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Download - Megamas Training Company OPITO BOSIET NEBOSH IOSH HSE

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									Food
Hygiene
Food hygiene is a broad term used to describe the preservation and
preparation of foods in a manner that ensures the food is safe for
human consumption. This process of kitchen safety includes proper
storage of food items prior to use, maintaining a clean environment
when preparing the food, and making sure that all serving dishes
are clean and free of bacteria that could lead to some type of
contamination.
         Some key facts to persuade you to
                 wash correctly:
•Hands are the main route for transferring food poisoning bacteria to your food

•Effective & frequent hand washing prevents the spread of cold & flu

•Even though hands may appear to be clean, they may carry germs or microorganisms that
 are capable of causing disease

•It is important to know how to wash properly because as you can see from the diagram
  below, there are parts that are often missed:

Wash hands when:
•entering the kitchen
•before preparing food
•after touching raw food such as meat, eggs
•after touching waste or the bin
•after cleaning
•after blowing the nose, even if you’ve used layers of tissue to do so
•after touching an animal
•after changing a nappkin
•after using the telephone
•after smoking
•often when someone in your home is sick
                                 Step-by-step:
1. Remove rings & watches.
2. Wet hands & wrists thoroughly with warm
    running water.
3. Use soap & lather thoroughly.
4. Rub hands together - Right over left, left over
    right.
5. Palm to palm, interlace your fingers & continue
   scrubbing by sliding your fingers back and forth.
   Clean under your nails as well. Steps 4 & 5
   should take at least 20 seconds. For a visual
   guide to this, see my pictures.
6. Rinse the hands with clean running water
    thoroughly.
7. Use disposable paper towel for drying (Don’t
    use a common hand towel - remember that
    germs thrive on moist surfaces). Make sure you
    dry your hands thoroughly too, as damp hands
    also spread bacteria.
8. Turn off tap using the paper towel, to protect
    your hands from recontamination.
9. If you were washing in the rest room, use a
   clean paper towel to open the door.
                What is food safety?
Food safety means preparing, storing and cooking food to keep it free from
harmful bacteria or toxins that could make you or other people ill.
Simple measures, such as always washing your hands before preparing food and
after touching raw meat, and storing raw meat separately from cooked meat,
are important starting points.

It is especially important to think about food hygiene when catering for
children, pregnant women and elderly people, for whom food poisoning can
have more serious consequences.

Food labels often give you storage, preparation and cooking instructions, which
you should follow.

Do not ignore 'use by' dates, as the product may not be safe to eat or drink
after this time. Remember that food can also go off before its 'use by' date if it
is not stored properly, so use your common sense. Follow the manufacturer's
guidelines for safe storage of food. If in doubt, throw it out.
         How to prepare food safely
Before you start preparing food, always wash your hands with soap and hot water. You should
also wash your hands after touching raw meat, poultry and eggs, and after using the toilet, after
gardening, touching the bin or handling pets.

Do not forget to dry your hands too, as germs spread more easily in moist conditions.

Uncooked meat, poultry, eggs and fish can easily contaminate other foods, utensils and surfaces,
so make sure you wipe surfaces and wash up as soon as you finish preparing raw foods.

Checking food is cooked properly
• Bacteria are killed by heat, so make sure food is thoroughly cooked throughout before you
   serve it:
• Make a small cut in the middle of the food to check it is piping hot.
    Steam should come out.
• If you bake a cake or quiche, the middle should be set.
• If you cook meat such as poultry, sausages or burgers, the juice
    should run clear. There should be no pink or red meat.
                Storing and freezing food
Most products have storage instructions on the label. Follow these so the food is safe to eat and tastes its best.

Packing and wrapping
•    Do not put a half-empty can of food in the fridge. When it is open to the air, the metal can contaminate the food.
     Store the contents in another container.
•    Avoid using kitchen foil to wrap acidic foods, such as tomatoes and soft fruits, because aluminium can affect their
     taste.
•    Never use foil or metal containers in a microwave oven. They can damage the microwave or catch fire.
•    Do not use cling film over hot saucepans or hot food, as it may melt. It can be used in the microwave as long as it
     does not touch the food.
•    Do not use cling film for wrapping high-fat foods such as cheese, fried meat and pastry. Check the packet
     instructions.
Storing fridge items
•    Lots of ready-to-eat foods, dairy products and meat need to be kept in the fridge to stop bacteria growing on
     them. These foods should be kept in the fridge for as long as possible before serving, and used within their 'use
     by' date.
•    If you're having a buffet, put out sandwiches, meat and fish at the last minute. If you are saving leftover food, let it
     cool down as quickly as possible (ideally within one to two hours), cover it, and put it straight in the fridge.
•    Keep raw meat in a sealed container on the bottom shelf of the fridge, to stop it dripping onto other foods.
Freezing
•    If you are freezing meat or fish, try to do so on the day of purchase (make sure this is before the 'use by' date).
•    Defrost meat and fish thoroughly before cooking. Lots of liquid will come out as meat thaws, so stand it in a bowl
     to stop bacteria in the juice spreading to other things. Defrosting should be done:
•    overnight in a refrigerator, in a covered container stored away from ready-to-eat foods, or
•    in a microwave on the defrost setting.
•    Do not defrost food at room temperature and never re-freeze food once it has thawed.
Dried food
•    After opening packets of dried foods, such as flour, rice and breakfast cereals, reseal
     them tightly or transfer the contents to storage jars with tight lids.
Basic Way of Keeping Food safety
          Risks of contaminated food
Foodborne illness

Bacteria that cause food poisoning can multiply rapidly at temperatures between 5°C and 63°C. In
the right conditions, one bacterium can multiply to more than four million bacteria in eight hours.

You can get food poisoning:
• from eating food that has not been cooked properly so that the bacteria have not been
    destroyed, and
• by eating food that has been contaminated, because someone did not wash the food, their
    hands or utensils properly before handling the food (although meat should not be washed).

You may not realise you have eaten contaminated food as the taste, appearance and smell of the
 food is usually unaffected.

Bacteria in contaminated food can spread to others foods through unwashed hands or shared
utensils.

This is called cross-contamination.
         What are the most common
           foodborne diseases?
Bacteria ( tiny one -celled organisms) can cause two types of food poisoning -
infective food poisoning and toxic food poisoning:

Infective food poisoning occurs as a result of eating live bacteria that is in the
 food. The best way to prevent this type of food poisoning is to prevent the
 growth of the micro-organisms. Examples of bacteria that cause infective
 food poisoning are Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli.

In contrast, toxic food poisoning results from toxins that are produced by
 some bacteria and it is these toxins that cause illness. In general , the toxins
 cannot be removed or inactivated by cooking. The main food poisoning
 bacteria that produce toxins are Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium
 perfringens and some types of Escherichia coli.
                  Foodborne Diseases
                            Listeria bacteria

                                                         Danger Zone
     Bacteria Growth

                          Clostridium Perfringens



                                                    Staphylococcal bacteria
                          Campylobacter bacteria


Food Poisoning Microbes

                           Salmonella bacteria          Botulism bacteria
                                                                Quiz
1. A food handler can be:                                             5. Under the right conditions bacteria multiple every:
A) Kitchen hand                                                       A) 3 hours
B) Canteen worker                                                     B) hour
C) Waiting staff                                                      C) 20 minutes
D) Someone who clears and cleans tables                               D) day
E) Any of the above
                                                                      6. The ‘Danger Zone’ is the temperature range between:
2. Who is responsible for safe food handling in the food premises?    A) 50-60°C
A) Head chef                                                          B) 5-60°C
B) Owner or manager                                                   C) 25-35°C
C) Anyone handling food                                               D) 0-35°C
D) All the above
                                                                      7. Which of the following is an example of a BAD food hygiene
3. A physical hazard should not be found in food. A physical hazard      practice that could lead to cross contamination.
   could be:                                                          A) Chopping raw and cooked meat on the same chopping board
A) Herbs and spices                                                   B) Washing all vegetables in clean water
B) Glass, hair, band aid, nail                                        C) Keeping food in food grade containers
C) Peanuts, walnuts,                                                  D) Washing hands before handling food
D) Orange peel
                                                                      8. When storing food in the freezer you should always:
4. How can you tell if food has enough bacteria to cause food         A) Cover, label and date foods
   poisoning?                                                         B) Keep foods rock solid frozen
A) It smells bad                                                      C) Rotate stock – first in, first out rule
B) It tastes bad                                                      D) All the above
C) It looks bad
D) You can’t tell. It looks, smells and tastes normal.
                                                               Quiz
9. High Risk foods such as chicken should be cooked to an internal   13. When preparing food, any cuts and wounds should be:
   core temperature of:                                              A) Covered with a band aid
A) 60°C                                                              B) Left uncovered
B) 75°C or higher                                                    C) Covered with a blue band aid & disposable glove
C) 70°C                                                              D) Bandaged with gauze
D) 150°C
                                                                     14. What are the basic steps for cleaning effectively?
10. Everyone carries bacteria on and inside their bodies. Bacteria   A) Main cleaning and rinsing
    are found on your:                                               B) Scraping, main cleaning, sanitising and wiping
A) Hair                                                              C) Scraping, main cleaning, sanitising and air drying
B) Skin                                                              D) Scraping and sanitising
C) Hands
D) Ears and nose                                                     15. Pests are a problem in any food premises. The main problem is:
E) Mouth                                                             A) They smell
F) All the above                                                     B) They spread disease through bacteria and droppings
                                                                     C) They eat the food
11. What are the basic steps for washing hands?                      D) They frighten staff
A) Apply soap, wash well, rins e and use air drier
B) Wash thoroughly and dry                                           16. At temperatures above 10°C most food poisoning
C) Apply soap, wash well, rinse and dry with tea towel                   bacteria die
D) Wash thoroughly, rinse and dry                                    A) True
                                                                     B) False
12. Food-handling gloves must be changed frequently and also:
A) After handling garbage                                            17. Bacteria need food to grow
B) After every break                                                 A) True
C) After picking things up off the floor                             B) False
D) Between handling raw and cooked foods
E) All the above
                                                             Quiz
18. Food poisoning bacteria double in number every 10-20 minutes    24. You can tell food is contaminated with food poisoning bacteria
A) True                                                                   because it tastes sour
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
19. The temperature inside a fridge should be -18°C
A) True                                                             25. Food poisoning bacteria can be found in soil
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
20. Food poisoning bacteria die when frozen
A) True                                                             26. The rest room is the only room where you can cough or sneeze
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
21. The inside temperature of a freezer should be 4°C
A) True                                                             27. The main reason hair is covered in a food area is hats look smart
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
22. Rust can contaminate food
A) True                                                             28. You should not use pieces of meat over 2.5kg because they take
B) False                                                                too long to cool.
                                                                    A) True
23. When at work if you have diarrhoea the first thing you should   B)            False
    do is go home
A) True                                                             29.Water at 82°C will reduce bacteria to a safe level
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
                                                                Quiz
30. A common symptom of food poisoning is a cough                    36. One of the reasons you should not wear jewellery in the kitchen
A) True                                                                  is it can carry dirt and bacteria
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
31. A common source of food poisoning bacteria is found in dried
    milk powder                                                      37. The main reason you should wash your hands at work is to
A) True                                                                  prevent chapping
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
32. If you cut yourself at work you should stop work and go home
A) True                                                              38. The lowest temperature you should store hot food is 63°C
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
33. After handling raw meat it is not important to wash your hands
A) True                                                              39. Some bacteria produce spores to survive high temperature
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
34. Disinfectants are used to reduce bacteria to a safe level
A) True
B) False

35. Physical contamination of food can be caused by insects
A) True
B) False
                                           Quiz Answers
1. A food handler can be:                                             5. Under the right conditions bacteria multiple every:
A) Kitchen hand                                                       A) 3 hours
B) Canteen worker                                                     B) hour
C) Waiting staff                                                      C) 20 minutes
D) Someone who clears and cleans tables                               D) day
E) Any of the above
                                                                      6. The ‘Danger Zone’ is the temperature range between:
2. Who is responsible for safe food handling in the food premises?    A) 50-60°C
A) Head chef                                                          B) 5-60°C
B) Owner or manager                                                   C) 25-35°C
C) Anyone handling food                                               D) 0-35°C
D) All the above
                                                                      7. Which of the following is an example of a BAD food hygiene
3. A physical hazard should not be found in food. A physical hazard      practice that could lead to cross contamination.
   could be:                                                          A) Chopping raw and cooked meat on the same chopping board
A) Herbs and spices                                                   B) Washing all vegetables in clean water
B) Glass, hair, band aid, nail                                        C) Keeping food in food grade containers
C) Peanuts, walnuts,                                                  D) Washing hands before handling food
D) Orange peel
                                                                      8. When storing food in the freezer you should always:
4. How can you tell if food has enough bacteria to cause food         A) Cover, label and date foods
   poisoning?                                                         B) Keep foods rock solid frozen
A) It smells bad                                                      C) Rotate stock – first in, first out rule
B) It tastes bad                                                      D) All the above
C) It looks bad
D) You can’t tell. It looks, smells and tastes normal.
                                               Quiz Answers
9. High Risk foods such as chicken should be         13. When preparing food, any cuts and wounds
cooked to an internal core temperature of:           should be:
A) 60°C                                              A) Covered with a band aid
B) 75°C or higher                                    B) Left uncovered
C) 70°C                                              C) Covered with a blue band aid & disposable glove
D) 150°C                                             D) Bandaged with gauze

10. Everyone carries bacteria on and inside their    14. What are the basic steps for cleaning
bodies. Bacteria are found on your:                  effectively?
A) Hair                                              A) Main cleaning and rinsing
B) Skin                                              B) Scraping, main cleaning, sanitising and wiping
C) Hands                                             C) Scraping, main cleaning, sanitising and air drying
D) Ears and nose                                     D) Scraping and sanitising
E) Mouth
F) All the above                                     15. Pests are a problem in any food premises.
                                                     The main problem is:
11. What are the basic steps for washing hands?      A) They smell
A) Apply soap, wash well, rins e and use air drier   B) They spread disease through bacteria and
B) Wash thoroughly and dry                           droppings
C) Apply soap, wash well, rinse and dry with tea     C) They eat the food
towel                                                D) They frighten staff
D) Wash thoroughly, rinse and dry                    A GUIDE TO FOOD HYGIENE QUIZ SHEET 1

12. Food-handling gloves must be changed             16. At temperatures above 10°C most food poisoning
frequently and also:                                     bacteria die
A) After handling garbage                            A) True
B) After every break                                 B) False
C) After picking things up off the floor
D) Between handling raw and cooked foods             17. Bacteria need food to grow
E) All the above                                     A) True
                                                     B) False
                                           Quiz Answers
18. Food poisoning bacteria double in number every 10-20 minutes    24. You can tell food is contaminated with food poisoning bacteria
A) True                                                                 because it tastes sour
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
19. The temperature inside a fridge should be -18°C
A) True                                                             25. Food poisoning bacteria can be found in soil
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
20. Food poisoning bacteria die when frozen
A) True                                                             26. The rest room is the only room where you can cough or sneeze
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
21. The inside temperature of a freezer should be 4°C
A) True                                                             27. The main reason hair is covered in a food area is hats look smart
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
22. Rust can contaminate food
A) True                                                             28. You should not use pieces of meat over 2.5kg because they take
B) False                                                                too long to cool.
                                                                    A) True
23. When at work if you have diarrhoea the first thing you should   B) False
    do is go home
A) True                                                             29.Water at 82°C will reduce bacteria to a safe level
B) False                                                            A) True
                                                                    B) False
                                             Quiz Answers
30. A common symptom of food poisoning is a cough                    36. One of the reasons you should not wear jewellery in the kitchen
A) True                                                                  is it can carry dirt and bacteria
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
31. A common source of food poisoning bacteria is found in dried
    milk powder                                                      37. The main reason you should wash your hands at work is to
A) True                                                                  prevent chapping
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
32. If you cut yourself at work you should stop work and go home
A) True                                                              38. The lowest temperature you should store hot food is 63°C
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
33. After handling raw meat it is not important to wash your hands
A) True                                                              39. Some bacteria produce spores to survive high temperature
B) False                                                             A) True
                                                                     B) False
34. Disinfectants are used to reduce bacteria to a safe level
A) True
B) False

35. Physical contamination of food can be caused by insects
A) True
B) False
                                    Useful Link
50 restaurants rated for hygiene, service




Zareena Amiruddin Jan 15th, 2010
BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN

FIFTY restaurants from all over the country have become the first in Brunei to be awarded grade
certificates reflecting their level of hygiene and service following an assessment by an inspection panel
appointed by the Ministry of Home Affairs.

 brudirect.com/.../food-hygiene-and-clean-environment-attract-customers-sedc-chairman.html




 www.moh.gov.bn/job/healthinspector.htm

								
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