos problemebis ekonomikuri, socialuri da garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT mizanSewonili
gadaWris gzebi. mecnierebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda wiaRiseuli sawvavis zegavlenis dadgena klimatis
cvlilebaze, an sxvadasxva qimiuri nivTierebebis zemoqmedebis gansazRvra adamianis janmrTelobasa da
biomravalferovnebaze; aseve SeuZlebeli iqneboda ama Tu im resursis degradaciis gamomwvevi mizezebisa da
maTi aRmofxvris gzebis identificireba, an zogadad, bunebaSi arsebuli wonasworobis darRveviT gamowveuli
SesaZlo uaryofiTi Sedegebis gamovelena. mecnierebis gareSi aseve warmoudgenelia axali teqnologiebis danergva.
        samecniero kvlevebsa da sxvadasxva seqtorebis ganviTarebis strategiebis SemuSavebas SorisBbundovani
kavSirebis arsebobis gamo, dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi sustia mecnierebis roli gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi. es
nawilobriv gamowveulia arasakmarisi komunikaciiT da farTod gavrcelebuli problemaa. strategiuli dokumentebis
SemmuSavebeli organizaciebi naklebad urTierToben mecnierebTan Tavisi samecniero codnisadmi moTxovnebis
gamosaxatavad; meores mxriv, mecnierebs gaaCniaT TavianTi damoukidebeli samecniero interesebi. aseve
arasakmarisia cnobiereba erTis mxriv samecniero meTodebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis mimReb pirebSi, xolo
meores mxriv socialuri saWiroebebis Sesaxeb samecniero institutebSi.
        Sesabamisi samecniero potencialis ganviTareba, arsebuli kveleviTi institutebis SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba,
saxelmwifo struqturebSi Sesabamisi mecnierebis dasaqmeba, an axali teqnologiebiebze muSaobisa da maTi
danergvis aucilebloba gdmep-2-is TiTqmis yvela seqtorSia naxsenebi. maSasadame, aucilebelia politikis
SemmuSaveblebis mxridan xdebodes maTTvis saWiro kvlevebis mimarTulebebis gacnoba                       samecniero
seqtorisaTvis. samecniero kvlevebis xelSewyoba dasawyisisaTvis Tundac iseT sferoebSi, sadac yvelaze metadaa
amis saWiroebia (mag.; biomravalferovneba) da mecnierebisa da axali teqnologiebis gamoyeneba mniSvnelovnad
Seuwyobs xels kargad gaazrebuli politikis SemuSavebis process da Sesabamisad, garemosdacviT mdgradobas
rogorc erovnul, aseve regionalur doneebze.

13.4 garemosdacviTi ganaTleba da cnobierebis amaRleba
       mdgradi ganviTareba da zogadad, garemosdacviTi mdgradoba ver miiRweva mxolod mecnierebisa da axali
teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT. Aam sferoSi winsvlas mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs sazogadoebis garemosa da
bunebis mimarT damokidebulebis fundamentaluri cvlileba. garemosdacviTi ganaTleba, romelic saSualebas aZlevs
sazogadoebas, icodes ufro meti da Sesabamisad, ufro metad zrunavdes garemoze, mdgradi ganviTarebis
xelSemwyobi mniSvnelovani instrumentia.
       garemosdacviTi ganaTleba xangrZlivi procesia, romelic iwyeba skolamdel asakSi da grZeldeba zrdasrul
periodSi. igi moicavs formalur da araformalur ganaTlebas skolebSi, aseve profesiul treiningebsa da SesaZleblobebis


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gaZlierebis sxvadasxva programebs mozrdilebisaTvis. garemosdacviT ganaTlebaSi Sedis agreTve cnobierebis
amaRlebis kampaniebi, romlebic gamiznulia ufro farTo auditoriisaTvis.
        garemosdacviTi ganaTlebis saWiroeba kargadaa gaazrebuli saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier da amis
dadasturebaa garemos dacvisa da bunebriv resursebTan dakavSirebuli standartebis CarTva saskolo programebSi,
agreTve erovnuli garemosdacviTi ganaTlebis strategiis SemuSavebis inicireba. erovnuli garemosdacviTi ganaTlebis
strategia, romelic SesabamisobaSi iqneba gdmep-is grZel da moklevadian miznebTan, mimarTuli iqneba
garemosdacviT sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT sazogadoebis cnobierebis amaRlebis, moqalaqeebis azrovnebis
formirebisa da maTi qcevis Secvlisaken. kargad gacnobierebuli sazogadoeba ki samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Zlieri
sayrdenia, rac Tavis mxriv ukiduresad mniSvnelovania demokratiuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobisaTvis.
        yovelive zemoTqmulis, aseve gdmep-2-Si gamokveTili formaluri da araformaluri ganaTlebis saWiroebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, Sesabamisi Zalisxmeva unda iyos mimarTuli am sferoSi, rameTu ganaTlebas SeuZlia
mniSvnelovani wvlilis Setana erTis mxriv qveynis mdgrad ganviTarebaSi da meores mxriv, bunebaze anTropogenuli
zemoqmedebis SemcirebaSi, rac degradirebuli garemos aRdgenisaTvis saWiro Tanxebis dazogvis saSualebas
iZleva.

13.5 geoinformaciuli sistemebi
         geoinformaciuli sistemebi iZleva axal SesaZleblobebs, raTa moxdes drosa da sivrceSi ekologiuri movlenebis
gavrcelebis analizi. msoflioSiGgis sistemebi farTod gamoiyeneba resursebis marTvis sferoSi. gis-ebis gamoyeneba
xdeba aseve garemos sxvadasxva komponentebis Seswavlis, garemosdacviTi movlenebis dakvirvebisa da bunebriv
Tu anTropogenul faqtorebze garemos reagirebis modelebis SeqmnisTvis gis sistemis, rogorc monacemebis
Segrovebis, ganaxlebis, damuSavebisa da analizis instrumentis mniSvneloba gdmep-2-is bevr TavSia aRniSnuli.
         gis sistemebis gamoyeneba nebismier sferoSi, garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis marTvis CaTvliT,
ferxdeba sxvadasxva masStabis cifruli kartografiuli produqciis safuZvlebis ararsebobs gamo saqarTvelos mTeli
teritoriaze. Sesabamisad, aucilebelia pirvel rigSi Seiqmnas qarTul da inglisurenovani kartografiuli produqciis
safuZvlebi WGS84-UTM koordinatTa sistemaSi.            geosivrciTi monacemebis datana, Senaxva, gamoyeneba,
ganaxleba, marTva, analizi da modelireba SeuZlebelia kartografiuli produqciisa da gis programuli uzrunvelyofis
gareSe.
         zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, kartografiuli produqciis Seqmna da gis programuli uzrunvelyofa, aseve
gis specialistebis momzadeba garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros dargobriv sammarTveloebSi,
romlebic pasuxismgebelni iqnebian gis sistemebis yoveldRiur operirebaze, Zalian mniSvnelovania monitoringis,
analizis, gadawyvetilebebis miRebisa da zogadad, efeqtiani garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobisaTvis.




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      13.6 urTierTgadamkveTi sakiTxebis RonisZiebebis cxrili (damatebiTi RinisZiebebi)

#
                                                                                              daaxloebiTi
                                                                                                  24         dafinansebis potenciuri
               RonisZiebebi                ganxorcielebis     pasuxismgebeli uwyeba        biujeti (larebSi)                                     indikatorebi
                                                                                                                     wyaro
                                              periodi


1   garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvis          2011-2013       gdbrs                       saSualo              donorebi                 gzS-s sistema gaumjobesebulia
    gacemis procedurebisa da gzS-s
                                                                                                                                       sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisa da
    sistemis gaumjobeseba
                                                                                                                                       am procesSi carTuli mxareebis
                                                                                                                                       SesaZleblobebis gaZlerebis gziT

2   erovnuli garemosdacviTi ganaTlebis         2011          gdbrs                       mcire                donorebi                 strategia SemuSavebulia
    strategiis SemuSaveba

3   gis sistemebis moxmarebis                2011-2015       gdbrs                       maRali               donorebi                 gis sistemebi farTodaa danergili
    gafarToveba




      24
        winamdebare dokumentSi “mcire” biujetis qveS igulisxmeba 100 000 laramde, “saSualos” qveS - 100 000-500 000 lari, xolo “maRali” gulisxmobs Tanxas,
      romelic aRemateba 500 000 lars.


                                                                                                                                                         118
                                       Tavi 14. politikis integracia

ganmartebebi da zogadi instrumentebi
        politikis integracia gulisxmobs saxelmwifo politikaSi koordinaciis, Tanmimdevrulobis da harmonizaciis
miRwevas. araTanmimdevruli da konfliqturi politika naklebad efeqturia da met xarjebs moiTxovs, maSin roca
integracia amcirebs SesaZlo konfliqtebiT da SeusabamobebiT gamowveuli gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebis riskebs da
gvTavazobs ormxrivi sargebelis mqone gadawyvetilebebis gamovlenis potencials.
        meTodebis farTo arCevania imisaTvis raTa mTavrobebma uzrunvelyon garemos dacvis moTxovnebis ara-
garemosdacviT seqtorul politikaSi integrireba. esenia: regulatoruli zemoqmedebis Sefaseba; strategiuli
garemosdacviTi Sefaseba da garemosdacviTi Sefaseba proeqtis doneze; mdgradi ganviTarebis strategia; erovnuli
garemosdacviTi samoqmedo gegmebi da erovnuli garemosdacviTi da janmrTelobis samoqmedo gegmebi; aseve,
samTavrobaTSoriso struqturebi an komitetebi, romlebic aerTianeben politikur da/an administraciul moTamaSeebs
mdgradi ganviTarebis sakiTxebis gansaxilvevlad da gadasaWrelad. amis magaliTia saministroTaSorisi struqturebi,
romlebic dakompleqtebulia maRali donis warmomadgenlebiT yvela Sesabamisi saministrodan, romlebic
monawileoben erovnuli mdgradi ganviTarebis strategiis momzadebaSi.

saWiroeba
        garemos da ganviTarebis politikis erT WrilSi ganxilvis aucilebloba farTod aris gacnobierebuli msoflioSi mas
Semdeg, rac “mdgradi ganviTareba” Camoyalibda, rogorc sazogadoebis ganviTarebis warmmarTveli principi.
Tumca, es arc Tu ise martivia: mravali qveynisaTvis ekologiuri aspeqtebis ganxilva ekonomikur da socialur
aspeqtebTan kavSirSi erTi-erTi mTavari instituciuri gamowveva iyo.
        politikis integracia uwyveti procesia, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs gaviTvaliswinoT urTierTgadamkveTi
sakiTxebi da Tavidan aviciloT seqtorebs Soris SesaZlo uTanxmoeba. garemosdacviTi politikis integracia
uzrunvelyofs imas, rom garemosdacviTi sakiTxebi gaTvaliswinebuli iyos yvela monaTesave seqtoris politikis
SemuSavebis procesSi. es aris proaqtiuli midgoma, gansxvavebiT reaqtiuli midgomisagan, roca garemosdacviTi
politika reagirebs socioekonomikuri politikis da praqtikebis negatiur Sedegebze, imis magivrad, rom integrirebuli
iyos maTi SemuSavebis adreul procesSi. garemosdacviTi politikis integraciis Sedegi unda iyos politikis da misi
ganxorcielebis zogadi gaumjobeseba. yvela garemosdacviTi sakiTxis gaTvaliswineba politikis SemuSavebis
procesSi SesaZloa rTuli aRmoCndes, Tumca ZiriTadi tendencia mimarTuli unda iyos mdgradi ganviTarebisken, rac
gulisxmobs jansaR garemos da socialur keTildReobas ekonomikur ganviTarebasTan erTad.
        msoflioSi sul ufro metad xdeba imis gacnobiereba, rom ganviTarebis, garemos da janmrTelobis sakiTxebi
urTierTmonaTesave da urTierTdamokidebulia. mzardi ekonomikuri aqtivoba uciloblad dakavSirebulia energiisa da
resursebis gazrdil moxmarebasTan da narCeni gverdiTi produqtebis meti moculobebis warmoqmnasTan. bunebrivi
resursebis Warbi moxmareba, narCenebis akumulacia da damabinZureblebis emisiebi zegavlenas axdens garemoze
da iwvevs mis degradacias. es, imavdroulad, negatiurad aisaxeba adamianTa keTildReobis. urbanuli zrda
zegavlenas axdens miwaTsargeblobaze, haeris xarisxze, wylisa da energiis moTxovnilebaze da iwvevs narCenebis
akumulacias. bunebrivi resursebis aramdgradi mopoveba dakavSirebulia tyeebis gaCexvasTan,
biomravalferovnebis ganadgurebasTan, saxifaTo nivTierebebis garemoSi gaSvebasTan. cvlilebebi moxmarebis da
energiis gamoyenebis TaviseburebebSi da aseve, mosaxleobis mobilobis zrda ukavSirdeba bunebrivi resursebis
aramdgrad gamoyenebas, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios zewola tyeze da biomravalferovnebaze. imavdroulad,
resursebis degradacia riskis qveS ayenebs Tavad ekonomikur aqtivobas. amgvarad, mdgradi ganviTareba
aucilebelia ara mxolod garemos dacvis aramed ekonomikuri mdgradobis da socialuri keTildReobis
SenarCunebisaTvis. meore mxriv, ekonomikuri zrda ganapirobebs moTxovnilebis zrdas iseT saqonelze da
servisebze, romlebic nakleb resursebs da Sesabamisad, nakleb xarjebs moiTxovs. garda amisa, ekonomikuri zrda
ganapirobebs xelfasebis da keTildReobis zrdas, ris Sedegadac izrdeba moTxovna garemos ukeTes xarisxze. amas
ki, sabolood, moyveba garemosdacviTi zomebis gamkacreba.
        samrewvelo aqtivobis klebis Sedegad sabWoTa kavSiris rRvevis Semdeg, saqarTveloSi samrewvelo seqtoris
mTliani zegavlena Semcirda. Tumca, ukontrolo urbanulma zrdam da bunebrivi resursebis gadaWarbebulma
moxmarebam, rac 1990-iani wlebis ekonomikuri krizisiT iyo ganpirobebuli, gamoiwvia garemoze zemoqmedebis


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gazrda. ekonomikuri ganviTareba, energiasa da bunebriv resursebze moTxovnilebis zrda da turizmis seqtoris
ganviTareba momavalSic gamoiwvevs garemoze zemoqmedebis momatebas, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar iarsebebs
instrumentebi efeqturi, koordinirebuli politikis gasatareblad. am TvalsazrisiT, aucilebeli xdeba garemosdacviTi
politikis integracia Sesabamis seqtorul politikasTan. amasTan, es mniSvnelovania ucxouri investiciebis da turistebis
mozidvis da, aseve evrokavSirTan miaxloebis TvalsazrisiT.

gdmep da politikis integracia
        rogorc es naTlad Cans winamdebare gegmidan, garemosdacviTi sakiTxebi mWidrod aris gadajaWvuli sxva
seqtorul sakiTxebTan. gdmep-Si ganxiluli TiTqmis yvela garemosdacviTi sakiTxi urTierTgadamkveTia, rac imas
niSnavs, rom maTi gadaWra ver moxerxdeba mxolod erTi romelime uwyebis mier an xelisuflebis mxolod erT
doneze. garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro, ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro,
regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministro, soflis meurneobis saministro, Sromis, janmrTelobisa da
socialuri dacvis saministro, energetikis saministro da a.S, aseve, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, arian is
uwyebebi, romlebic moxseniebulia gdmep-is faqtobrivad yvela TavSi, rogorc mokle da grZelvadiani miznebis
misaRwevad saWiro konkretuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli struqturebi. 14.1 CanarTSi
mocemulia magaliTebi, romlebic axdenen politikis integraciis saWiroebis ilustrirebas.

CanarTi 14.1 politikis integraciis saWiroeba
    I. gadawyvetilebebi, romlebmac SeiZleba zegavlena moaxdinon transportiT gamowveul dabinZurebaze, rac erT-erTi
       ZiriTadi garemosdacviTi problemaa saqarTvelos did qalaqebSi, miiReba sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebebis mier
       sxvadasxva doneze. esenia: saqarTvelos parlamenti; saqarTvelos mTavroba; ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis
       saministro; regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministro da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebi. yvela am uwyebis
       erToblivi, koordinirebuli moqmedebis gareSe, SeuZlebelia transportiT gamowveuli haeris dabinZurebis Semcireba.
   II. gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia bunebrivi resursebis moxmarebasTan (mag. iseT sferoebSi rogoricaa tyis
       marTva, biomravalferovneba, Savi zRva da daculi teritoriebi), erTi mxriv ukavSirdeba ekonomikur ganviTarebas, xolo
       meore mxriv, bunebis dacvas, mdgrad moxmarebas da turizmis ganviTarebas. Sesabamisad, am gadawyvetilebebis
       miRebis procesSi CarTulni arian sxvadasxva uwyebebi: garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro,
       ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro; soflis meurneobis saministro; regionuli ganviTarebisa da
       infrastruqturis saministro; kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministro; ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro; samecniero
       kvleviTi institutebi da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebi.
  III. wylis marTva, gansakuTrebiT wylis resursebis integrirebuli marTva warmoudgenelia kargi koordinaciis gareSe
       sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebebsa da saxelmwifo marTvis sxvadasxva doneebs Soris. wyalTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi
       amJamad Semdegi uwyebebis kompetenciaa: garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro; Sromis,
       janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro, ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro; soflis meurneobis
       saministro; regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministro da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebi.
 IV. aris sakiTxebi, romlebic scildeba erTi romelime municipalitetis TviTmmarTvelobis kompetenciebs, rogoricaa
       magaliTad, wyalmomaragebisa da wyalarinebis sistemebis dagegmva, an sayofacxovrebo narCenebis nagavsayrelebis
       dagegmva. amrigad, aseve aucilebelia koordinacia erovnul doneze mimdinare procesebsa da adgilobriv saWiroebebs
       Soris.

saqarTveloSi arsebuli gamocdileba
        politikis integracia gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania saqarTveloSi, radgan xSirad erT seqtorSi arsebuli
pasuxismgeblobebi gadanawilebulia sxvadaxva saministroebs Soris, maSin roca, zogadad, horizontaluri
koordinacia saministroebs Soris ar aris Zlieri. calkeul SemTxvevebSi rTuldeba pasuxismgeblobebis dadgena,
gansakuTrebiT, roca procesSi CarTulia erTze meti uwyeba, an saxelmwifo marTvis erTze meti done. mdgradi
ganviTarebis strategia, romelic garemosdacviTi politikis integraciis erT-erT instruments warmoadgens, jer-jerobiT
ar aris SemuSavebuli. aseve ar arsebobs Sefaseba programebis doneze – strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefaseba,
romelic mniSvnelovani instrumentia imisaTvis raTa moxdes ZiriTadi gegmebisa da programebis yvela potenciuri,
mniSvnelovani zegavlenis gaTvaliswineba adreuli dagegmvis procesSi. vertikaluri integracia erovnul da adgilobriv
doneebze Soris aseve ar aris Zlieri. ar arsebobs platforma saxelmwifos sxvadasxva doneebs Soris



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TanamSromlobisTvis. xSirad erovnuli da adgilobrivi uwyebebis pasuxismgeblobebi bundovnad aris gansazRvruli da
urTierTgadafarvadia.
        saqarTveloSi arsebobs politikis integraciis ramdenime instrumenti. maT Soris: Sefaseba proeqtis doneze,
rogoricaa garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba (gzS), romelic axdens gadawyvetilebis procesis informirebas
bunebriv da socialur garemoze proeqtis yvela SesaZlo zegavlenis Sesaxeb; bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis
licenziebi; erovnuli garemosdacviTi moqmedebaTa gegma; saSualovadiani samoqmedo gegma, romelic iZleva
sxvadasxva saministroebis CarTvis SesaZleblobas politikisa da biujetis dagegmvis procesSi, maTi seqtorebis
farglebSi; da sxv. Tumca, sakmarisi sakanonmdeblo da instituciuri CarCos ararsebobis pirobebSi, aseve resursebis
simciris gamo, es instrumentebi jer kidev ar aris sakmarisad kargad Camoyalibebuli imisaTvis, raTa moxdes
adekvaturi garemosdacviTi politikis integraciis uzrunvelyofa. garda amisa, saqarTveloSi arsebobdnen sxvadasxva
samTavrobaTSorisi uwyebebi, rogoricaa samTavrobaTSorisi komisiebi, romelTa mizans warmoadgenda im
urTierTgadamkveTi sakiTxebis gadaWra, romlebic erTze meti saxelmwifo uwyebis kompetenciis qveS iyo
moqceuli. Tumca, TanamSromlobis naTlad Camoyalibebuli meqanizmebis ararsebobis gamo, aseTi komisiebi ar iyo
efeqturi. axlaxans SemuSavda saqarTvelos regionuli ganviTarebis strategia 2010-2017 wlebisaTvis, romelic wvlils
Seitans vertikaluri koordinaciis gaumjobesebaSi centralur, regionul da adgilobriv institutebs Soris, da aseve,
horizontaluri koordinaciis gaumjobesebas municipalitetebs Soris.

daskvna
       garemosdacviTi politikis integracia aucilebeli instrumentia ekonomikuri, socialuri da garemos interesebis
dasabalanseblad imgvarad, rom moxdes mTliani sargeblis maqsimizacia da konfliqtebis da Seusabamobebis
minimizacia. sul ufro da ufro metad xdeba imis gacnobiereba, rom garemos, ganviTarebis da socialuri sakiTxebi
urTierTdamokidebulia, da rom janmrTeli garemo aucilebeli winapirobaa socialuri keTildReobisa da ekonomikuri
ganviTarebisaTvis. tradiciul garemosdacviT politikas ar ZaluZs adamianis saqmianobiT gamowveuli garemoze
zegavlenebis Semcireba. imavdroulad, garemosdacviTi politikis integracia mravali qveynisaTvis erT-erTi ZiriTadi
gamowvevaa mmarTvelobis sferoSi.
       politikis integracia erT-erTi mniSvnelovani pirobaa gdmep-is ganxorcielebisaTvis. rogorc es naTlad Cans,
TiTqmis yvela sakiTxi, romelsac winamdebare programa moicavs, urTierTgadamkveTia. CarTuli saministroebis da
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis koordinirebuli qmedebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba calkeuli RonisZiebebis
ganxorcieleba, da Sesabamisad, programis mier dasaxuli miznebis miRweva. politikis integraciisaTvis Zlieri CarCos
ararsebobis pirobebSi, aucilebelia garkveuli Zalisxmevis gamoCena kompetenturi saxelmwifo uwyebebis mxridan,
imisaTvis, raTa moiZebnos platforma TanamSromlobisa da qmedebaTa koordinaciisaTvis. aseve, Zalian
mniSvnelovania am qmedebebis koorinacia donorebTan, imisaTvis raTa maT naTeli warmodgena SeeqmnaT
qveynis saWiroebebis Sesaxeb da aseve, raTa Tavidan aviciloT sxvadasxva proeqtebis SesaZlo urTierTgadafarvebi.
garemosdacviTi politikis integracia mniSvnelovania ara mxolod garemos SenarCunebisaTvis, aramed mdgradi
ekonomikuri zrdis da adamianTa keTildReobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi.




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danarTi 1. abreviaturebi


aess - atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagento
aSS –amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi
gdbrs - garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro
gdi - garemos dacvis inspeqcia
gzS – garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba
gdmep - garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa erovnuli programa
gis – geoinformaciuli sistema
gms - ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro
emgs - ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro
es - energetikis saministro
Ts – Tavdacvis saministro
is - iusticiis saministro
mqw – miwisqveSa wylebi
rgis - regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saminsitro
saks - saxelmwifo aRricxvis da kontrolis sistema
sgm - sufTa ganviTarebis meqanizmis
sms - soflis meurneobis saministro
Sss - Sinagan saqmeTa saministro
Sjsds - Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro




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