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					                                                                                                   DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND WATER RESOURCES
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                                                                                                                                                                                      EDITION 3

                                                                                                ESD DESIGN GUIDE
                                                                                                                                                       ESD DESIGN GUIDE
                                                                                                                                                       OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

                                                                                                OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                EDITION 3

                                                                                                                                                                           MAY 2007

                                            stage for office and public buildings
                                            to make a difference on energy,
                                            water, waste, greenhouse emissions,
                                            indoor environment quality and other
                                            sustainability performance issues.
                                            The guide also includes case studies
                                            of leading Australian buildings to
                                            demonstrate that the market is already
                                            able to design and deliver these

                                            This document is part of a developing
                                            suite of guides, developed with
MINISTER’S FOREWORD                         agencies and industry, including the
                                            Water efficiency guide – office and
The built environment is where              public buildings and a green leasing
Australians live and where many of us       guide. Forthcoming publications
spend our working lives. Our buildings      include an ESD Operations Guide for        The Department of the
say a lot about who we are and what         owners, managers and tenants, which        Environment and Water Resources
we value.                                   will introduce the key opportunities       Content written by Sustainable
                                            to improve the environmental               Built Environments (SBE), Centre
According to the OECD in 2003,              performance of existing buildings.         for Design at RMIT University and
buildings make up a big part of our                                                    Edition 3 updated by SBE and the
environmental footprint – consuming         In mid 2007 the Australian Government      University of Melbourne. Primary
between 30 and 50 per cent                  will release Your Building – a             author Dr Dominique Hes, Faculty of
of available raw materials, and             comprehensive best practice guide          Architecture, Building and Planning,
accounting for 25 to 40 per cent of final   for commercial buildings at all phases     The University of Melbourne.
energy use.                                 of their life-cycles. This online guide
                                            will be a companion to the well-known      Prepared with reference to the
In addition, urban water demand is          guide for residential buildings called     Manningham City Council Doncaster
significant, at 16% of Australia’s total    Your Home.                                 Hill Sustainability Guidelines.
water consumption – with up to 10% of
that use in our office buildings.           While the challenges of building and       Graphic design by DesignInc
                                            living sustainably are significant, this   Melbourne.
The Australian Government is taking         guide will help the building design
up the challenge of making buildings        and construction industry to learn from    Video clips have been included in
more sustainable. As well as having         leading examples, and to help improve      the online guide to provide additional
policy for energy efficiency in our own     the environmental performance of our       content, context and experience
activities, the Australian Government is    cities.                                    (see
committed to working with industry and                                                 publications). Each is preceded by a
other stakeholders to provide concise       This is an important step in the           short section of the clip transcribed
and accurate guidance on building           ongoing process of improving the           and edited to a print readable
environmentally sustainable structures      sustainability of our built environment.   form. We thank Mark Thomson,
and running those assets well.                                                         Stephen Webb, Mick Pearce, David
                                            The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP                Oppenheim, Kerryn Wilmott, Chris
This third edition of our popular           Minister for the Environment and           Barnett, Martin Osolnik, Tim Hurburgh,
ESD Design Guide explores the               Water Resources                            Paul Edwards, Paul Bannister and
opportunities that exist at the design      April 2007                                 Sean McArdle for their participation.

02                                                                 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS               ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS   075


                                                Foreword.........................................02            Opportunity 9
                                                                                                               Water Conservation...................... 31
                                                Introduction ....................................04
                                                                                                               Opportunity 10
                                                Australia and ecologically sustainable                         Land use and ecology ..................35
                                                development ....................................05
                                                                                                               Case Studies
                                                Rating tools and environmental
                                                performance .......................................0           8 Brindabella Circuit .........................36

                                                Principles of environmentally                                  30 The Bond .....................................39
                                                sustainable building design ........10
                                                                                                               CH2, Council House 2 ......................41
                                                Summary of ESD opportunities in
                                                building ...........................................12         743 Ann Street ..................................43

                                                Opportunity 1                                                  SES Headquarters ...........................45
ISBN 0 642 553 491
                                                Integrated design ..........................13
© Commonwealth of Australia 2007                                                                               Waalitj Building: Murdoch University
This work is copyright. Apart from any          Opportunity 2                                                  ..........................................................47
use as permitted under the Copyright Act
1968, no part may be reproduced by any          Social sustainability and occupant
process without prior written permission        satisfaction .....................................15           National Museum of Australia ..........49
from the Commonwealth, available from the
Department of the Environment and Water
Resources. Requests and inquiries concerning    Opportunity 3                                                  60L: 60 Leicester Street ...................52
reproduction and rights should be addressed
to: Assistant Secretary, Environment Research   Optimising indoor environment
and Information Branch, Department of the       quality..............................................16        40 Albert Road .................................55
Environment and Water Resources GPO Box
787 Canberra ACT 2601.
                                                Opportunity 4                                                  Galleries, Museums and Libraries ...59
Disclaimer                                      Minimising energy use................ 18
The views and opinions expressed in this                                                                       RAAF Richmond ...............................63
publication are those of the authors and
do not necessarily reflect those of the         Opportunity 5
Australian Government or the Minister for the   Minimising transport impact........25                          Glossary..........................................65
Environment and Water Resources.

While reasonable efforts have been made to      Opportunity 6                                                  Appendix One
ensure that the contents of this publication
are factually correct, the Commonwealth does    Minimising ozone layer depletion                               NABERS and ABGR .........................70
not accept responsibility for the accuracy or   ..........................................................26
completeness of the contents, and shall not
be liable for any loss or damage that may be                                                                   Appendix Two
occasioned directly or indirectly through the   Opportunity 7                                                  GBCA and Green Star ......................71
use of, or reliance on, the contents of this
publication.                                    Choosing materials .......................27
                                                                                                               Index ................................................73
For more information contact:                   Opportunity 8                          Minimising Waste.......................... 29

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                                                         03

    The 2006 Australian State of the            and have a major part to play in
    Environment report found that the key       meeting Australia’s international                            ESD: Ecologically Sustainable
    issue arising from human settlements        greenhouse targets.3                                         Development – ‘using,
    is the pressure they impose on the                                                                       conserving and enhancing the
                                                                                                             community’s resources so that
    environment in terms of the demand          The Australian Government wishes
                                                                                                             ecological processes, on which
    for land, water, energy and other           to show leadership in minimising the                         life depends, are maintained,
    resources. According to the 2006            environmental impacts of its buildings                       and the total quality of life,
    SoE Committee, a long-term but              and operations, including leased                             now and in the future, can be
    immediate change in materials and           premises. This guide provides an                             increased’. (NSESD, DEH 1992)
    energy balances is needed to give           introduction to the key environmental
    more efficient urban systems, and           issues relevant to office buildings and
    this requires a decoupling of resource      public buildings. It also outlines what                   bulk of this guide outlines initiatives
    use from economic progress.                 you can do to address these issues in                     that can be put in place to minimise
    Reductions in both net consumption          your building project, supporting this                    the environmental and social impacts
    and waste are needed for a more             with evidence from case studies of                        of buildings.
    sustainable human environment.              leading buildings.
    This will involve greater population                                                                  Several case studies are presented
    densities than currently is the case,       Relevant Australian buildings covered                     to illustrate various approaches to
    significant increases in building and       by this guide are: Office buildings                       achieving ESD in buildings:
    material recycling, the capture and         (Building Code of Australia – BCA                         • 8 Brindabella Circuit, Canberra
    use of stormwater, the recycling of         class 5) and public buildings such                            - the first project to achieve 5 Star
    wastewater and biological waste,            as libraries, art galleries, museums                          Green Star - Office Design certified
    and improvements in urban form              and similar cultural institutions (BCA                        rating
    and urban structures. It also requires      class 9b). This is not intended to refer                  • 30 The Bond, Sydney - ESD in a
    changes in behaviour by individuals,        to schools, hospitals or correctional                         new building using a ‘business as
    so education and awareness-raising          facilities (for information on these see                      usual’ approach
    are important factors. The challenge is     the various guides developed by state                     • CH2, Melbourne - Australia’s first 6
    to implement this insight.1                 departments) although many of the                             Star Green Star - Office Design v1
                                                concepts and strategies outlined here                         project
    Buildings contribute significantly          may be relevant to those facilities.                      • 743 Ann Street, Brisbane – a
    to this negative impact on our                                                                            refurbishment of an office building
    environment, consuming 32% of the           This guide gives a basic introduction                         in Brisbane
    world’s resources, including 12%            to ecological sustainability issues and                   • Waalitj Building: Murdoch
    of the world’s fresh water and up to        specifically how the built environment                        University, Perth - educational
    40% of the its energy. Buildings also       affects them. It begins by outlining                          building
    produce 40% of waste going to landfill      the Australian position on Ecologically                   • SES headquarters, Melbourne
    and 40% of air emissions.2 In Australia,    Sustainable Development (ESD) and                         • National Museum of Australia,
    commercial buildings produce 8.8%           some key policies relevant to buildings                       Canberra - ESD initiatives
    of the national greenhouse emissions        and ESD. The next section outlines                            in a highly sensitive display
                                                the tools that are available to help in                       environment
                                                achieving ESD in Australian offices                       • 60L, Melbourne - a refurbishment
                                                and public buildings, specifically                            of a warehouse to offices
                                                ABGR, NABERS and Green Star. The                          • 40 Albert Road, Melbourne - first
                                                1   DEW (2006) State of Environment Summary
                                                                                                              refurbished building to achieve 6
                                                    Brochure. The Department of the Environment and           Star Green Star - Office Design v1
                                                    Water Resources: Canberra. www.environment.           • Galleries, Museums and Libraries -
                                                    settlements-2.html                                        various ESD opportunities in public
                                                2   OECD (2003) Environmentally Sustainable                   buildings
                                                    Buildings: Challenges and Policies. A report by the
                                                    OECD.                                                 • RAAF, Richmond NSW - 5 Green
    Figure 1. The earth, image sourced from     3   DEW (2001) Australia State of the Environment             Star - Office Design v1 and Office
    Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines,       report. The Department of the Environment and
    Manningham City Council.                        Water Resources: Canberra.                                as Built.

    04                                                                       ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

                                                                                                                       AUSTRALIA AND
                                                 ecologically sustainable development
Ecologically Sustainable Development           intergenerational principle)                        This reporting should form part of the
(ESD) represents one of the greatest         • dealing cautiously with risk and                    broader Section 516A ESD report
challenges facing Australia’s                  irreversibility (the precautionary                  on the organisation’s overall
governments, industry, business and            principle) and                                      ESD performance as outlined in
community in the coming years.4              • recognising the global dimension.                   the document Generic ESD and
In 1990, the Australian Government                                                                 Environmental Performance Indicators
endorsed the following definition for        The Environment Protection and                        for Commonwealth Organisations
ESD in Australia:                            Biodiversity Conservation Act                         (GPICO).7
                                             1999 (EPBC Act) is the Australian
  ‘....using, conserving and enhancing       Government’s major piece of                           The Australian Government has a
  the community’s resources so that
  ecological processes, on which life        environmental legislation. It protects                specific policy regarding government
  depends, are maintained, and the           the environment, particularly                         energy use. This was originally
  total quality of life, now and in the      matters of National Environmental                     announced in November 1997 as
  future, can be increased’.5                Significance. It streamlines national                 part of a package of measures in
                                             environmental assessment and                          Safeguarding the future: Australia’s
ESD is development which aims to             approvals process, as well as                         response to climate change, and was
meet the needs of Australians today,         protecting Australian biodiversity and                launched as the Energy Efficiency
while conserving our ecosystems for          integrating management of important                   in Government Operations (EEGO)
the benefit of future generations. To        natural and cultural places. It also                  Policy in 2006. This is an updated
do this, we need to develop ways of          contains requirements that Australian                 version of the Australian Government’s
using those environmental resources          Government agencies report on how                     1997 policy Measures for Improving
that form the basis of our economy           they are addressing the challenges of                 Energy Efficiency in Commonwealth
in a way which maintains and, where          ESD. Section 516A of the EPBC Act                     Operations.
possible, improves their range, variety      requires Commonwealth organisations
and quality. We also need to utilise         to include in their annual reports a                  A summary of the targets the policy
those resources to develop industry          section detailing the environmental                   set are:
and generate employment.                     performance of the organisation and                   • energy intensity portfolio targets by
                                             the organisation’s contribution to                       the 2011-12 financial year: 7500
The Australian Government has                ESD.6                                                    megajoules (MJ)/person/annum for
developed several strategies and                                                                      office tenant light and power; and
policies in response to the need             For existing buildings, the s516A                        400 MJ/m2/annum for office central
to ensure ecologically sustainable           part of their annual report can record                   services
development. The National Strategy           performance on water use, energy                      • minimum energy performance
for Ecologically Sustainable                 use (including greenhouse gas                            standards (generally 4.5 stars on
Development (NSESD) was launched             emissions), waste produced and any                       the Australian Building Greenhouse
in 1992 after extensive consultation         initiatives planned or in place to                       Rating (ABGR) or equivalent
with industry, the community,                minimise ESD impacts. For new                            scheme) in contracts, leases and
conservation groups, scientific              buildings, this report can include a                     other relevant documentation
organisations and all levels of              record of the ESD elements taken into                    for new buildings, major
Government. It identifies five key           account in the building requirements.                    refurbishments and new leases
principles of ESD:                                                                                    over 2000m2
                                             4   DEH (1992) NSESD Prepared by the Ecologically
• integrating economic and                       Sustainable Development Steering Committee        • must report on energy performance
    environmental goals in policies and          Endorsed by the Council of Australian
                                                 Governments December, 1992 ISBN 0 644 27253
    activities (the integration principle)       8, Introduction.
• ensuring that environmental assets         5   ibid Introduction
                                                                                                   To achieve best practice of 4.5 stars
                                             6   For more information of ESD reporting see www.
    are properly valued (the valuation          ABGR in new government office
    principle)                                   guidelines/pubs/esd-reporting-guidelines-2003.
                                                                                                   buildings and major refurbishments, a
• providing for equity within                7   For more information of ESD indicators see www.   maximum of 10 W/m2 for lighting and
    and between generations (the       
                                                                                                   9 W/m2 for general power (tenancy)

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                         05

    ecologically sustainable development
   No water targets have been set by the     based on an analysis of the design        target development and design
   Government but water targets can be       features; and (2) an outcome-based        requirements. The ABGR scheme
   set as part of the Energy Management      approach, which measures the              rates buildings from one to five stars
   Plan under the Green Lease Schedule.      actual consumption of resources and       with five stars representing exceptional
                                             environmental impacts of the building     greenhouse performance. ABGR
   Agencies and industry may wish to         in operation. Both approaches             can be used to rate the base building
   use the NABERS OFFICE - WATER             provide useful information to building    (central services), individual tenancies
   benchmarks in their leases.               owners, managers and tenants, and         or a whole building.
                                             have the potential to drive continuous
   For more information see:                 improvement of the building stock.        ABGR Homepage
                                             For assessing a range of
   For Australian Government buildings,      environmental aspects of commercial
   Australian ESD legislation and policies   buildings in Australia, Green Star -
   provide a clear direction for:            Office Design v2 assesses a project’s
   • planning buildings with a view to       design while other Green Star tools
      the long term while being feasible     assess construction and procurement
      in the short term                      environmental initiatives or existing
   • using the precautionary principle in    building’s environmental assets.
      all decision making                    Green Star rating tools do not assess
   • taking a global approach to             building occupant’s behaviour.
      issues – for example approaching
      greenhouse gas reduction through       The National Australian Built
      energy efficiency                      Environment Rating System (NABERS)
   • input from users and communities        uses an outcome-based approach
      on building projects                   to assess the environmental
                                                                                       Figure 2. 743 Ann Street interior, TVS
   • avoiding the use of materials           performance of existing buildings         Partnership.
      that have a negative effect on         (commercial office or residential
      biodiversity                           home). Ratings derived from a system
   • ensuring healthy indoor                 like NABERS that use an outcome-
      environments                           based approach will, to a degree,
   • reporting on performance.               be influenced by the behaviour of
                                             occupants - i.e. by factors often
   For related policies see the              not directly relevant to the building
   Policy Framework for Greening of          infrastructure itself. The ABGR tool is
   Government:                               used in both Green Star and NABERS       to cover energy performance. For that
                                             reason it is discussed first.
                                             The Australian Building Greenhouse
                                             Rating Scheme (ABGR) is
   A range of rating tools have been
                                             administered nationally by a group of
   developed internationally and in
                                             sustainable energy agencies (SEDO,
   Australia to measure various aspects
                                             SV, EPA and DEUS). To date, more
   of the environmental performance
                                             than 500 buildings have been officially
   of buildings. There are two main
   approaches to ratings: (1) a design-
   based approach, which seeks to
                                             ABGR has broad industry support
   predict the performance of a building
                                             and is being used for energy rating,
                                                                                       Figure 3. 743 Ann Street interior, TVS

    06                                                            ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

                                                                                                         RATING TOOLS AND
                                                                   environmental performance
Green Star has been developed by           Green Star - Office Existing Building
the Green Building Council of Australia    v1 rating tool has been withdrawn
(GBCA) with support from industry          and will be launched as an extended
and some government agencies.              PILOT within the first half of 2007.The
Green Star rating tools relate to the      new pilot tool will include revisions
various cycles of development, such        to the Management Efficiency
as design, procurement, construction       Supplement and Technical Manuals
and refurbishment.                         to give a more robust evaluation of
                                           management practices.
Green Star - Office Design v2
Assesses base building design              Green Star - Healthcare - PILOT
for new or refurbished commercial          Evaluates the environmental initiatives
office buildings. To be eligible to use    and potential environmental impact
this tool, the primary function of the     of Class 9A health facilities and
building should be as an office where      Class 9C aged care facilities either at
a minimum of 80% of the gross floor        design stage or when construction is
area must be Class 5 as defined by         complete.
the BCA.
                                           Green Star - Shopping Centre Design
Green Star - Office As Built v2            - PILOT
Validates environmental initiatives and    Evaluates the environmental initiatives
potential impacts of the construction      and potential environmental impact
stage of a Class 5 office building,        of new or refurbished shopping
and that the environmental initiatives     centres either at design stage or when
proposed in design have been               construction is complete
                                           Green Star - Education - PILOT                   “The client came to us with
Green Star - Office Interiors v1           The tool will allow designers to               Green Star - Office Design v1
Developed to assess the                    benchmark the environmental                    after documentation …so we
environmental initiatives incorporated     performance of educational facilities
                                                                                         developed two A4 pages …of
into an office tenancy fitout once         ranging from primary schools to
                                                                                       ESD initiatives that we could take
base building construction has been        universities and TAFE facilities. The
completed. The tool is recommended         tool is in its last development stage                             on for free.”
for use at the design stage of office      and will shortly be released for
fitouts to ensure that green initiatives   piloting.
are considered as early in the process
as possible. The tool assesses entire      Green Building Council Australia
tenancies after practical completion.      For case studies on Green Star
                                           accredited buildings see Appendix 2
Green Star - Office Existing Building      and
v1 - PILOT                                 &docid=969
Developed for the property industry
to assess existing building stock and
previously called Green Star Office

                                                                                      5 Star, Green Star - Office Design v1 imple-
                                                                                      mentation at Brindabella
                                                                                      Martin Osolnik, Associate, Daryl Jackson
                                                                                      Alastair Swayn

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                       07

    environmental performance
                                                     NABERS                                     star) to best practice (five stars). The
                                                     NABERS was developed by the                current market average is two and a
                                                     Australian Government in consultation      half stars.
                                                     with industry and stakeholders. It is
                                                     a national initiative managed by the       Further tools are being developed
                                                     NSW Government Department of               to measure comprehensively the
                                                     Energy, Utilities and Sustainability       full range of environmental impacts
                                                     (DEUS) and provides ratings for office     including: refrigerants (greenhouse
                                                     buildings, office tenancies and homes.     and ozone depletion potential),
                                                                                                stormwater runoff and pollution,
                                                     NABERS OFFICE is a performance             sewage, landscape diversity,
                                                     -based tool used to assess the             transport, indoor air quality, occupant
                                                     measured operational impacts of            satisfaction, waste and presence of
                                                     existing buildings. Environmental          toxic materials.
    Figure 4. Queenscliff Ecocentre, DPI Victoria.   performance is assessed against
                                                     a comprehensive set of key impact          The NABERS web site features case
                                                     categories. ABGR is used to assess         studies for general performance and
                                                     energy efficiency while a new tool,        energy. Water case studies are being
                                                     NABERS OFFICE WATER, was                   developed. Below is an example of
                                                     released in April 2006. This tool          the rating for water.
                                                     measures water consumption on a
                                                     scale of 1 to 5 stars, reflecting the      National Australian Built
                                                     performance of the building relative to    Environmental Rating System
                                                     the market, from least efficient (one

                                                                     Poor water management or systems
                                                                     The building is consuming a lot of unnecessary water. There are
                                                         1 star      significant opportunities that can be implemented to reduce water
                                                                     consumption, operating costs and the burden on our water supplies.

                                                                     Below average building performance
                                                                     The building is below current market average performance.
                                                        2 stars      There are opportunities that can be implemented to reduce water
                                                                     consumption, operating costs and the burden on our water supplies.

                                                                     Above average performance
                                                                     The building is performing better than the current market average.
                                                        3 stars      Water efficiency is a priority in this building. There are still
                                                                     opportunities for reducing water consumption.

                                                                     Strong performance
                                                                     The building demonstrates excellent water performance due to
                                                        4 stars      design and management practices, and high efficiency systems and

                                                                     Best building performance
                                                        5 stars      The building is leading the market in water efficiency due to
                                                                     integrated design, operation, management and water source choice.

    08                                                                    ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

                                                                                                     RATING TOOLS AND
                                                                     environmental performance
 Information required for Green Star                Green Star        NABERS         Information required for NABERS9
         - Office Design v28                         category         category
 Commissioning                      Management
 waste and environmental management
 Predicted ventilation, light, views, user      IEQ               Indoor            To be updated first half 2007
 control, VOCs, noise and asbestos                                Environment

                                                                  Occupant          Actual satisfaction – noise,
                                                                  Satisfaction      temperature, light and health aspects
                                                                                    such as headaches, nausea etc.
 ABGR rating with a minimum of                  Energy            Energy use and    Enter ABGR score 0-5 stars,
 4 stars, metering, peak demand                                   Greenhouse
 reduction, zoning                                                Emissions
 Proximity to public transport and car          Transport         Transport         Transport type, engine size, km and
 parking minimisation                                                               number of trips

 Water efficient fixtures, metering,            Water             Water Use         Actual m3 of water used
 cooling tower, irrigation, water
 collection and reuse
                                                (see water)       Stormwater        Rainwater captured and used,
                                                                  Runoff            permeable and non permeable
                                                                                    surfaces, rainfall, evaporation
                                                (see emissions)   Sewage Outfall    Actual m3 of water sent to sewer and
                                                                  Volume            reused

 Reuse, recycled content, PVC                   Materials         Toxic Materials   Presence, storage and disposal per
 minimisation, sustainable timber                                                   type

 Existing building system (façade/              (see materials)   Waste             To be updated first half 2007
 structure) reuse

 Soil reuse, adding ecological value            Land use          Landscape         Landscape types and m2
 and quality through remediation to                               Diversity
 land decommissioning
 Refrigerant capture, water pollution           Emissions         Stormwater        Actual m2 of different surfaces on
 minimisation, sewage minimisation,                               Pollution         which storm water falls e.g. garden with
 light pollution, cooling tower                                                     fertiliser
                                                (see emissions)   Refrigerant use   Type, amount and actual leakage (by
                                                                  (GWP and ODP)     top up required)

 New innovative technologies,                   Innovation
 techniques and approaches

Table 1. Comparison of the information required by Green Star and NABERS

8   Green Star - Office Design v2

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                              09
sustainable building design

   environmentally sustainable building design
                                             CLIENT COMMITMENT                           Environment Quality (IEQ) levels,
                                             The single most important principle for     it is good to have higher levels of
                                             achieving an ecologically sustainable       ventilation than is required under
                                             building design is client commitment.       Australian Standards, but this can
                                             As shown above the Australian               have an adverse effect of increasing
                                             Government is committed to ESD and          the energy used by the building for
                                             has developed some specific targets         heating and/or cooling this air.
                                             in the area of energy, with others to
                                             follow in the near future. In developing
                                             the new or existing building brief,
                                             ESD needs to be built in along with
                                             functional and technical requirements.
                                             A base building brief being developed
         ‘It is important to develop… an     by the Australian Government
        environmental brief ‘to … share      will support the development of
       the vision with the client of what    this commitment into an effective
       is possible, …show them… that         functional brief. Available from:
     they can achieve quite a lot more       html
      which is beneficial to them in the
      long term in terms of operational      WHOLE OF LIFE THINKING
                               savings…’     Buildings are complex and have
                                             many impacts. It is important when
                                             addressing these impacts that each          Figure 5. Life cycle of a building.
                                             project team member does not work
                                             in isolation, without considering
                                             the consequences of any other
                                             particular initiative. One of the main
                                             ways of looking at a building’s
                                             impact is to think about the life cycle
                                             of the building; that is, its design,
                                             construction, use, refurbishment and
                                             demolition (see Figure 5).

                                             DESIGN INFLUENCE
   Client commitment
      ent commitment
              itme t                         A
                                             As many projects have shown, it is
   743 Ann Street
   Mark Thomson, Director, TVS Partnership   at the design stage that many of the
                                             impacts of a building are locked in
                                             (see Figure 7). The greatest chance to
                                             reduce the environmental impact of a
                                             building is to tackle the minimisation of
                                             impacts at the design stage, through
                                             good guidance with a building brief
                                             that clearly outlines targets and ESD
                                             requirements. It is also recommended
                                             that an integrated design process
                                             be used to minimise silo initiatives
                                             and unintended consequences.                Figure 6. Trees, image sourced from
                                             For example, for improved Indoor            Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines,
                                                                                         Manningham City Council.

   010                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                    sustainable building design

                                                                                                                           PRINCIPLES OF
                                     environmentally sustainable building design
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT                              being developed currently to make
Building owners already try to                     this more streamlined, such as LCAid.
determine the costs and benefits over              The CRC for Construction Innovation
the life of their assets (sometimes                developed LCADesign, which is an
referred to as the total cost of                   automated Life Cycle Assessment
ownership), balancing the upfront                  tool for commercial buildings. The
capital costs with the ongoing                     tool is being trialled by a number of
operating expenses. Similar                        government and industry users prior
approaches exist for evaluating the                to its commercial availability in 2007.
overall environmental performance
of a building. One of the main                     Any enquires should be directed to
techniques for determining the relative  
merit of any one initiative is through
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA
is the assessment of the whole of                   Online Resources
life impact of various initiatives on
the environment (including all of the
impacts listed in this report). LCA                 Department of the Environment and
methodology uses actual figures,                    Water Resources
such as for energy use, emissions to                lca
the environment, and materials used
rather than predicted figures.                      Greening the Building Life Cycle                 ‘Everyone was brought on board
                                                                            at least 3 years prior to Bond
Currently LCAs are mainly used                      provides case studies, links to LCA
                                                    tools and a guide to LCA use for                    being built. We had a blue sky
in commercial buildings to make
                                                    building design                                    workshop with our staff before
decisions concerning various options
                                                                                                     we started the process. Then we
for particular elements (i.e. wool
                                                    Canadian Architect                                   took on a taskforce approach
carpet versus nylon carpet) rather        
than the entire building, since the                 perspectives_sustainibility/measures_of_         with about 8 different taskforces.
use of LCA is both time and resource                htm                                                 Those taskforces pretty much
intensive. There are, however, tools                                                                                    wrote the brief.’

                                                                                                   Engaging stakeholders in the creation process
                                                                                                   30 the Bond
                                                                                                   Paul Edwards, General Manager,
                                                                                                   Environment Sustainability Initiatives, Lend
                                                                                                   Lease Australia Pacific

Figure 7. Ability to influence green innovation in design.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                              011
esd opportunities in building

    esd opportunities in building
     OPPORTUNITIES             PRE DESIGN                DESIGN                   CONSTRUCTION                CONSTRUCTION              OCCUPANCY
     1. INTEGRATED             Establish design          Consider thermal         Peer reviews to confirm                               Use environmental
        DESIGN and             values of project.        modelling.               innovative technology.                                performance ratings,
        PROCESS                Set environmental         Assess design                                                                  on-site monitoring and
        MANAGEMENT             performance targets.      against benchmarks                                                             user feedback.
                               Consider collaborative    and targets.
                               design workshops.         Consider
                                                         environmental cost-
                                                         benefit analysis.
     2. SOCIAL                 Consider the broader      Design for access                                    Minimise disturbance      Inform occupants of
        SUSTAINABILITY         urban environment.        and mobility.                                        to offsite areas.         the ESD features of
        AND OCCUPANT                                     Maintain site                                                                  the building.
        SATISFACTION                                     biodiversity.
     3. INDOOR                 Set criteria for Indoor   Consider total indoor                                Provide safeguards        Monitor air quality.
        ENVIRONMENT            Air and Environment       environment – light,                                 and performance           Inform users of how to
        QUALITY                Quality (IAQ and IEQ).    fresh air, views,                                    indicators in             control their space.
                                                         materials, radiant                                   specifications to
                                                         and convective                                       promote appropriate
                                                         temperature,                                         material selection and
                                                         landscape and user                                   substitution. Protect
                                                         control.                                             from respiratory
     4. ENERGY                 Consider renewable        Integrate into the       Specify energy efficient    Encourage builders        Carry out regular
        MANAGEMENT             energy options.           Building Management      appliances.                 to use green power        metering, reporting
                               Consider engaging         System (BMS) a           Specify adequate            during construction.      and adjustment
                               specialist                process for review       insulation.                 Ensure builders have      for improved
                               environmental             and improvement of       Provide sufficient detail   an energy component       performance.
                               engineer.                 energy performance.      of draught proofing.        to their Environmental    Look for energy
                                                         Explore multiple         Specify provision           Management Plan.          efficiency opportunities
                                                         benefit solutions that   of separate energy                                    at refurbishment.
                                                         solve more than one      meters.
                                                         Use passive design
                                                         T5 lighting.
                                                         Flat screen monitors.
       COMMISSIONING           Plan for integrated       Consider an              Require the provision       Commission building       Make environmental
       and OPERATIONS          commissioning.            independent              of operating and            systems.                  performance
                                                         commissioning agent.     maintenance                 Carry out building        indicators visible.
                                                                                  instructions and            manager and user          Undertake post-
                                                                                  manuals.                    training.                 occupancy evaluation.
                                                                                                              Provide building use      Periodic re-
                                                                                                              manuals.                  commissioning.
     5. TRANSPORT              Consider location         Include shower and       Consider car parking        Make parking              Occupant education to
                               in relation to use.       locker facilities and    spaces that are             provisions for            promote use of public
                               Are there alternative     adequate bicycle         adaptable for other         contractors.              transport, cycling and
                               transport options to      parking.                 uses.                                                 walking.
                               the site?
     6. OZONE LAYER                                                               Specify use of                                        Audit regularly for
        DEPLETION                                                                 refrigerants with a zero                              leaks, minimise where
                                                                                  ODP and a maximum                                     possible.
                                                                                  of 10 GWP.
     7. CHOOSING                                         Use material selection   Further research            Review material           Building use material
        MATERIALS (incl.                                 rules of thumb.          information on material     certification and         selection guideline,
        minimising toxicity)                             Choose materials         maintenance, reuse          installation.             particularly for
                                                         which minimise           and recycling.              Provide method for        cleaning.
                                                         toxicity.                Environmental criteria      contractors to use in
                                                                                  included in final           material substitution.
     8. WASTE                                            Design building for      Specification to call for   On-site waste             Occupant education
        MINIMISATION                                     flexibility and future   waste management            separation and            on waste recycling.
                                                         disassembly.             plan from builder.          recycling.
                                                         Contact local waste      Detail for easy             Allow for material
                                                         contractors for site     modification of             salvage in demolition.
                                                         access advice.           services.                   Regular reporting and
                                                         Design-in waste                                      auditing.
                                                         collection areas.
     9. WATER USE              Contact local             Investigate site water   Specify minimum AAA         Ensure stormwater         Occupant education
        REDUCTION              water authority (re       collection and re-use    rated fittings.             runoff is contained and   on water saving.
                               approvals).               options.                 Specify use of water        sediment removed
                                                         Investigate waste        wise landscaping.           prior to leaving site.
                                                         water treatment

    Table 2. Whole of life opportunities in Government buildings. Adapted from the Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines, City of
            Manningham, Victoria 2004.

    012                                                                             ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                         esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                OPPORTUNITY 1
                                                                                           integrated design
An integrated design process brings            design process that includes
together all of the parties that will work     environmental management in
on a building at the beginning of the          construction and during operation.
project – clients, consultants,
financiers, builders, tenants etc. One         OPTIMISING INTEGRATED
technique to support the integrated            DESIGN
design process is to run a charrette.          A charrette type workshop is an
The benefit of this is that after a period     effective method for beginning the
of between say 2 days to 2 weeks               integrated design process. One
(depending on the size of the project)         option for structuring the charrette is
the entire design team can resolve             to use Green Star as the framework
most of the building design elements           for decision-making. This gives a         Figure 8. CH2 construction image, vaulted
                                                                                         ceilings from inside looking out, City of
and optimise how the building                  coherent way to think through the         Melbourne. (6 Star, Green Star - Office Design
systems can work together.                     design.                                   v1).

IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATED                       In general, the best way to start the
DESIGN                                         process that minimises a building’s        The Council House 2 (CH2)
The best way to reduce all of                  impact on the environment is to            project used a charrette process.
the environmental impacts of a                 ensure that the design responds to         This was run over 2 weeks, with
commercial building is to ensure that          the climate in which it will be built.     the consultants and project team
decisions are made holistically. In            The ESD opportunities identified           sitting together every morning
any project where a new building or            in the charette process need to            and going away in the afternoons
refurbishment is being considered, it          be integrated into the design and          to carry out specific research
is best achieved through an integrated         documentation process.                     on elements discussed in the
                                                                                          morning, in order to return the
                                                                                          next day to report. This process
                                               The construction phase is also             ensured that in a short period,
 ‘try to make each element of the              crucial for the successful completion      around 80% of all the building
      design work more than once               of a building aiming to reduce its         design and systems were
…such as external blinds for glare             impacts on the environment. The main       resolved in an integrated holistic
 and solar control and our atrium              construction impacts are related to        fashion. All the consultants
                                               waste and pollution. These can be          understood the systems and
 for exhaust relief air path as well
                                               minimised by a good Environmental          why they were in place. Further,
 as a buffer zone and an amenity                                                          there was a sense of trust that
                                               Management Plan (EMP) and Waste
                        for people.’           Management Plan (WMP). An                  had been built up, resulting in
                                               Environmental Management System            a shorter design period to the
                                                                                          point that a guaranteed bill of
                                               (EMS) can be certified to ISO14001
                                                                                          quantities was produced in 9
                                               and tends to be written at a company
                                               a                                          months, (even accounting for a
                                               level, while the EMP and WMP are
                                               le                                         change of site in the 3rd month).
                                               often site specific.

                                               After construction, and during the
                                               handover period, there should be a
                                               thorough commissioning stage to
                                               prove that the building has been built
                                               as designed and is functioning as
                                               intended. Depending on the size of
Use of integrated design
U     fi t    t dd i                           the building the following steps need
30 the Bond                                    to be taken during this process:
Paul Edwards, General Manager,
Environment Sustainability Initiatives, Lend   • Step 1 – ensure that the                 Figure 9. CH2 charette, City of Melbourne.
Lease Australia Pacific                            construction documentation

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                    013
esd opportunities in building

    integrated design
        includes requirements for pre-          Introduction to green leases
        commissioning, commissioning            To help government meet its energy
        and quality processes                   targets, green lease schedules
    •   Step 2 – ensure that knowledge          have been developed where the
        transfer is facilitated by              rent is gross and the net lettable
        documenting the design intent and       area of the premises is 2000 square
        outcomes, and communicating             metres or more. There are slightly        Figure 10. Clouds, image sourced from
                                                                                          Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines,
        these with the design and               different schedules depending on the      Manningham City Council
        construction teams and the client       percentage of occupancy:
                                                                                                                      monitoring built form
    •   Step 3 – ensure that a user manual      • Schedule A1 (tenant occupies
        is written – both for tenants and for      100% of the building)                                                 contractor review

        the owner/building manager              • Schedule B1 (tenant occupies 50-                                      prototype solutions

    •   Step 4 – plan for a 12 month               99% of the building)                                            peer review + design ratings
        commissioning period to ensure          • Schedule C1 (tenant occupies 49%                                     design-client signoff
        that there is time for fine-tuning          or less of the building)                                        individual discipline testing
        and assessment of performance
                                                                                                                     emergent design concept
        over the differing seasons, and         To download copies of these
    •   Step 5 – for those larger projects      schedules see
        or those trying to attain the highest   government/index.html
        Green Star - Office Design rating,
        plan for the appointment of an          The 2006 policy acknowledges the
        independent commissioning               need for cooperation between building
        agent to support the contractor         owners and tenants (and any relevant
        commissioning process and to            service providers and contractors).
        audit the process and outcomes.         It addresses traditional structural
                                                barriers to implementation, such as       Figure 11. Integrated design process,
                                                                                          DesignInc Melbourne.
    In addition, reduction of the               split incentives between developers,
    environmental impacts of the building       building owners and tenants,
                                                                                           Online Resources
    in operation can be further achieved        by ensuring that the parties with
    by a thorough building management           influence over key aspects of energy       Integrated Design
                                                performance obtain some benefit            City of Fort Collins
    system (including an EMS) that                                               
    has regular audits and a policy of          from implementing the improvements.        indesign.php
    continual improvement for areas             It provides a transparent legal and
                                                management framework in the Green          Environmental Management System
    such as water use, energy use and                                                      (EMS)
    waste production. To a certain extent,      Lease Schedule (GLS) to ensure             DEW EMS
    purchasing and transport policies also      that the parties identify and address
    have an impact, and it is beneficial if     problems promptly and efficiently.
    these are also addressed.                                                              Property Council of Australia
                                                Attaching a GLS to a lease for a 

    Another tool that can be used in the        commercial building obliges both the       Vic EPA
    holistic building management strategy       tenant and building owner to work          Victorian Government EMS
    is to have tenant initiatives such as       towards achieving the operational

    green leases and tenant building user       ABGR requirement. The emphasis is          Sustainability Victoria
    manuals. These can be supported by          on prevention and rectification, rather    Module 4 Developing an Energy
                                                than retribution. The GLS and Energy       Management System
    regular meetings between key parties,                                        
    such as a building management               Management Plan (EMP) templates            documents/Module4.pdf
    committee.                                  make it easier to identify problems,
                                                work out who is responsible and            Green Leasing
                                                                                           Freehills Commercial Lawyers
                                                ensure that appropriate steps are
                                                taken to remedy the situation promptly     publications_2243.asp
                                                (EEGO 2006:6).

    014                                                                 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                           esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                   OPPORTUNITY 2
                               social sustainability and occupant satisfaction
                                                A building can make a contribution           be factored into the budget to
   ‘Most of the comments on the                 to social sustainability by how it           demonstrate these features –
   NAB and the Bond is what a                   responds to its surroundings (does it        information kiosks, signage, online
   good space it is, not about                  fit in, address and if possible enhance      fact sheets, ongoing monitoring
   how much energy saving it is.                the surrounding contexts?) and how it        and reporting.
   In terms of getting that culture             meets the social needs of the people       • Indigenous cultural input
   shift in organisations, I think              who will be using the building (access       – ensuring that Indigenous cultural
   that the healthy aspect is what              and usability).                              and spiritual aspects of sites are
   is driving it. In CH2, the idea of                                                        considered in the construction of
   100% fresh air, the access to
                                                IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL                         any new buildings, as places often
   landscape, has been far more
   upfront than the energy side of              SUSTAINABILITY AND OCCUPANT                  have meanings that should be
   things.’ Stephen Webb.                       SATISFACTION                                 acknowledged and, if possible, be
                                                This is important because buildings          part of the design inspiration.
                                                are social spaces driven by the needs      • Public space – ensuring that the
                                                of organisations that work in them. If       outdoor public spaces of the
                                                a green building does not provide the        building are designed and located
                                                functionality that the users need, or        as functional areas, with access to
                                                looks out of place with its context, it      sunlight, able to support activities
                                                will either be removed or significantly      and considerate of adjoining
                                                renovated, which is not sustainable.         properties.
                                                                                           • Context – ensuring that the
                                                OPTIMISING SOCIAL                            building fits into its context (such
                                                SUSTAINABILITY AND OCCUPANT                  as the urban fabric) within which
                                                SATISFACTION                                 it is being built. This may include
                                                Though this guide is mainly an               cultural heritage considerations.
                                                introduction to the potential to
                                                minimise the environmental impact          Apart from the above general
                                                of buildings, it is important to outline   considerations, there are also
                                                the social opportunities of a new          separate requirements for accessibility
                                                building or refurbishment. Some social     that should be consulted, for example
                                                considerations include:                    the Disability Discrimination Act
                                                • Accessibility – ensuring that the        (DDA).
                                                    building can be accessed by all of
                                                    the community particularly the less     Online Resources
                                                                                            Social Sustainability and Occupant
Figure 12. Queenscliff Ecocentre - courtyard,   • Usability – ensuring that input           Satisfaction
DPI Victoria.
                                                    from the building users into the
                                                    design and choices of systems           Disability Discrimination Act
                                                    in the building meets their social      dda1992264/
                                                    and functional needs (including
                                                    encouraging the kinds of                Royal Australian Institute of Architects
                                                                                            ESD award checklist
                                                    collegiality and team-building
                                                    desired).                               file?page=2993/esd_checklist.pdf
                                                • Education – ensuring that                 Occupant satisfaction measure
                                                    government buildings, particularly      NABERS
                                                    public buildings, can have an 
                                                    educative role. Thus, for any
                                                    buildings that have embraced            Occupant satisfaction probe studies
Figure 13. AGO southside of courtyard, DEW.         sustainability, resources should

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                       015
esd opportunities in building

    optimising indoor environment quality
    Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ)                  A 1984 World Health Organization                 the supplier for reuse or recycling
    is mainly assessed by how the                     Committee report suggested that                  and
    environment in the building is                    up to 30 % of new and remodelled               • provide individual control of airflow.
    perceived by it users, as well as some            buildings worldwide may be the
    empirical measurements of air flow                subject of complaints related to indoor        See also the sustainable fit-out guide
    and temperature. It is made up of                 air quality.13                                 developed by the New Zealand
    various elements:                                                                                Ministry of the Environment.
    • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), assessed              Several studies have established links
        by the levels of pollutants in the air,       between increased productivity and
        odour etc.                                    improved IEQ. Some of these studies
    • ventilation                                     are shown in Table 3.
    • thermal comfort
    • lighting (including provision of                General rules of thumb for fit-out ESD:
        natural light)                                • specify that all furniture give off no
    • noise and                                         or minimal VOC emissions
    • visual amenity.                                 • specify that fit-out is designed for
                                                        longevity – i.e. with minimal parts
    IMPORTANCE OF IEQ                                   that are easily retrofitted
    IEQ is important because people                   • use renewable, sustainably
    spend around 90% of their time                      harvested natural materials,
    indoors.10 Minimising the toxicity of               recycled or recyclable materials
    their indoor environment is therefore a             and consider biodiversity protection
    priority, particularly when indoor air is         • use modular reusable and
    shown to be more toxic than outdoor                 recyclable carpet
    air.11 The US EPA estimates that 20               • use water based paints, glues and
    to 35 % of all workers in modern                    caulking
    mechanically ventilated buildings may             • provide recycling bins at desks, do
    experience negative air-quality related             not provide individual rubbish bins;
    signs and symptoms.12 Furthermore,                • provide adequate recycling storage           Figure 14. CH2 Modelling velocity (blue) and
    it declares that indoor pollution is                space                                        pressure (red) of air distribution through room
                                                                                                     (AEC, City of Melbourne report).
    estimated to cause thousands of                   • provide task lighting
    cancer deaths and hundreds of                     • require that all fit-out furniture
    thousands of respiratory health                     and products come in recyclable
    problems each year.                                 packaging that is taken away by              10 Wargocki, P., Wyon, D.P., Baik, Y.K., Clausen,
                                                                                                        G. and Fanger, P.O. (1999) Perceived air quality,
                                                                                                        Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and
     PROJECT                        PRODUCTIVITY               REASON                                   productivity in an office with two different pollution
                                    INCREASES                                                           loads. Indoor Air, p 9, 165–179 and
                                                                                                        Fisk, W.J. and Rosenfeld, A.H. (1997), ‘Estimates
     ING bank (Netherlands)14       15%                        IEQ                                      of Improved Productivity and Health from Better
                                                                                                        Indoor Environments’, Indoor Air, vol. 7 (3), pp.
     San Fran Sustainable           3% to 15%                  IEQ                                      158-172
     Development Committee                                                                           11 Patrick K (2004) ‘IEQ : Coming To A Building
     studies (US)15                                                                                     Near You’, Property Australia, Property Council of
                                                                                                        Australia: Sydney, p. 8
     Nevada Post office (US)16      6%                         Better lighting and use of natural    12 ibid p. 8
                                                               light.                                13 ibid p. 8
                                                                                                     14 ibid p. 9
     Verifone Corporation (US)17    45% decrease in            Daylighting, air filtration and low
                                                                                                     15 ibid p. 10
                                    absenteeism                toxicity material specification.
                                                                                                     16 Edwards L. and P. Torcellini (2002) A Literature
     Twelve Public Offices (US)18                              Mechanically ventilated buildings        Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building
                                                               had significantly more people            Occupants, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                                                               with symptoms of sick building           p. 11
                                                               syndrome than occupants of               TP_550_30769.pdf
                                                               naturally ventilated buildings,       17 ibid p. 10
                                                               after adjustment for confounding      18 Fisk, W.J. and Rosenfeld, A.H. (1997) ‘Estimates
                                                               factors.                                 of Improved Productivity and Health from Better
                                                                                                        Indoor Environments’, Indoor Air, vol. 7 (3), pp.
    Table 3. Summaries of several productivity studies.                                                 158-172.

    016                                                                        ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                     esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                              OPPORTUNITY 3
                                           optimising indoor environment quality
OPTIMISING IEQ                            their working space. The International
Design strategies for optimising IEQ      standard for thermal comfort is ISO
are:                                      7730.                                     “…Indoor Environment Quality…
                                                                                          in the past few years it has
Optimise the amount of natural light      Noise
entering the working environment          Ensure noise is kept to appropriate       probably been the single biggest
while minimising glare, ensuring          levels. For example Green Star             thing that has come up and has
employees have access to views.           – Office Design v2 defines appropriate         got these buildings over the
Provide adequate artificial lighting      levels as:                                                           line…’
for the tasks building users need to      • ‘the design of building services
perform.                                      building services noise meets
                                              the recommended design sound
Ventilation                                   levels provided in Table 1 of
Optimise the amount of ventilation            ASINZS 2107:2000’
and fresh air provision to ensure air     • ‘design sound level between 40-45
change effectiveness (no sections             dB LAeqT (decibels equivalent
of the building to have stale air build       sound levels – a complicated
up because of inadequate air flow).           acoustic logarithmic formulae)
AS1668.2-1991 sets a minimum rate             in general offices and 35-40dB
(dependent on the project) between            LAeqT in private offices’19
5 and 10 litres per second per person
(l/s/person). The Australian Institute    Pollutants
of Refrigeration, Heating and Air         Material selection
Conditioning (AIRAH) recommends           Ensure asbestos and other mineral        Importance of IEQ
10l/s/person and CH2 is aiming for        fibres are eliminated from the           CH2 (6 Star Green Star - Office Design v1)
22.5l/s/person. Another useful tool       occupied space. Minimise materials       Stephen Webb, Director, DesignInc
is the CO2 sensor which controls          that emit volatile organic compounds
ventilation systems, activating them      (VOCs) including formaldehyde
only when required. In addition           emissions. Ensure that spaces
                                                                                   19 Green Star – Office Design v2 Indoor Environment
ensure that air supply ductwork is        containing equipment such as                Quality credit IEQ-12 ‘Internal Noise Levels’ www.
maintained to avoid/eliminate mould       printers and photocopiers are isolated
                                                                                   20 Green Star – Office Design v2 Emissions credits
and other contaminants developing.        and well ventilated. Ensure any             Em-1 ‘Refrigerant ODP’
                                          combustion plants are maintained to
Thermal comfort                           minimise pollution and greenhouse
Avoid the simplistic ‘air temperature’    gas emissions. Ensure cooling plant
definition of acceptable comfort.         is maintained to eliminate water borne
                                                                                    Online Resources
Rather, consider the concept              atmospheric pathogens and that
of ‘adaptive comfort’ that uses           the plant refrigerant has zero Ozone      IEQ
holistic measures including radiant       Depleting Potential (ODP) and a           Department of the Environment and
temperature, symmetry, internal air       Global Warming Potential (GWP) of         Water Resources
temperature ranges related to external    below 10.20                               settlements/settlements04-
ambient conditions, air movement,                                                   1b.html#indoorair
activity levels and occupant clothing.    IEQ and construction
Carry out thermal modelling to            To protect the health of construction     Building Green
design for appropriate comfort levels     workers ensure that the cutting of        cfm?TopicID=5
(see Figure 14 showing thermal            MDF is avoided or minimised with
modelling of night purge thermal          appropriate safety equipment, ensure      US EPA
mass cooling). Provide individual         the removal of asbestos and minimise      IAQ for large buildings
controls to allow building users to       emissions from volatile organic 
tailor the environmental conditions of    compounds.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                     017
esd opportunities in building

    minimising energy use
                                                  The use of energy from non-renewable         Having integrated as many of the
                                                  sources, such as coal and gas, is            energy efficiency opportunities as
                                                  not sustainable because of the finite        possible in the design stage, consider
                                                  amount of these sources as well as           carrying out an ABGR commitment
                                                  the environmental impacts, such as           rating. A minimum of 4.5 stars
                                                  climate change, they create by their         ABGR should be required, as this is
                                                  use for energy production.                   quite achievable in a well-designed
                                                                                               building without significant cost. At the
                                                  IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY USE                     design stage, the ABGR will require
    Figure 15. CH2 during construction photo      MINIMISATION                                 modelling of the building’s energy
    of high thermal mass wavy ceilings, City of   The reason that greenhouse gas               performance.24
    (6 Star Green Star - Office Design v1)        emissions are an environmental
                                                  problem is that their build up in the        During operation, energy use can
                                                  atmosphere will lead to the enhanced         be minimised through building
                                                  greenhouse effect and a change in            management techniques such as
                                                  the earth’s climate (this is also referred   provision of a Building User Guide
                                                  to as climate change or global               and encouraging the purchase by
                                                  warming). The consequences of a              tenants of energy efficient equipment
                                                  rise in the earth’s temperature, which       and appliances (guides at differing
                                                  is predicted to be between 1.4 to 5.8        levels of complexity should be
                                                  degrees within the next century21,           developed for the users, owners and
                                                  includes a rise in sea levels due to         building managers).
                                                  ice caps melting and complicated
                                                  changes to weather patterns.                 The main techniques for the
                                                  Commercial buildings are said to             minimisation of energy consumption in
                                                  contribute 8.8% of the total Australian      the design stage are:
                                                  greenhouse emissions.22                      • passive design – use of thermal
                                                                                                   mass, natural light, natural cooling
                                                  Greenhouse gases are measured by                 and heating potential
                                                  greenhouse gas equivalents relating          • appropriate sizing of lighting,
                                                  to Global Warming Potential (GWP).               heating and cooling systems by
                                                  CO2 is set as a GWP of 1. All other              working with the engineers
                                                  gases are given a relative score – eg        • appropriate zoning and sensors
                                                  if a gas has twice the global warming        • appropriate building management
                                                  potential when compared to CO2, it               including equipment purchasing
                                                  gets a GWP of 2.23                           • use of renewable energy
                                                                                               • minimising embodied energy in
                                                  OPTIMISING ENERGY USE
                                                                                               21 AGO. (2003) Global Warming – Cool it!, - fact
                                                  One approach to achieving                       sheet, Australian Greenhouse Office: Canberra.
                                                  greenhouse targets is to ensure that         22 DEH (2001) Australian State of the Environment
                                                                                                  report. The Department of the Environment and
                                                  buildings use minimal amounts of                Water Resources: Canberra.
                                                  ‘fossil based’ energy. The energy            23 Emissions credits Emi-1 Emissions ‘Refrigerant
                                                                                                  ODP’ and Emi-2 ‘Refrigerant GWP’ www.gbcaus.
                                                  consumption of a building is largely            org
                                                  determined at the design stage. It           24 Simulation package must either: have passed
                                                                                                  the BESTEST validation test; be certified in
                                                  is here that energy efficient features          accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-
                                                  affecting air conditioning and lighting         2001:“Standard Method of Test for Evaluation of
                                                                                                  Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs”
                                                  (the main contributors to energy                or European Union draft standard EN13791 July
                                                  consumption) can be incorporated.               2000.

    018                                                                  ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                         esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                 OPPORTUNITY 4
                                                                                minimising energy use
PASSIVE DESIGN                              Night purge                                  Minimisation of infiltration
Passive design is the name given to         Night purge is where cool night air is       This issue offers significant cost
any design technique that requires no       used to cool a space. This will only         reductions and is easily integrated
active (energy using) intervention.         work if the night-time air temperature       into the building process by good
                                            is significantly less than during the day    detailing and construction. Consider
The following are some examples of          (this is referred to as the diurnal range)   good seals, effective airlocks, effective
passive design techniques.                  and this is generally preferred to be        HVAC ductwork installation and good
                                            about 15oC. Issues to be considered          quality facades.
Orientation                                 are the diurnal range, security
In areas where the sun can be used          (windows open at night may not be            Effective external shading
effectively for space heating the           the best solution in some areas) and         External shading is very important if
building should be designed with            design of spaces to allow air to move        glazing is being used. It is important
windows facing north, with care taken       freely through it.                           because it can reduce heat load while
to ensure overheating and glare will                                                     providing natural light and views.
not occur. Orientation also takes           Natural ventilation
into account an understanding of the        Natural ventilation is the use of            Effective use of insulation
directions of the prevailing winds and      windows and the natural conditions           Use appropriate insulation for the
breezes in an area.                         around the building, to ventilate the        climate and building type. Ensure
                                            building. This requires knowledge of         ducts and pipes are well insulated if
Thermal cooling                             the beneficial and detrimental winds         required.
Thermal mass can be used to absorb          in the area, temperature ranges,
excessive day time air temperature.         humidity and the function of the                            apartments with no
This excessive heat can be ‘stripped        building. Usually buildings will require                    natural ventilation options
out’ at night time by passing cool          some kind of additional heating and
night air over it in order to cool the      cooling, as well as natural ventilation
mass so it is ready for use the next        (see Figures 16 and 17 for how to
day (this is also called charging the       capture natural ventilation).
thermal mass). Types of thermal mass
approaches are the use of exposed           Natural lighting - effective glazing
concrete, stone, labyrinths, water          use (including use of atria)
(for energy storage) and rock stores.       Glazing is an integral part of a greener
This only works if there is a significant   building. It allows in natural light as
difference between day and night            well as access to outside views,                             prevailing winds
temperatures and the sun can shine          which are important for user health
directly onto the mass.                     and effectiveness. A balance needs           Figure 16. Floorplate with enclosed
                                            to be struck between the size of
Thermal heating                             the windows and the benefits and
Thermal mass will absorb heat from          additional heat loads they create.
any source, for example the sun, and        The mechanical ESD engineers
then radiate that into a space if the air   can help with this. Consider glazing                                       open ends
in that space is cooler than the mass.      types, reflective films, shading, and
This is a particularly good technique       particularly rationalising the amount
where a lot of heating is needed.           of glazing required. In Victoria for
                                            example, a 50% glazing ratio has
Thermal resistance                          been shown to be most effective for
Thermal resistance is the R value of a      office buildings (this will differ from
material, how well it keeps heat from       state to state).
transferring through it. The higher the
R value the better the insulator.                                                                      prevailing winds
                                                                                         Figure 17. Floorplate with open circulation.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                        019
esd opportunities in building

    minimising energy use
                                                       Effective use of thermal stacks            solar gain is hard to control (refer
                                                       A thermal stack is a large chimney         Figure 19).
                                                       like structure that draws hot air out of
                                                       the building by means of the natural       Climatic design
                                                       buoyancy of air. This can be aided         Passive design techniques vary
                                                       by using dark colours at the top           according to different climate zones.
                                                       of the stack, or using fans, and/or        What works in a temperate climate like
                                                       wind turbines if the conditions are        Sydney may not work in a more humid
                                                       favourable.                                environment like Darwin. In order to
                                                                                                  carry out effective passive design,
                                  Melbourne            Design of office floor plates              ensure that the project has a thorough
                                                       If passive design is being used, then      site analysis with information on:
              tropical (hot and humid)
              subtropical (warm and humid)             the design of the office floor plates is   • site
              hot and dry                              crucial. Natural ventilation needs to      • solar access
              warm dry temperate                       be able to travel through the building     • wind direction and speed over an
              cool temperate
                                                       and if closed offices are being                entire year and
                                                       proposed they need to be planned           • climate type.
    Figure 18. Australian climate zones, image         to allow air to flow in and flow out. In
    sourced from Doncaster Hill Sustainability         general, partitions should be limited      This will help the designers to choose
    Guidelines, Manningham City Council.
                                                       to 1200mm in height, or if full height     which passive design techniques are
                                                       to be located perpendicular to the air     used.
                                                       flow (refer Figures 19 and 20).
                                                                                                  Most commercial buildings in Australia
                                                       Due to the increased solar load            will not be able to be completely
                                                       on northern facades, it can be             passively designed and will need
                                                       advantageous to have the density of        some mechanical heating and
                                                       persons on the north façade lower          cooling. Notwithstanding this, using
                                                       than that of the south façade.             appropriate passive techniques
                                                       Heavily polluting equipment should be      will minimise any additional energy
                                                       put in rooms with mechanical extract       needed.
                                                       on the east or west façades where

              lower density


                 higher density

    Figure 19 and 20. Plan partitions so as to not block flow of air through the building.

    020                                                                            ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                           esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                  OPPORTUNITY 4
                                                                                   minimising energy use
APPROPRIATE SIZING OF                    Radiant cooling/heating
LIGHTING, HEATING AND                    Radiant cooling/heating is the
COOLING SYSTEMS                          feeling of heat or ‘coolth’ radiating
Several concepts need to be              from a nearby element (such as
understood, and considered, when         brick wall that has been in sun). A
choosing heating and cooling plant:      large percentage of an individual’s
                                         sensation of thermal comfort is from
Natural ventilation                      radiant heating or cooling.
Uses external air and air movement to
ventilate a building.                    Mechanical plant size
                                         Taking passive design elements into
Mechanical ventilation                   account means that in many cases
Uses machines to move the air – fans,    the size of the mechanical plant can
air conditioners etc.                    be reduced. Setting realistic building
                                         energy needs is also important. This
Mixed mode ventilation                   requires an understanding of how
Uses a mixture of natural and            the building will be used, how many
mechanical systems.                      people will be using it, and for how
                                         many hours.                                            ‘One of the problems with air
Refrigerant cooling                                                                                 based systems is that they
Uses ‘refrigerants’ in heat pump         For example the energy needs for                      don’t turn down very well. And
systems (such as a fridge) to move       a 24 hour building that houses a                       when they get to this low load
heat from one place (such as inside      call centre, with their people and                    situation… they perform badly
the fridge) to another place (such as    equipment intensive workspaces,
                                                                                             and get into all sorts of problems
the back or bottom of the fridge).       will be different to a nine-to-five
                                                                                             … yet this is the situation for 80%
                                         office housing maintenance staff for
Evaporative cooling                      Canberra parks. They may only be in                                        of the year.’
Uses the latent energy of water          their office half of the time and spend
evaporation to remove heat.              most of their time in the field.

Comfort                                  Lighting
Comfort is a term about the              Lighting needs to be optimised for
perception of people in a space.         the tasks that will be performed. The
The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV ISO         simplest ways of minimising energy
7730-1984) and Adaptive comfort          consumption from lighting are to
(ASHRAE-5525) systems provide            consider:
appropriate measures of comfort.         • energy efficiency fluorescent tubes
Together they both consider factors         (T5 or T8 depending on sitting and
such as radiant temperature, humidity,      use of light)
radiant symmetry, air movement,          • use of natural light                             Appropriate sizing of building systems
                                                                                            A      i     i i    f b ildi
occupant clothing and activity levels    • use of electronic ballasts (7% more              Dr Paul Bannister, Managing Director,
and external ambient temperatures.          efficient)                                      Exergy Australia
                                         • user controls
Adaptive comfort                         • task lighting.
Adaptive comfort assessment
methods allows the designer to
produce a more efficient and smaller     25 ANSI / ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal
HVAC system.                                Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                       021
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    minimising energy use
                                                                                                 The Council House 2 project
                                                                                                 (CH2) carried out an assessment
                                                                                                 of all of its systems to determine
                                                                                                 the risks and opportunities for
                                                                                                 lowering energy use. This was
                                                                                                 done to assist in the sizing of the
                                                                                                 chilled water panels, the sizing
                                                                                                 of the chillers and the sizing
                                                                                                 of the phase change material
                                                                                                 plant. The graph in Figure 21 is
                                                                                                 an example of the analysis and
                                                                                                 its implications on cooling load
                                                                                                 for one section of CH2. This was
                                                                                                 repeated to optimise the entire

                                                                                                 Note: The result of this analysis
                                                                                                 showed that a 95% coverage of
                                                                                                 cooling loads would reduce load
      Figure 21. Risk assessment CH2 for cooling load (AEC, City of Melbourne report).           by 42% saving around $600 000
                                                                                                 in plant.

    The assessment shown in Figure 21              integrated building management
    was only possible through the active           system in order to turn off or adjust
    collaboration of the whole design              lights, ventilation, heating and cooling.
    team, including the engineers, from                                                                ‘The mechanical system was
    the beginning of the design process.           Sensors                                         something very easy to do. The
    Where a process such as this is not            Light lux level sensors                         lighting and lighting controls as
    possible, then it is important to ensure       Adjust lighting to compensate for the        well....we can find out if there is a
    that the engineers understand the              amount of natural light entering the        leak in the system, or if something
    relative loads of the building (how            space. These sensors are also called         is not working, they’re all alarmed
    many people, what hours, how much              photoelectric (PE) sensors.
                                                                                                so we set our alarms to any slight
    equipment, glazing, orientation etc.)
    and that they use this knowledge to            Timers
                                                                                                      variations, which immediately
    work effectively with the designers            Switch off lights and other systems at                          draws attention.’
    and the client to optimise comfort and         certain times.
    minimise cost.
                                                   Movement sensors
    EFFECTIVE ZONING, SENSORS                      Turn on lighting and ventilation
    AND CONTROLS                                   systems when movement is detected.
    Effective zoning means that heating,           Carbon Dioxide sensors
    cooling and lighting are provided              Adjust ventilation rates so that enough
    only when and where needed. This               fresh air is supplied.
    should form part of the mechanical
    engineer’s brief, though it needs input        Temperature sensors
    from the design team, as effective             Adjust ventilation, heating and cooling
    zoning requires accurate information           systems to maintain a specified             Metering, lighting and building management
                                                                                               Brindabella Park’s central plant
    on internal layout and fit-out. Sensors        temperature range.                          Martin Osolnik, Associate, Daryl Jackson
    can also be effectively used with an                                                       Alastair Swayn

    022                                                                     ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                       esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                              OPPORTUNITY 4
                                                                                minimising energy use
                                              Control                                    The greatest life-time energy impact
                                              Like comfort, a decision needs to          of a building is its operational energy
               ‘We adopted realistic          be made at an early stage as to the        consumption and therefore having
    accommodation sizing, which               amount of control individuals will         a good building management
                                              have. Studies have shown that having       system, with periodic auditing
   reduced the capital cost of the
                                              control over light, ventilation, heating   and improvement, will optimise
    plant by $35 000. We adopted              and cooling will improve a person’s        performance. Having said this, the
 realistic lighting power densities,          perception of comfort, but these need      more complex a building and its
   which reduced the capital cost             to be weighed against the increased        systems, the more difficult it is to
   of the plant by $30 000 and we             use of energy if one person is turning     manage. As a general rule try to keep
     adopted realistic plug-in load           up the heat while the other is turning     a building and its systems as simple
  density and that saved $70 000.’            it down. An example of a compromise        as possible to carry out the functions it
                                              design approach (which aims for            is required to do.
                                              maximum control and efficiency)
                                              is to have standard background             Another tool for minimising energy
                                              lighting, heating and cooling levels,
                                              l                                          consumption during operation is to
                                              while allowing individuals to control
                                              w                                          have tenant initiatives such as tenant
                                              ventilation direction and providing task
                                              v                                          EMS, green leases and tenant building
                                              l                                          user manuals. This can ensure that
                                                                                         the building tenants know how to use
                                              BUILDING MANAGEMENT                        the building effectively and energy
                                              SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT                      efficiently. Tenant specific lighting and
                                              P                                          environmental controls and metering
                                              It is often said that ‘if you can’t
                                              I                                          are particularly effective in supporting
                                              measure it you can’t manage it’            this strategy.
AGO capital cost reductions                   - this holds true for buildings also.
David Oppenheim, Director, Sustainable        Measuring energy performance               Efficient office equipment specification
Built Environments
                                              using sub meters on separate floors        (i.e. for photocopiers, computers,
                                              and high energy usage areas such           etc.) is one method to minimise
                                              as server rooms, allows for the            operational energy use. This guide
                                              early detection of problems and the        does not provide detailed advice in
                                              optimisation of performance.               this area, but an effective purchasing

                                                                                 Liquid Crystalline Display (LCD) computer
                                                                                 monitors consume 77% less energy than
                                                                                 older cathode ray tube (CRT) computer
                                                                                 monitors. The adoption of the LCD
                                                                                 monitors and the thin client technology for
                                                                                 the computing requirements will reduce
                                                                                 the internal heat load and therefore, the
                                                                                 amount of cooling which needs to be
                                                                                 provided. The thin client eliminates the
                                                                                 need for a Central Processing Unit (CPU)
                                                                                 using 85W at each desk. Combined with
                                                                                 a LCD screen, at 30W, instead of the 80W
                                                                                 CRT screen, this saves 127W per desk.

                                                                                 Note: savings may vary with equipment,
   Figure 22. Comparable energy savings between monitor types and client,        design of the offices and the type of
   CH2 (AEC, City of Melbourne report).                                          cooling provided.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                023
esd opportunities in building

    minimising energy use
                                                        policy, energy saving settings and                     and a negative layer of silicon. When
          Effectiveness of                              periodic review of equipment settings                  light falls on these layers, it produces
          hot water and PV systems
                                                        (people often turn efficiency settings                 a potential difference (photovoltage)
          Domestic hot water                            off when they don’t understand their                   between the layers by causing
          cost payback: 6-7 years26                     function) are initiatives to consider. For             electrons within the layers to move.
          embodied energy                               more information see the DEW Green                     If an external circuit is present, this
          payback: 0.5-2 yrs27                          Office Guide and DEW’s voluntary                       voltage can drive a current through it.
                                                        environmental purchasing tools (refer                  This current is then converted to AC
          Domestic and commercial
          photovoltaic systems                          to online resources).                                  current (the type of current used in the
          cost payback: Greater than 10                                                                        office) via an inverter. This can then
          years28                                       RENEWABLE ENERGY                                       power normal office appliances and
          embodied energy                               Green Power, Solar Hot Water and                       lights. If the office is connected to the
          payback: 2.5-3 yrs29
                                                        Photovoltaic systems                                   mains electricity, excess energy can
                                                        One main technique for minimising                      be redirected to the grid, reducing
                                                        the greenhouse intensity of the energy                 energy costs.
                                                        used in a building is to use green
                                                        power (electricity which comes from                    EMBODIED ENERGY
                                                        wind, water or solar sources) and/or to                MINIMISATION
                                                        use a cogeneration system.                             Embodied energy is discussed in
                                                                                                               Opportunity 7 Choosing materials.
                                                        Using solar energy for the provision
                                                        of hot water is another method for
                                                        using renewable energy and reducing                     Online Resources
                                                        the greenhouse impact of a building.                    Passive Design Techniques
                                                        Solar hot water systems involve                         Square One
                                                        pumping water through pipes that              
                                                        are laid on an absorber plate. Both of                  Sustainable Building Sourcebook
                                                        those are coated with heat absorbing          
                                                        material. The pipes and plate are                       PassiveSol.html
                                                        mounted in the sun’s direction to                       Renewable Energy
                                                        maximise heat absorbance. The water                     Greenpower
                                                        absorbs heat and transfers this heat          
                                                        to a storage tank where it is collected                 Solar Power
                                                        and ready for use when required.                        ATA (Alternative Technology
                                                        Optimum positioning for panels is                       Association)
    Figure 23. Photovoltaic curtain wall,                         o                                   
    Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines,           within 30 of true north and tilted at an
    Manningham City Council.                            angle of latitude plus 15 .                             National Renewable Energy
                                                        A photovoltaic system (PV) uses
                                                        solar energy to generate electricity.                   Energy Efficient Fittings and
                                                        PV panels are made with a positive                      Equipment
                                                                                                                Department of the Environment and
                                                        26 SEAV (2005) Personal Conversation Sustainable        Water Resources
                                                           Energy Authority Victoria 9/3/2005.                  Environmental Purchasing Guide
                                                        27 Crawford R.H. and Treloar G.J. (2004) Net energy
                                                           analysis of solar and conventional domestic          publications/government/purchasing/
                                                           hot water systems in Melbourne, Australia Solar      purchasing-guide/index.html
                                                           Energy, vol. 76 (1-3), January-March 2004, pp.
                                                           159-163.                                             Green Office Guide
    Figure 24. Integrated amorphous                     28 Going Solar 2005, Conversation 9/03/05.    
    photovoltaic tiles, Doncaster Hill Sustainability   29 E. A. Alsema and E. Nieuwlaar Energy viability of    publications/government/purchasing/green-
    Guidelines, Manningham City Council.                   photovoltaic systems Energy Policy, Volume 28,       office-guide/index.html
                                                           Issue 14, November 2000, Pages 999-1010.

    024                                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                  esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                         OPPORTUNITY 5
                                                                            minimising transport impact
                                             Buildings have a role to play in
                                             minimising the environmental impact
                                             caused by transport. If there is a
                                             choice of locations, choose the
                                             site with the best access to public
                                             transport and amenities such as child
                                             care, shops, etc. This will minimise
                                             car use. Smaller cars can also be
                                             encouraged by designing in car
                                             parking spaces that are 2.3 x 5m.
Figure 25. Public transport, DesignInc.      Day-to-day travel by individuals in cars
                                             can also be reduced by supporting
                                             car pooling, integrating green travel
                                             plans and providing adequate
                                             numbers of cycling facilities. If cycling
                                             is to be encouraged, the building
                                             design needs to include enough
                                             space for secure bicycle parking,
                                             clothes storage, changing facilities
                                             and showers (a provision for 5% of the
                                             staff is common practice).30
Figure 26. Bicycles, freefoto.
                                             In addition, by choosing local
                                             materials you will minimise the
                                             transport impact of bringing these
                                             materials to the building, during
                                             both its construction and operational

Figure 27. Runners, Doncaster Hill
Sustainability Guidelines, Manningham City   30 Green Star - Office Design transport credit Tra-3
Council.                                        ‘Cyclist Facilities’

  30 The Bond, the Bovis Lend                the staff how many people would                        Online Resources
  Lease headquarters building in             be making use of the facilities                        Minimising Transport Impacts
  Sydney included infrastructure             they found that they needed much
  for their staff for cycling and            more space for change rooms                            Travel Smart Australia
  changing. Another tenant that has          and lockers than they had initially          
  moved into the building saw this           anticipated. For this reason a                         GreenFleet
  and was inspired to convert car            hierarchy of lockers has been                
  parking into 13 bicycle parks and          devised depending on whether
  install showers in their tenancy.          people needed the lockers as part
                                             of their day-to-day activities such
  The Council House 2 project (CH2)          as parking inspectors or were just
  includes bicycle parking and               using the facilities occasionally.
  changing facilities, but on asking

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                         025
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    minimising ozone layer depletion
                                                1 and all other gases given a relative
       To minimise impact on                    score.
       the ozone layer during the
       maintenance and top-up of                Ozone depleting substances used in
       refrigerants, use an automatic           buildings include chemical refrigerants
       pump-down to either a separate           used in air-conditioning systems and
       storage tank or into the heat
                                                fridges, and expanded materials such
       exchanger with isolation valves                                                                 HFCs are not genuinely ozone
       fitted to contain refrigerant once       as polystyrene.
                                                                                                       friendly. The production of
       fully pumped down.                                                                              HFCs uses the very same
                                                OPTIMISING MINIMISATION OF
                                                                                                       halogenated CFCs and HCFCs,
                                                OZONE LAYER DEPLETION                                  which they were intended to
    IMPORTANCE OF MINIMISING                    Minimising emissions that affect the                   replace, as emissions during
    OZONE LAYER DEPLETION                       ozone layer can be done by choosing                    the manufacturing process
    The ozone layer is a layer of ozone         non-ozone depleting refrigerants                       are inevitable. Better options
    (O3) situated far above the build up        (such as water, air, CO2, ammonium                     include using ammonia and
    of greenhouse gases and it protects         and hydrocarbons) and ensuring there                   hydrocarbon refrigerants.
    the earth from harmful (to humans)          are systems in place to minimise or
    solar radiation. Research has shown         eliminate refrigerant leaks.31
    a thinning of the ozone layer all over
    the globe. However due to specific          Refrigerant leaks can make up to
    meteorological conditions the most          15% of the volume of refrigerants
    dramatic depletion is over Antarctica.      required per year. This not only affects
    Its absence results in increased            the ozone layer, but also adds to
    exposure to solar radiation and its         the greenhouse effect. The global                    Online Resources
    detrimental effects – such as skin          warming caused by cooling system
    cancer, cataracts and disruption of         refrigerant leakage can be as much                   Ozone Layer Depletion
    normal function of micro-organisms.         as that caused by the electricity                    Montreal Protocol
                                                consumed by the cooling plant. As          
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),                 an example, Green Star – Office
                                                                                                     Department of the Environment and
    halons, methyl chloroform,                  Design v2 specifies that to achieve                  Water Resources
    carbon tetrachloride, HCFCs,                the relevant credits, refrigerants need    
    hydrobromofluorocarbons and methyl          to have an Ozone Depleting Potential                 ozone/
    bromide are responsible for the ozone       (ODP) of zero and a Global Warming                   US EPA
    layer depletion. The impact on the          Potential (GWP) of ten or less.            
    ozone layer is measured by the Ozone                                                             a list of class 1 ozone depleting
                                                31 Green Star - Office Design v2 Emissions credits   substances
    Depletion Potential with CFC-11 set as         Em-1 ‘Refrigerant ODP’ and Emi-2 ‘Refrigerant
                                                                                                     Bureau of Meteorology
     Australian Government building             since 1 January 1996, except for a                   ozanim/ozoanim.shtml
     responsibilities are invoked because       small range of essential uses. Australia             provides an animation on the
     Australia is a signatory to the Montreal   banned importation and manufacture                   chemistry behind ozone layer
     Protocol on substances that deplete the    of CFCs from 31 December 1995.
     ozone layer. The manufacture, import,      HCFCs are ozone depleting, but                       Standards Australia - (HB 40.1-2001):
     and export of CFCs, halon, methyl          have a much lower ozone depletion                    Appendix 3 and 4 summarise OPD
     chloroform and carbon tetrachloride        potential than CFCs, and are                         potential for most common types of
     has been controlled in Australia since     considered a transitional chemical to      
     1989. These activities were banned for     assist in the phasing out of CFCs. They
     halon from 31 December 1992, one           are commonly used as refrigerants,                   AIRAH
     year ahead of the Montreal Protocol        solvents, and blowing agents for                     Refrigerant Selection Guide 2003
     requirements. For the other chemicals,     plastic foam manufacture, and are                    pdf
     these activities have been banned          scheduled to be phased out by 2020.

    026                                                                      ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                    esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                           OPPORTUNITY 7
                                                                                      choosing materials
                                            IMPORTANCE OF CHOOSING                    For example, choose materials:
                                            MATERIALS                                 • with a high recycled content
                                            The choice of materials in a new or       • with low toxic emissions
                                            refurbished building has an impact on     • with low embodied energy and
                                            the environment. This impact is not as       embodied water
                                            large as that of the operation of the     • with an ability to be easily recycled
                                            building, but it is still considerable.   • independently certified by a
                                            Materials impact the environment in          third party – i.e. the Australian
                                            the following ways (they are discussed       Environmental Labelling
                                            in more detail below):                       Association.

                                            • consuming energy in manufacture         Embodied energy
                                              and transport (embodied energy)         Embodied energy is a term used
                                            • potentially having an impact on         to describe the inherent amount of
                                              toxicity in manufacture and in use      energy in all the materials used to
                                            • using water in manufacture (called      make a building. This is the sum
                                              embodied water) and                     of energy expended to make the
                                            • consuming other materials that          bricks, windows, steel beams etc.
                                              have their own impacts (e.g.            To minimise embodied energy, less
                                              mining, land clearing, etc.)            energy intensive products that perform
                                                                                      the same function should be chosen.
                                            OPTIMISING MATERIAL                       One way of minimising the embodied
                                            SELECTION                                 energy in products is to use those
                                            Choose materials that have a minimal      with recycled content. Many products
                                            impact and ensure that they are used      use much less energy to be recycled
                                            for the maximum amount of time and        than to make them in the first place;
                                            are not wasted (waste is discussed        for example, only 10% of the energy
                                            elsewhere).                               used to make aluminium is needed to
                                                                                      make recycled aluminium. Embodied
                                            Choosing a material with minimal          energy impacts can be justified in a
                                            impact is difficult. Often you are        building designed for longevity.
                                            comparing completely different
                                            products and impacts; for example,        Toxicity in manufacture and use
                                            timber (biodiversity impacts, energy      Toxicity is the release of substances
                                            efficiency and high maintenance)          into the environment (water, air,
                                            versus aluminium windows                  soil, etc.) that are detrimental to its
                                            (high embodied energy and low             normal functioning. Its effects are
                                            maintenance). The best methodology        often talked about in human life year
                                            for comparing materials holistically      equivalents (i.e. the number of years
                                            is to use Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).      earlier that the average person will die
                                            The problem though is that material       because of an emission) or human
Figure 28. Materials, images sourced from   decisions tend to be made quickly         disability equivalents (the amount
Doncaster Hill Sustainability Guidelines,
Manningham City Council.                    and may not be able to wait for an        of impairment to normal function
                                            LCA, and there are also many other        because of an emission). Toxicity has
                                            factors that need to be considered:       a much broader impact to animals
                                            costs, functionality, aesthetics, etc.    and plants. This is too broad a topic
                                            For this reason, simplified methods,      to be fully explained in this gggide but
                                            guides and rules of thumb are often       the strategies for minimising human
                                            used for choosing materials.              toxicity are linked to reduction in other
                                                                                      toxic impacts.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                             027
esd opportunities in building

    choosing materials
                                                   Toxicity, as it pertains to a government              Knock-on impacts (e.g. in mining,
                                                   building, falls into two areas: the first is          land clearing, etc.)
                                                   toxicity to the users of the building; the            This refers to being efficient with
                                                   second is toxicity to the environment                 materials use, and careful in the
                                                   through the production of materials                   choice of materials that may affect the
                                                   and electricity.                                      environment and biodiversity. There
                                                                                                         are two elements to minimising these
                                                   Toxicity to building users is covered                 impacts: firstly, choose materials with
                                                   under Indoor Environment Quality                      high recycled content and which can
                                                   (IEQ) section and the guide to volatile               be recycled at the end of life; and
    Figure 29. Materials and finishes selection,
    DesignInc.                                     organic compounds (VOC) limits in                     secondly, choose materials that have
                                                   Green Star - Office Design.32 VOC                     third party certification indicating that
                                                   emissions are a problem because                       sustainable management strategies
                                                   some (such as formaldehyde) have                      are in place.
                                                   been shown to be carcinogenic.33
                                                   VOCs also have an impact on
                                                   concentration, and cause (to a varying
                                                   degree) headaches, nausea etc. in
                                                   sensitive people.

                                                   Minimising the impact on the
                                                   environment from the production of
                                                   particular materials can be achieved
                                                   by specifying substances that avoid
    Figure 30. EcoCore doors, plantation           or minimise toxicity. Toxic substances
    veneers, New Age veneers.                                                                            Figure 32. Timber, Doncaster Hill
                                                   are listed in the National Pollutant                  Sustainability Guidelines, Manningham City
                                                   Inventory (NPI). Minimising the impact                Council.
                                                   of the production of pollution from
                                                   power stations can be achieved by                      Online Resources
                                                   using green power.
                                                   Embodied water                                         Ecospecifier
                                                   Like embodied energy, embodied               
                                                   water is the amount of water needed
                                                                                                          Australian Environmental Labelling
                                                   to produce a product. Currently                        Association
                                                   there are no Australian guides and           
                                                   databases on embodied water,
                                                                                                          Embodied Energy
                                                   though these are being developed
                                                   by organisations such as Deakin                        Canadian Architect

                                                   32 Green Star - Office Design v2 Indoor Environment    embodied/
                                                      Quality credits IEQ-13 ‘Volatile Organic
                                                      Compounds’                           National Pollutant Inventory
                                                   33 Formaldehyde classified as human carcinogen
                                                      International Agency for Research on Cancer,
    Figure 31. Roof garden with use of recycled       part of the World Health Organization, released
    glass mulch, Reservoir Civic Centre, Darebin      information 06/15/04
    City Council.                                     Releases/archives/pr153a.html

    028                                                                        ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                         esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                 OPPORTUNITY 8
                                                                                            minimising waste
IMPORTANCE OF MINIMISING                   Design for      Design ceiling dimensions
WASTE                                      materials       to make best use of              One government agency recently
                                           and design      materials – for example          carried out an audit of the waste
Waste is a major environmental issue       for standard    if plasterboard comes in         being taken away by a contractor
in the built environment with more than    sizes           1200mm don’t design
                                                                                            over the period of two weeks. They
                                                           ceiling heights to be
40% of landfill resulting from                             2700mm, since 2400mm             were paying on the basis of a service
building-related waste. One of the                         would make better use of         (not mass charging) arrangement.
                                                           the material and minimise        They found that the contractor’s
major imperatives of sustainable                           waste.
design is to use the waste hierarchy                                                        guess about the amount going to
                                           Design for      Design spaces and                landfill was 16 times more than their
of avoid, reduce, reuse and recycle                                                         direct audit. The audit also found
                                           flexibility     systems that can be
(see Figure 33). That is, do not order                     easily adapted to changes        that they could reduce their waste
it if you do not need it; plan use so as                   in management and                to landfill by 75% by simply getting
                                                           company structures.
to optimise material efficiency (e.g.                                                       all staff to use the recycling facilities
design height for plasterboard size);                                                       already available.
                                           Design of       More and more systems
put aside cut offs for later reuse; etc.   assembly        are being developed that
                                           and             allow buildings to be
                                           disassembly     built in a way that allows
OPTIMISING WASTE                                           them to be disassembled
                                                           and reused. This is not
MINIMISATION                                               mainstream in Australia
Waste minimisation involves a                              yet but the trend in Europe
                                                           is towards this type of
diligent approach to documentation                         construction.
and project management in order
to minimise the amount of waste            Design using    Linked to the above,
                                           prefabricated   use systems that can be
produced on site during demolition         components      prefabricated off site and
and construction. It also recognises                       then assembled on site
                                                           saving waste and time.
the potential of some materials to
be reused or recycled rather than          Design for      Design waste areas
allowing them to contribute to waste       ease of         with easy access and
                                           recycling       spaces on each floor that
volumes going to landfill. The focus of                    encourage staff to recycle.
this should be a more efficient use of
finite resources.
                                           Documentation stage
The environmental opportunities            In preparing the specifications and
of waste management include                contracts for a new building or               Figure 33: Waste management in
the reduction of demolition and            refurbishment, ensure that there are          construction, DEW.
construction waste streams, as well        requirements for waste minimisation.
as those resulting from ongoing            Require a waste management plan
operational waste during the               with periodic reporting, set minimum
life-cycle of the building. The key when   performance targets, ensure an
thinking about minimising waste is to      effective induction programme has
go through each decision using the         been planned for people working
waste minimisation hierarchy outlined      on site, and negotiate with the
in Figure 33.                              contractors that they minimise
Design stage
The design stage produces                  Construction stage
comparatively very little waste. Yet       Construction and demolition waste
this is the stage where many of the        makes up 33% of the landfill space
waste opportunities can be minimised.      in Australia. This can be reduced in
Some strategies are outlined in the        many cases by 80-90% through better           Figure 34: Old building demolition for reuse,
next column:                               waste management procedures.                  Reservoir Civic Centre, Darebin City Council.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                     029
esd opportunities in building

    minimising waste
                                               and recycling reporting, auditing and
        The Green lease and                    management programme as part
        accompanying EMP give the              of the everyday management of the
        following suggestions for              building (see PCA’s building EMS).
        integrating waste into the EMP:        Particularly important is measuring the
        a - establish a waste reduction
                                               actual waste leaving the building and
             strategy and
        b - achieve the agreed Waste           where it is taken – recycling, landfill,
             Reduction Target of [X kg/m2      composting as this allows for active
             NLA/year].                        management of the waste streams.
        pubs/emptemplate-netlease.doc                                                      Figure 35: Old building demolition for reuse,
                                               Tenant management is another area
        Page 7.                                                                            Reservoir Civic Centre, Darebin City Council.
                                               of opportunity for waste reduction.
        If waste management is included        There is an opportunity to influence
        in the EMP scope then a similar        tenant behaviour by ensuring
        schedule of KPIs and targets           easy access to recycling facilities,
        should be provided. NABERS
                                               describing what happens to the
        should be used for waste
        performance assessment.                recycling and waste streams from the                      building and including reports to the
                                               tenants on performance. This can
                                               also be integrated, from the tenant’s
                                               perspective, into a green lease             Figure 36: Waste, Doncaster Hill Sustainability
    Encourage contractors to have a            requiring the building owner to provide     Guidelines, Manningham City Council.
    plan of what waste they expect to          reporting of waste and facilities for
    be generated by the project, how           recycling.
                                                                                             Online Resources
    they will divert it from landfill, and
    where it will be sent for reuse or         End-of-life stage                             Waste
    recycling. One method for ensuring         At the end of a building’s useful life        Sustainability Victoria (SV) waste
    that the contractor has the basic          there are several choices: reuse the          minimisation plan
    understanding of waste minimisation        building, reuse part of the building,
    requirements is to ask for ISO 14001       recycle the building, or demolish and         documents/construction_waste_
    certification. This certification is for   send the materials to recycling or
    all environmental impacts, not just        landfill. The first thing to consider is      SV clauses for waste management
    waste. It provides assurance that the                                                    contracts and designing-in waste
                                               if it is possible to reuse the building.      minimisation
    contractor understands how to carry        This will require a series of inspections
    out an environmental plan and its          and assessments of the potential              documents/publications_and_resources.
    associated waste management plan.          of the building. It may be also that
    Having an ISO 14001 certification is       just the structure can be reused and          Clean Up Australia
    not enough to ensure performance           everything else needs to be replaced.
    though; it just demonstrates they          This is still environmentally preferable      Construction and Demolition
    understand the procedures. It is still     in most cases to complete demolition.
                                                                                             Sustainability Victoria resources
    important to have regular reports and      When recycling the building, carry out
    reviews on performance.                    an existing building audit and plan           documents/publications_and_resources.
                                               what will happen to all of the materials
    Operation stage                            – who will take them, where they              Resource NSW
    During the life of the building,           will be used etc. It is useful to note        Construction and Demolition Section
    waste minimisation is a building           that about one half of the embodied
    management and tenancy issue.              energy in a building is contained in the      Department of the Environment and
    There is a real opportunity for            structure and the roof.                       Water Resources
    savings by implementing a waste                                                          industry/construction/wastewise/index.html

    030                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                  esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                                OPPORTUNITY 9
                                                                                               water conservation
Two topics are covered here: potable       AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT

                                                                                                                                Irrigation 1%
                                                                                                                     etail 3%
                                                                                                                      er 2
water use reduction and storm water        WATER USE

management.                                Data collected from a desktop study,
                                           and from site assessments of a variety                                                                 26%
IMPORTANCE OF WATER                        of government buildings, has allowed
                                                                                                     Cooling Towers
CONSERVATION                               the Institute for Sustainable Futures                          31%
Water scarcity is a major issue for        at the University of Technology in
Australia. While buildings, including      Sydney38 to formulate a model to
residential ones, only consume             estimate the total water consumption                                            Amenities
8-10% of water in Australia (the major     in Australian Government buildings
users being agriculture at 70% and         and operations.
manufacturing at 20% )35, it is easy to
get 20-50% reductions in building use      The results of the model indicate that              Figure 37: Typical office water use. Adapted
through simple measures.                   total Australian Government water                   from:
                                           consumption is approximately                        guide.pdf page 5
The main driver for water efficiency       19 100 ML/year (equivalent to 73 000
in Australian Government buildings         Australian households). An average
comes from restrictions that are           water consumption intensity of 3.34                                   Public
being placed on water usage. These         kL/m2 per annum and a best practice                           Law
restrictions are in place in cities        target of 2 kL/m2 per annum have                            courts 6%
because of the limited supply of           been identified based on the data.39                                                                 Offices
water. The main uses of water in a                                                                      other
commercial building are toilet flushing,   NATIONAL WATER INTENSITY                                   buildings
cooling towers (if present), leakage,      BENCHMARKS
sprinkler testing36 (if present) and       National benchmarks for water                                             Labs +
irrigation (if present).                   consumption in office buildings have                                     research
                                                                                                                  facilities 29%
                                           recently been developed based on
      ‘In Sydney, the commercial           ABGR methodology. As indicated
         building sector in Sydney         in the table below, a score of 2.5 is
        Water’s area of operations         Australian average practice, with a                 Figure 38: Breakdown of Australian
    uses around 100 million litres         score of 5 representing possible best               Government water use by building type
        of water daily and cooling                                                             excluding defence.40
       towers account for around
                     30% of this.’37                                                           34 Chanan, V., White, S., Jha, M., and Howe,
                                                    Syd    Melb   Can    Adel   Bris   Perth
                                                                                                  C. 2003, ‘Sustainable Water Management in
                                             1                                                    Commercial Office Buildings’ Innovations in Water:
                                                    1.73   1.03   0.99   1.08   2.53   1.41
                                            star                                                  Ozwater Convention and Exhibition, Perth, 6-10
                                                                                                  April 2003.
                                              2                                                35 ABS (May 2000), Water Account for Australia
                                                    1.39   0.86   0.83   0.9    1.99   1.14
   …studies show that reductions            stars                                                 released by the ABS, for the year 1996-97.
   of up to 80% of potable water             2.5                                               36 Research done for the CH2 building showed that
                                                    1.21   0.77   0.75   0.8    1.72   1.01       sprinkler water testing uses about 10KL of water
   demand and 90% of sewage                 stars
                                                                                                  per week for the average 10 storey building,
   discharge can be achieved                  3                                                   this is potable water that can be used for other
                                                    1.04   0.69   0.67   0.71   1.44   0.88
   in a sustainable commercial              stars                                                 purposes.
                                                                                               37 Hennessy, S. (2004) Where Every Drop
   building compared to a                    3.5                                                  Counts. Engage the Technical Bulletin of AHA
                                                    0.87    0.6   0.59   0.62   1.17   0.75
   conventional building, through           stars                                                 Management, vol. 5 (1).
   the integration of innovative              4
                                                    0.7    0.53   0.51   0.53    0.9   0.61    38
   water efficiency measures,               stars
   rainfall capture and use,                 4.5                                               39
                                                    0.52   0.43   0.43   0.44   0.62   0.48       publications/government/pubs/water-efficiency-
   treated effluent reuse and               stars
                                                                                                  guide.pdf page 2
   evapotranspiration through roof            5                                                40 Chanan, V., White, S., Jha, M., and Howe,
                                                    0.35   0.35   0.35   0.35   0.35   0.35
   gardens.34                               stars                                                 C. 2003, ‘Sustainable Water Management in
                                                                                                  Commercial Office Buildings’ Innovations in Water:
                                           Source:            Ozwater Convention and Exhibition, Perth, 6-10
                                           publications/government/pubs/water-efficiency-         April 2003.
                                           guide.pdf page 2

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                                            031
esd opportunities in building

    water conservation
    OPTIMISING WATER                             Management and monitoring
    CONSERVATION                                 Regular monitoring of meters
    Potable water reduction                      and sub-meters, either manually
    opportunities                                or by connection to the Building
    Many opportunities can be                    Management System is particularly
    implemented quickly and cheaply to           useful in establishing base flow rates
    reduce water consumption.                    and then identifying leaks when water
    Opportunities for water reduction are        use exceeds normal variability ranges.
    as follows (these are discussed in
    greater detail below):                       Leak avoidance                             Figure 41: Water saving hierarchy, DEW.
    • management and monitoring                  • Report of leaks to building
    • leak avoidance                               management - building occupants
    • efficient fixtures and fittings              should be made aware of where
    • water sensitive landscaping and              and to whom they can report any              Government buildings – possible
    • source substitution.                         leaks. It is important to promptly fix       water savings
                                                   any reported leakages to ensure              ‘The potential savings available from
                                                   positive feedback.                           Australian Government buildings
                                                                                                and operations are between 4296
                                                 • Regular inspections of toilets,
                                                                                                and 7405 ML/year. This is based on
                                                   urinals, taps and showers.                   savings assumptions by building
                                                                                                type developed through the desktop
                                                 Efficient fixtures and fittings                study and site assessments.
                                                 Water efficiency labels are being              Achieving these savings would cost
                                                                                                between $8.2 and $14.6 million
                                                 introduced for many water-using
                                                                                                based on cost assumptions derived
                                                 appliances. Specification of efficient         from empirical case studies in the
                                                 fixtures and fittings (as noted below)         literature.’43
                                                 can reduce water wastage.

                                                 Toilets and urinals
                                                 • Toilet and urinal adjustment
                                                                                            41 Berry T., Edgerton N., Milne G., Jha M. and White
                                                   – adjust floater to use minimal             S. (2004) Feasibility Study for a Policy on Water in
                                                      water                                    Government Operations, ISF, Sydney, July 2004.
                                                                                               p. 41-42.
                                                 • 3 / 4 L or dual flush toilets            42 Chanan, V., White, S., Jha, M., and Howe, C. 2003,
                                                 • Urinal flush controls – sensors             ‘Sustainable Water Management in Commercial
                                                                                               Office Buildings’ Innovations in Water: Ozwater
                                                 • Waterless Urinals.                          Convention and Exhibition, Perth, 6-10 April 2003.
                                                                                            43 Berry T., Edgerton N., Milne G., Jha, M. and White
                                                                                               S. 2004, Feasibility Study for a Policy on Water in
    Figure 39: Water reduction methods42, ISF.                                                 Government Operations, ISF, Sydney, July 2004.

                                                  A dual flush toilet replacing a single    payback of under four years.’
                                                  flush unit in an office building will     ‘In a busy public building, the
                                                  save approximately 360 litres each        saving from a dual flush toilet retrofit
                                                  working day (90 kL per year) in a         could be more than 1 kL per day
                                                  female toilet, an annual financial        per toilet, or about 400 kL/year for a
                                                  saving from potable water alone of        building open every day of the year.
                                                  about $90 or more. For a male toilet      The cost of retrofitting dual flush
                                                  the saving will be about 40 kL/year.      toilets depends upon the plumbing
                                                  For the Edmund Barton building in         changes and redecorating that
                                                  Canberra, with approximately 2800         would be required. It can range
                                                  staff, this would mean an annual          from $250 to $500 or more per
                                                  saving of more than 9 ML, or $11          toilet.’41
                                                  000 for a cost of about $40 000, a
    Figure 40: Water image, stock.XCHNG.

    032                                                                ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                  esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                          OPPORTUNITY 9
                                                                                                 water conservation
Showers                                           • Improving the overall efficiency of
• Flow regulators – need good advice                chillers through plant upgrades or               The Green Lease and
                                                                                                     accompanying EMP give the
  on type as some may result in an                  waste heat recovery                              following suggestions for integration
  inadequate shower                                                                                  into the EMP of water:
• AAA or AAAA showerheads – made                  Further options for improving                      a) establish a water management
  to increase pressure so as to still             efficiency in cooling towers can be                     strategy based on audits and
  provide a good shower.                          found in Sydney Water’s Best Practice
                                                  Guidelines for Cooling Towers in                   b)   implement all cost effective
                                                                                                          water efficiency measures and
Taps                                              Commercial Buildings
• Flow restrictors or tap aerators                     c)   achieve the agreed Water
                                                  FactSheets/SavingWaterBestPracticeGuidelines            Reduction Target of [X kL/m2
• Automatic cut-off and sensor                    CoolingTowers.pdf                                       NLA/year].
  operated taps.                                                                           
                                                  Sprinkler water testing                            emptemplate-netlease.doc Page 10.
Cooling towers                                    • Ensure sprinkler testing water can
                                                    be captured for reuse                            If water management is included
• Making sure float valves are set                                                                   in the EMP scope then a similar
  correctly                                       • Preferably, use captured water for               schedule of KPIs and targets should
• Installing a conductivity meter and               potable uses                                     be provided. NABERS should
                                                                                                     be used for water performance
  automating the blow-down system                                                                    assessment.
  to a pre-set conductivity level (Total          Water sensitive landscaping
  Dissolved Solids concentration) of              (Xeriscape)
  the re-circulating water                        • Use native and indigenous plants             government buildings the amount
• Implementing ‘performance-based’                   for the garden as they require less         of grey water is not significant since
  maintenance                                        water compared to exotic varieties          there is little water generated from
• Reducing heat loads by improving                • Use mulch in the landscape to                these sources. Local regulations will
  the energy efficiency of the building              minimise the loss of water from the         need to be investigated to see the
  and energy services, which will                    soil by evaporation                         classification of grey water. In some
  also reduce the heat load on                    • Schedule the irrigation time using           states treated grey water is seen as
  chillers and cooling towers                        timer controls so that irrigation is        waste (or black) water and therefore
                                                     done after sunset, to minimise loss         such systems need the appropriate
                                                     of water to evaporation                     authorities to approve its reuse. In
   ‘Stormwater recycling can be
                                                  • Install soil moisture sensors                Canberra, the John Gorton building
   encouraged at minimum cost to
   Government. Rainwater tanks                                                                   has been recycling grey water since
                                                  Source substitution                            the late 1990s.
   connected to roofs provide a
   valuable source of water for
                                                  Other than water efficiency measures,
   gardens, toilet flushing, washing              there are three additional options for         Waste or Black water
   and hot water. Stormwater storage              reducing water use from mains: the             This is water from kitchens and toilets
   underground, which could form part             first is to collect and use rainwater, the     and recycling is possible with current
   of an on-site stormwater retention/            second to reuse grey water and the             technology but requires appropriate
   detention system, can also be                  last to recycle all waste water.               permits and a thorough system
   incorporated into buildings’.44                                                               of maintenance and monitoring.
                                                  Rainwater                                      There are two types of recycling
                                                  Water collected off the roof of a              – biological (using bacteria and
                                                  building is dependent on collection            worms) and mechanical (using filters).
                                                  area, rainfall and amount of space             Some examples include the 60L
                                                  available for water storage tanks.             building in Melbourne that uses a
                                                                                                 biological system and CH2 that uses a
                                                  Grey water
                                                                                                 mechanical system.
                                                  Grey water is from showers, clothes
                                                  washing and non-kitchen sinks.
                                                                                                 44 EA (2002) Introduction to Urban Stormwater
                                                  For most commercial and other                     Management in Australia, Environment Australia,
Figure 42. Reservoir Civic Centre car park                                                          Canberra. p. 50.
designed to collect rainwater into treed areas,                                                     publications/stormwater
Darebin City Council.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                                033
esd opportunities in building

    water conservation
    Stormwater is the rainwater that runs
    off surfaces such as roads and roofs
    into the stormwater system. This water
    is a potential resource, but currently
    it is mainly collected and run off into
    rivers, lakes and the ocean.

    Stormwater opportunities
    For government buildings the main
    issues with stormwater (adapted
    from DEW stormwater guidelines see         Figure 43. Queenscliff Ecocentre, DPI Victoria.
    link below) are stormwater effective
                                               The benefits of OSD are:                              Green roofs are an example of one
    landscaping, on-site retention, roof
                                               • it can be funded immediately                        initiative that affects several impacts –
    gardens and aquifer storage.
                                                 (i.e. by the developer) and does                    stormwater run off, increase insulation
                                                 not require capital outlays from                    of the roof, and importantly reduction
    Stormwater effective landscaping
                                                 stormwater management authorities                   of the urban heat island effect (the
    • Using landscaping to absorb
                                                 and                                                 significant increase in air temperature
      stormwater runoff from paths
                                               • it protects downstream properties                   in built up areas).
    • Using semipermeable surfaces
                                                 against increases in flooding
                                                 resulting from new developments.                    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)
    On-site stormwater detention (OSD)45                                                             This involves the harvesting of surplus
    Best practice on-site stormwater                                                                 stormwater from a variety of sources.
                                               Roof gardens
    detention involves:                                                                              Stormwater can be temporarily
                                               In cities, roofs cover 40-80% of built
    • Increasing the quality of the water                                                            stored in a suitable aquifer, and then
                                               areas leading to problems including
      captured by separation of first-                                                               retrieved for potable, irrigation or
                                               higher volumes of stormwater runoff.
      flushes from later flows. First-flush                                                          industrial applications.47
                                               A number of countries in Europe have
      water can be contaminated by dust
                                               acknowledged this problem and have
      on roofs, oil on roads and other
                                               legislated that all public buildings
      pollutants. These can be diverted to                                                           Online Resources
                                               should be covered with a roof garden.
      landscaping or can be treated.
                                               The German government contributes                     Water
    • Using screened outlets to closely
                                               50% to the cost of building a roof
      control flow rates and capture litter,                                                         Stormwater
                                               garden on either private or public          
      debris and sediment.                                                                           publications/stormwater/
                                               buildings. Roof gardens absorb about
    • Using frequency-staged storage
                                               76 litres of water per square metre of      
      systems that employ ‘storage’
                                               garden space. Super-imposed loads           
      in lawns and garden soils,
                                               on the roof structure, plus retained
      depressions in public open spaces,                                                             Water management plan
                                               rainwater, means that the roof needs        
      and open and covered pavements
                                               to be designed for the extra loading.46               SavingWater/WaterManagementPlans.htm
      such as car parks, but designed
      in a staged fashion, so that each                                                              Clearwater
                                               45 Ribbons, S., Warwick, M. and Knight, G. (1995).
      storage comes into operation only           Section 94 contributions or on-site detention:
      when the preceding one is full.             Council’s dilemma. In Preprints of papers: the
                                                  second international symposium on urban
                                                                                                     Water Efficiency Labelling
    • Using tailwater compensation to             stormwater management 1995: Integrated   
      control discharge when the bed of           management of urban environments, p. 27.
                                               46 Urriola, Humberto (1999). Roof gardens: an         Water Saving Gardens
      the water storage facility lies below       environmental asset. In Wood, J.A. (ed.) (1999).
      the water surface in the receiving          Water sensitive design and stormwater re-use:      Yarra Valley Water
                                                  seminar proceedings, 31 March 1999. Stormwater
      drain.                                      Industry Association: Sydney, p. 1.                Home/WaterConservation/
    • Using pump discharge regulation          47 Gerges, N.Z. Aquifer storage and recovery: type    SavingWaterInYourGarden/
                                                  and selection of aquifer. Primary Industry and     waterSavingPlants.htm
      for controlling pumping from                Resources, Canberra.
      basement tanks in buildings.

    034                                                                    ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                           esd opportunities in building

                                                                                                                                 OPPORTUNITY 10
                                                                                                   land use and ecology
                                                                      The DPI Queenscliff
                                                                      research facility in
                                                                      Victoria minimised its
                                                                      impact by providing for
                                                                      regeneration, provision
                                                                      of habitat and minimal
                                                                      site disturbance.
                                                                      This involved the
                                                                      remediation of the site
                                                                      and the construction of
 Figure 44. Queenscliff Ecocentre, DPI Victoria.                      wetlands.

IMPORTANCE OF LAND USE AND                         ensure that the ecological value of
PROTECTION OF ECOLOGY                              the site is maintained or increased is
The main issues with the choice                    to choose native landscaping and to
of land are: efficiency in its use                 remediate land if possible.
and avoiding potential biodiversity
impacts. Biodiversity is the richness              Green Star and NABERS criteria can
of animals and plants that live in                 be used for minimising these impacts:
an area. The value of considering                  • NABERS looks at the percentage
biodiversity is that over 40% of                      of native plant cover and the
nationally listed threatened ecological               complexity of that cover.
communities48, and more than 50%                   • Green Star - Office Design looks
of threatened species, occur in urban                 at whether the site is a brownfield
fringe areas.49 The impact of the                     or contaminated site, and whether
loss of biodiversity ranges from not                  the ecological value of the site has
having that animal or plant present,                  been increased by the use of native
to systemic chain reactions that go                   plants, wetlands, etc. The Green
beyond the scope of this guide to                     Star - Office Design technical
explain. Preserving and enhancing                     manual is a good resource for this
levels of biodiversity is one of the                  area of decision making.50
three key objectives of the National
                                                   48 Newman et al. (2001) Human Settlements Theme,
Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable                 Australia State of the Environment Report 2001. An
Development.                                          independent report to the Commonwealth Minister
                                                      for Environment, Department of Environment,
                                                      Sport and Territories. CSIRO Publishing,
OPTIMISING LAND USE AND                               Melbourne.
                                                   49 Yencken D. and Wilkinson D. (2000) Resetting
PROTECTION OF ECOLOGY                                 the Compass: Australia’s Journey Towards
The main issue for Australian                         Sustainability. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
                                                   50 Green Star - Office Design v2 Land use and
Government buildings is in the land                   Ecology (Eco) set of credits
chosen for a new building and in the
materials chosen for that building.
                                                   Online Resources
The main way of minimising this
impact is by choosing a site which                 Land use and Ecology
is a ‘brownfield’ site, that has had
                                                   Department of the Environment and
buildings or other industrial uses                 Water Resources
on it before. This is opposed to a       
‘greenfield’ site, which is land that has
                                                   Australian Museum
previously been undeveloped – park,      
farm, bush, etc. The second way to
                                                                                                           Figure 45. Native grasses use in the
                                                                                                           Reservoir Civic Centre, Darebin City Council.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                                       035
case studies

   8 Brindabella Circuit
                                                         BUILDING TYPE New
                                                                CLIMATE Temperate
                                                              LOCATION Canberra, ACT
                                                                 CLIENT Canberra International Airport
                                                    PROJECT MANAGER Construction Control
                                                           ARCHITECTS Daryl Jackson Alastair Swayn Pty Ltd
                                                             ENGINEERS Rudds Consulting Engineers, Cardno Youngs
                                                                    SIZE 4313m2 net lettable area
   Figure 46. Brindabella 5 Star Green Star
   – Office Design v1, Daryl Jackson Alastair
   Swayn Pty Ltd

   Eight Brindabella Circuit has achieved         VOC levels.                            training by the Green Building
   a 5 Star Green Star - Office Design v1       • High levels of recycled content was    Council of Australia and some have
   certified rating. Brindabella Business         achieved in concrete, steel and        progressed to become Accredited
   Park has been designed and built               timber.                                Green Star Professionals. All workers
   incorporating sustainable principles.        • Solar hot water panels preheat         are inducted in green construction
                                                  100% of all hot water, and provide     techniques, including material
                                                  approximately 70% of the total heat    (particularly adhesives and solvents)
                                                  energy.                                selection and recycling. All airport
    Energy              610mWh per year
                                                                                         management and staff have also
                        (141 kWh/m2)
                                                PROJECT BACKGROUND                       undergone green management,
    Water               775 kL per year         Eight Brindabella Circuit was designed   safety, and emergency spill training.
    Greenhouse    552 tonnes CO2                as a speculative office building
    Gas Emissions (128kgCO2/m2)                 with some retail spaces. The client      An independent commissioning
    Capital cost        12% above
                                                was keen to achieve a 5 Star Green       agent appointed to the project will
                        conventional office     Star building to provide a ‘green’       return to 8 Brindabella Circuit every
                        building                alternative in the market, which was     three months for one year to ensure
    Savings             $30 103 per year on     also commercially viable. The building   absolute compliance with Green Star
                        energy costs            forms part of the Brindabella Office     specifications. This ensures systems
    Payback             Figure not yet
                                                Park and reflects the progression of     continue to run as specified and
                        available               various initiatives introduced to the    re-tunes the system to provide
                                                suite of buildings within the park.      ongoing energy savings.

   KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                     ESD CONSIDERATIONS                       A Building User Guide has been
   • Active chilled beams used to               MANAGEMENT                               prepared to help the building manager
     circulate air inside the building.         This building was constructed in         and occupants understand the
   • Energy efficient light ballasts and        accordance with a site specific          innovative systems installed in the
     zoned lighting used to reduce              environmental management plan,           building, which ensures the systems
     energy consumption, including              which exceeds both best practice         are used efficiently.
     an advanced control system that            NSW Environment Management
     automatically dims the luminaires          System Guidelines (1998), and best       Solvents used in the cleaning of all
     around the perimeter of the                practice Australian Government           Business Park buildings have been
     building when daylight is sufficient.      guidelines.                              tested for any impact they may have
   • Extensive research was undertaken                                                   on the environment. Occupants and
     to ensure that all materials used          All the key decision makers involved     cleaning staff are required to separate
     have either no or extremely low            in the design phase have undergone       recyclable and non-recyclable waste.

   036                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                      case studies

                                                                                     8 Brindabella Circuit
ENERGY                                     dim the lights to optimise use of the            “The beauty of 8 Brindabella
Cooling, heating and supplementary         daylight, while motion sensors turn              is its understated greenness
air conditioning water is reticulated      lights off when nobody is around.                  at a reasonable cost to the
from a Central Services Building,                                                           client, no gimmicks, no fuss,
which in turn serves all the new           Lighting zone flexibility ensures that        just application of sound green
buildings in the Brindabella Business      only occupied areas are lit. This
Park. This means the building is more      flexibility is achieved by separate
energy efficient than a building of        switches for individual and enclosed
similar size. These economies of scale     spaces with the size of individually
allow considerable redundant capacity      switched zones not exceeding 100 m2,
to be provided, ensuring a consistent      and clearly labelled.
supply of conditioned air and heated
water to the building.                     Roof top solar hot water panels
                                           preheat 100% of the hot water supply
The building uses active chilled           to the building, cutting energy use for
beams to circulate and control the air     hot water by two-thirds.
temperature. This significantly reduces
the quantity of air moved from the         WATER
plantroom, reducing fanpower and           This building saves 687 000 litres
                                                                                      James Andrews, Associate Architect, Daryl
energy consumption. The building           of water a year compared with a            Jackson Alastair Swayn
also features passive in-slab heating      standard building of similar size. The
and cooling around its perimeter,          water efficient devices employed
ensuring efficient and more constant       lead to a 43% reduction in water           water uses in the building, including
temperatures across the tenancy to         consumption. An additional 10% is          cooling towers.
improve occupant comfort.                  saved by rainwater collection.             In non-monitored buildings, water
                                           To achieve this saving, the building       leakages typically account for 25% of
Every substantive energy use within        uses a number of systems:                  water consumption.
the building and in the plantroom
is individually monitored and is           • Water-free urinals: Water-free           All water used for irrigation at
connected to a Building Management           urinals utilise a biodegradable          Brindabella Business Park and the
System, centrally monitored and              blocking fluid rather than the           entire airport precinct is recycled,
controlled across the park. This allows      conventional flush of water to           rainwater or is non-potable
detailed analysis of the energy use          contain odours.                          groundwater. Since switching to this
of each of the key users of electricity    • Hands free taps: Infra-red taps          system, Canberra International Airport
and, hence, provides for future energy       reduce both water and energy             has not had to draw on the ACT’s
savings through proper management.           consumption. Water is only               potable water supply for irrigation.
Similarly, sub metering is provided for      released when hands are under the        In addition, a low water use/high
lighting and small power uses in each        infra-red beam below the tap spout.      efficiency system has been designed.
of the tenancies, and individual tenant    • 3/6L dual-flush toilets: on average      This consists of local drippers and
meters can be connected to the               use 4 litres per flush.                  in-soil wetting blankets.
Building Management System.                • 5A rated shower heads: Shower
                                             heads also achieve a 60%                 IEQ
Artificial light is supplied by high-        reduction in water usage.                Extensive research was undertaken
efficiency single tube 54 W T5 fittings                                               to ensure that all materials used have
for all tenant lighting, reducing the      In addition to the water consumption       either no or extremely low VOC levels.
lighting load to approximately 9 W/m2      savings, the water efficient devices       In addition, a general exhaust riser is
(ordinarily 15 W/m2 in a conventionally    employed lead to a 36% reduction in        available for tenants to connect to so
lit commercial building). The building’s   emissions to the sewer.                    that emissions from photocopying and
perimeter lighting features a system       Water sub meters featuring leak            printing equipment can be collected at
that automatically senses when it can      detection systems are installed on all     the source and exhausted.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                             037
case studies

   8 Brindabella Circuit
   The office space is continually             MATERIALS                                 Canberra Airport provides and
   supplied with 100% outside air,             Over 30% of the cement used in most       subsidises a regular bus service.
   and exceeds the requirements                of the concrete has been replaced         Buses travel regularly to and from
   of AS1668.2 (1991) by 185%.                 with an industrial waste product. This    the airport connecting to the city and
   This ensures continuous fresh air           increases the strength of the concrete    Russell within 15 minutes at just $3.10
   and no accumulation of airborne             while also using a significant quantity   for airport tenants.
   contaminants or objectionable odours        of what would otherwise go to landfill.
   in the building.                                                                      Optimum levels of car parking are
                                               Ninety percent of the steel used in       provided to encourage the use of
   The T5 high frequency ballasts used         the building is either recycled or        alternative transport. In addition, a
   for artificial lighting minimise the        reused. It reuses a significant amount    number of small car and motorbike
   ‘flicker’ typical of fluorescent lights.    of steel from demolished buildings,       parking spaces have been provided
   Flicker, whether it is consciously or       reducing waste to landfill and meaning    near the entrance to the building
   unconsciously detected, can have            that less energy is required during       to encourage the use of more fuel
   severe effects on workers leading to        manufacture, because the steel does       efficient small cars and mopeds/
   eyestrain and headaches.                    not have to be re-melted. For all the     motorbikes.
                                               major steel uses such as steel beams,
   The building has been certified by an       used beams were obtained and              Secure enclosed bicycle storage
   acoustics consultant to ensure it has       re-worked. The result has been less       is provided for staff, with showers,
   a low noise level, with the building        energy usage in the rejuvenation than     change rooms and lockers available
   services contributing less than 5dB         in the recycling process.                 adjacent to the bike store.
   to the noise within the space. This is
   achieved through the use of double          The timber used is almost entirely        REFERENCES
   glazing and thick insulation, ensuring      sourced from recycled timber              Canberra International Airport
   that noise from external sources is         (Blackbutt-Eucalyptus Pilularis)
   virtually eliminated.                       obtained from demolished buildings.
                                                                                             ‘We used waterless urinals and
   The active chilled beam system allows       WASTE                                      all the A grade fittings and they’re
   conditions in the local area to be          Over 80% of the waste created by the            all hands free activation on all
   maintained by adjusting the supply          construction of 8 Brindabella Circuit           the taps in the bathrooms etc.
   temperature from each unit. These           is collected and sorted for re-use/          so it’s a sort of measured dose,
   units service a much smaller area           recycling.                                  and also auto flush cycles on all
   than is typical for office buildings with                                               the toilets so it takes the chance
   zone sizes reduced from 100m2 in a          Office waste is sorted for recycling.         of someone leaving a tap on or
   standard building to 35m2. This leads       There is a central recycling storage             something running out of the
   to improved occupant satisfaction           area in the Park to collect all
   within the space.                           recyclables. All workstations in the
                                               Park have separate recyclable and
   Shading on the outside of the building      non-recyclable bins. Organic waste
   has been designed to minimise glare         from landscaping is either recycled or
   and heat. The shading devices have          used as fertiliser for local farmers.
   been modelled to ensure maximum
   passive design savings. Internal blinds     EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
   are also included so that occupants         All of the refrigerants used have
   can manually adjust the level of light      an Ozone Depletion Potential of
   entering the building.                      zero. Insulation products have also
                                               been carefully selected to ensure all
                                               substances used in its manufacture
                                               have an ODP of zero.                      Brindabella’s central plant
                                                                                         Martin Osolnik, Associate, Daryl Jackson
                                                                                         Alastair Swayn

   038                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                        case studies

                                                                                                    30 The Bond
          BUILDING TYPE New
                 CLIMATE Temperate
                LOCATION Millers Point, Sydney, New South Wales
                   CLIENT Deutsche Office Trust
           ARCHITECTS Lend Lease Design, PTW Architects
            ENGINEERS Bovis Lend Lease, Arup, Lincolne Scott
                     SIZE 19 700m2 net lettable area
                                                                                       Figure 47. 30 The Bond, Bovis Lend Lease.

Thirty The Bond is an A Grade office        • High amount of recycled timber           They have also conducted half-yearly
building located in Millers Point,            used in the fitout.                      presentations to staff regarding
Sydney and is currently the                                                            the results of their pre and post-
headquarters for Lend Lease. The            PROJECT BACKGROUND                         occupancy evaluations of the building.
building is part of a complex on            The site of the building is within the
Hickson Road which also includes            former Australian Gas Light (AGL)          An internal web site is updated
heritage buildings, a residential           gasworks plant established in 1871         each month with waste, water and
building and a public plaza. ‘The           to provide lighting to the surrounding     energy results so staff can track their
Bond’ committed to a 5 star energy          area. A four-storey sandstone wall,        progress. Another web site available
rating (AGBR), resulting in 30% lower       originally hewn by convicts, remains       is an A-Z users’ guide, so staff have
greenhouse emissions than a typical         as a main feature of the atrium.           at their fingertips detailed information
office building.                                                                       on a variety of topics from the chilled
                                            Lend Lease staff gave a large amount       beams to wintergardens.
BUILDING OUTPUTS                            of input into the design and fitout of
                                            the building. Staff identified three key   ENERGY
 Energy           1243mWh per year                                                     A chilled beam air conditioning
                  (63kWh/m2)                issues to address in the design of the
                                            building: greenhouse gas emissions,        system is the major contributor to the
 Water            Figure not yet                                                       reduction in energy consumption.
                  available                 indoor environment quality and social
                                            aspects.                                   Chilled beams operate by pumping
 Greenhouse       1 162 300kg CO2 per                                                  chilled water through cooling elements
 Gas              year (59kg CO2/m2)                                                   in the ceiling. Hot air created by
 Emissions                                  ESD CONSIDERATIONS
                                            MANAGEMENT                                 occupants and equipment (such as
 Capital cost     $112 million                                                         computers and lights) is cooled by
                                            Management has taken thorough
 Savings          $157 000 per year         steps to ensure the ESD initiatives        the chilled beams and falls, creating a
                  (compared to 3 star                                                  natural convection process of hot air
                  AGBR building)            incorporated into the design have
                                            been maintained during the crucial         rising and cold air falling. Additional
 Payback          No additional costs                                                  radiant cooling from the chilled beams
                                            operation stage of the building’s life
                                            cycle.                                     supports the convection process.
• The building is the first in Australia    Before moving into the premises,           In addition to the chilled beams,
  to achieve a 5 Green Star As Built        the staff were given presentations         fresh air is continually provided to the
  rating.                                   about the sustainability initiatives       workplace and exhausted out of the
• The building has now delivered a          incorporated in the building, how the      building without being recirculated.
  5 star AGBR rating for two years of       building works and ways to maintain        This significantly increases the air
  operation.                                the sustainability of the building. The    quality within the office space and
• Features the first use of chilled         post occupancy study has shown             considerably reduces the risk of sick
  beams.                                    that 84% of occupants feel more            building syndrome.
• Plants used as a natural air filtration   comfortable, with 51% saying they are
  system.                                   more productive.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                               039
case studies

   30 The Bond
   Naturally ventilated sunrooms on each      Ninety-six percent of the components          Lend Lease. 2003, Lend Lease Unveils
   floor can operate comfortably for up to    of office chairs can be reused, and           Australia’s First Five Star Greenhouse
   60% of the year.                           contain 42% recycled material.                Office Building, Lend Lease,
   The long front elevation of the building   WASTE                                         all/9CFAD027B2C9D605CA256D170082744D?
   faces desirable views to the west,         The site’s former life as home to             OpenDocument
   overlooking wharves. Overheating           AGL’s first gas manufacturing plant in
   through the expansive glazing is           Sydney meant residual contamination,
   avoided through use of individually        including tarry waste, remained
   operated external shades. As workers       beneath the ground. Remediation
   tilt the shades to block glare and heat,   works were carried out which included
   they also affect the appearance of a       installing permanent groundwater
   continuously changing, lively facade       barrier walls (secant piles), excavation
   as seen from the street.                   of tar and applying odour suppressing
                                              techniques to the removed tarry
   WATER                                      waste. The project team also applied
   The roof top garden has been               new on-site mixing techniques which
   planted with native fauna and a            proved successful in turning the
   drip soil system with moisture             semi-liquid tar into a more stable,
   detection installed to reduce water        manageable material for removal,
   consumption. Low flow water fittings       transportation and treatment offsite.
   and fixtures have been installed
   throughout.                                EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
                                              Bike racks, lockers and showers have
   IEQ                                        been provided for the staff. A tenant
   Narrow floor plates, access to view,       has purchased a car parking space to
   high daylight levels, single pass          add a further 14 bike spaces and has
   double code outdoor air quantity, T5       installed showers and lockers on their
   lighting and low VOC materials such        floor.
   as carpets and paints, all combine                                                        ‘In terms of artificial components
   to give a world leading indoor             Public transport is readily available,         on energy efficiency, we have T5
   environment.                               with the building located 500m from             lighting…We’re achieving 6.7 W
                                              two railway stations, two ferry stations                     per square metre....’
   A roof garden, featuring mainly native     and a bus.
   flora, acts as a social hub for the
   tenants.                                   REFERENCES
                                              Eco friendly building 2004, radio
   MATERIALS                                  broadcast, Earthbeat - ABC Radio
   Bamboo flooring and products are           National, Sydney, 24/02/05. Transcript
   used extensively throughout the            available:
   building. Other timbers used have          stories/s1124840.htm
   either been recycled or harvested from
   sustainable plantations.                   Architecture Week. 2003, Sustaining
                                              Sydney Spaces, Architecture Week,
   Low VOC products, including cork (a
   renewable resource), were used for         1-1.html
   interior walls. Sourcing also included                                                   Energy efficiency
   goat’s hair carpets.                       Edwards, P. 2003, Developers                  30 the Bond
                                                                                            Paul Edwards, General Manager,
                                              viewpoint on a sustainable approach,          Environment Sustainability Initiatives, Lend
                                              Bovis Lend Lease.                             Lease Australia Pacific

   040                                                               ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                          case studies

                                                                                 CH2, Council House 2
          BUILDING TYPE New
                 CLIMATE Temperate
                LOCATION Melbourne, Victoria
                   CLIENT The City of Melbourne
   PROJECT MANAGER The City of Melbourne
            ARCHITECTS The City of Melbourne in collaboration with
                       DesignInc Melbourne
              ENGINEERS Lincolne Scott, AEC, Bonacci Group
                       SIZE 9373m2 net lettable area

The City of Melbourne’s Council               • Water mining plant that recycles
House 2 (CH2) has achieved a 6 Star             black water from city’s sewers for
Green Star - Office Design v1 certified         non-potable reuse.
rating. Set in the heart of Melbourne         • Vertical garden on the north façade
CBD, CH2 houses 540 council                     to minimise glare and increase
employees as well as retail outlets on          ambience.
the lower floors. Sustainable principles      • Displacement air-conditioning
have been incorporated in every detail          provides 100% fresh air
of the design. Significant reductions in        requirements.
greenhouse gas emissions have been
achieved – in this case, 87% less than        PROJECT BACKGROUND
the existing council house next door.         The Melbourne City Council is             Figure 48. CH2 Swanston Street view, City of
                                                                                        Melbourne. 6 Star, Green Star - Office Design
                                              known for its role as a leading green     v1, image by Dianna Snape.
BUILDING OUTPUTS                              organisation and wanted the design
 Energy             515.5mWh per year         of its new council building to reflect    promote effective and efficient use of
                    (55 kWh/m2)               its position. The council desired         the building.
 Water              100kL mined per
                                              a lighthouse project that would
                    day, 72% reduction in     demonstrate what a green building,        ENERGY
                    potable water use         integrated into an urban environment,     Chilled panels on the ceilings aid air
 Greenhouse         562 tonnes CO2 per        could achieve. In addition to the         circulation and radiant cooling. This
 Gas                year (60kgCO2/m2)         projected energy and water savings,       process allows significant energy
 Emissions                                    the key driver of the project was to      savings. The heat from occupants
 Capital cost       $51 million for the       create an environment that promoted       and equipment is absorbed into the
                    building excluding        staff well-being, retention and           thermal mass, circulating fluid passing
                    fitout                    effectiveness.                            through chilled panels.
 Savings            $1.2 million per year
 Payback            Around 10 years           ESD CONSIDERATIONS                        The building is naturally cooled at
                                              MANAGEMENT                                night. This process is called night
Note: This building is still in monitoring    An Environmental Management Plan          purging. Windows on the north and
phase. Figures given are estimates of final
performance.                                  was required at tender stage. The         south facades open to allow the air
                                              contractor was also required to be        to flow through the space. The heat
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                      certified to ISO 14001 Standard.          absorbed by the high thermal mass
• 6 Star Green Star rating.                                                             building structure, during the day time
• Features shower towers, phase               A Building User’s Guide will be           operation, is released to the cool night
  change materials and chilled ceiling        developed and available to all building   air as it flows through the building.
  panels as the radiant cooling               users, occupiers and tenants to

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                  041
case studies

   CH2, Council House 2
   There are five shower towers on the       IEQ                                         WASTE
   outside of the building that condition    One hundred percent fresh air is            During the construction period, CH2’s
   the air on the ground floor and retail    funnelled down vertical supply ducts        contractors recycled 80% of the
   space. The water is evaporatively         that supply air to the office space via     construction waste.
   cooled and used to remove heat from       vents in the floor. These vents can
   the phase change material which, in       be adjusted by the users for comfort.       Recycling facilities to recycle all types
   turn, is used to cool the water that      Turbines exhaust air during night           of office waste are provided to staff.
   runs through the chilled beams and        purging. C02 levels in the air are
   panels.Photovoltaic cells on the roof     constantly monitored and fresh air          EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
   generate 3.5kW of energy, enough          supplied accordingly.                       CH2 is located in the heart of
   to power the wooden louvres on the                                                    Melbourne’s CBD, with convenient
   western façade. Electrical heat and       Natural light is provided where             access to public transport. Keeping
   energy is also supplied by a              possible. The lower floors, which           this in mind, there are 80 bicycle
   micro-turbine co-generation system.       are exposed to less light than upper        storage spaces (10% of staff) with
                                             floors, have larger windows. To             shower facilities. There are visitor
   General light levels are kept low.        minimise glare and heat, louvres            bike parking facilities near the front
   Office lighting is zoned into areas       are positioned on the east and west         entrance. Twenty two car parking
   no larger than 100m2. They use high       façades, made up respectively of            spaces have been provided in the
   frequency T5 ballasts that achieve        perforated steel and recycled timber.       basement area.
   lighting power density of less than       The northern façade also features
   2.5 W/m2 per 100 lux. Task lighting is    a vertical garden, which provides           REFERENCES
   provided to employee work areas.          shading as well as a micro climate for      City of Melbourne
                                             the balcony areas.                
   Highly energy efficient equipment
   such as LCD monitors are used.            Light shelves inside and outside
                                             reflect light onto the ceiling, providing
   WATER                                     diffused lighting. General light levels
   A water mining plant in the basement      are kept to 150 lux. Task lighting of
                                                                                               ‘We use natural ventilation for
   draws 100 000 litres per day of black     320 lux is provided for individuals.
   water from the city’s sewer system for                                                       night flushing. This cools the
   recycling. This purified water is used    Plants specifically selected for their         concrete ceiling down, and we
   for purposes such as plant watering       ability to filter toxins from the air are    expose as much thermal mass to
   and toilet flushing. Surplus amounts      placed around the office space.                 the space, which works on the
   are used in fountains, street cleaning                                                principle that we feel more radiant
   and plant irrigation around the city of   The council expects between a one                                       cooling.’
   Melbourne.                                and five percent increase in staff
                                             effectiveness due to the increased
   Rainwater is collected and used with      ambience and air quality.
   the recycled water to irrigate the
   plants.                                   MATERIALS
                                             Low VOC products are used, where
   All fittings are AAAA rated including     possible, to replace high VOC
   low-flow shower heads, dual-flush         products in paint finishes, and
   toilets and sensor-triggered flushing     laminates.
   for the urinals.
                                             Ninety percent of the timber used is
   Solar hot water panels on the roof        recycled or sustainably harvested.
   provide 60% of the hot water normally     PVC use in hydraulics and electrical
                                                                                         Mi k P       D i M
                                                                                         Mick Pearce, Design Manager,
   supplied by the co-generation plant.      components has been eliminated.             City of Melbourne

   042                                                               ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                       case studies

                                                                                            743 Ann Street
          BUILDING TYPE Existing - Refurbished
                 CLIMATE Warm - Humid
                LOCATION Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland
                   CLIENT PMM
            ARCHITECTS TVS Partnership Architects
             ENGINEERS Lincolne Scott
                     SIZE 1821.07m2 net lettable area
                                                                                     Figure 49. 743 Ann Street, TVS Partnership.

This building is a complete                  appeal, housing an attractive,          ENERGY
transformation of an outdated 1980s          healthy and functional workplace        Passive thermal and solar design
office building into a commercially          for staff, showcasing a multitude of    principles used in the building reduce
viable and sustainable development.          sustainable, leading edge design        the amount of energy it consumes.
It houses the headquarters of PMM,           measures.
a town planning, urban design and                                                    The general air conditioning system
surveying firm, and retail shops at          ESD CONSIDERATIONS                      is turned off after hours to prevent
street level.                                MANAGEMENT                              unnecessary cooling. Localised units
                                             The ESD elements of the building        were installed for tenants to use as
                                             have been promoted by management.       required. All switches and timers are
                                             By January 2005, over 1000 visitors     clearly identified to avoid unnecessary
 Energy          Figure not yet available    (including international groups) have   use
 Water           1138kL per year             toured the building, hosted and
 Greenhouse      Figure not available        guided by trained PMM management        Skylights on the second (top) level
 Gas                                         and staff.                              of the office provide natural light to
 Emissions                                                                           the occupants, reducing the need for
 Capital cost    $4.4 million (including     A Building User Guide was developed     artificial lighting.
                 acquisition)                so that building users understand
 Savings         Figure not yet available    and know how to maintain the ESD        Artificial lighting is provided by high
 Payback         Figure not yet available
                                             features in the building. There are     frequency T5 ballasts.
                                             also monitoring programmes and
                                             educational displays in the foyer of    Solar hot water panels provide the hot
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                     the building that provide ongoing       water demands and photovoltaic cells
• Solar hot water panels provide hot         information on the building’s           on the roof provide additional energy,
  water to the tenants.                      performance in water and energy         supplementing the mains power. The
• A thermosiphon wall reduces heat           consumption.                            cells produce between 4-4.5 MW a
  load in the building.                                                              year, which is enough to power a
• Bio filter plants filter pollutants from   Staff actively and enthusiastically     residential house.
  the air.                                   participate in a committee known as
• Where possible, materials were             ‘Team Green’, ensuring the monitoring   The building was fitted out with energy
  recycled from the original building.       and ongoing improvements of the         efficient appliances such as fridges,
                                             building’s environmental performance,   microwaves and dishwashers.
PROJECT BACKGROUND                           including energy and water saving
The aim of the building’s urban              measures, transport initiatives and     Heating and cooling is controlled
renewal was to develop an external           recycling programmes.                   through a digital system that is part of
built form with striking street                                                      the security and timing switch system.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                               043
case studies

   743 Ann Street
   WATER                                        to maximise recycling of demolished        Bicycle facilities including lockers and
   Stormwater is stored in a 11 000L            waste materials. Ceiling tiles, ceiling    showers have been provided and
   storage tank and used to flush toilets       grid, glass and metal elements were        electric bikes, smart and hybrid cars
   and irrigate xeriscaped gardens.             reused.                                    have been investigated to replace
                                                                                           company vehicles.
   A heat trace system on the hot water         Plantation pine rather than steel was
   pipes makes hot water immediately            used for stud frames to partition walls    REFERENCES
   available to users, saving on running        rather than steel.                         CD Rom: 743 Ann St Brisbane
                                                                                           Redevelopment for the future, EPA Qld
   cold water out of taps prior to use.                                                    and PMM 2003.
                                                The walls are painted in Rockcote
   Water efficient fixtures such as AAA         EcoStyle paints which are odourless,
   rated shower roses, sink aerators and        without toxic fumes and low in
   dual flush toilets were installed, as well   hazardous chemicals and solvents.
   as waterless urinals.                        The Interface modular carpet is also
   The north-west wall of the building          The timber used for the patio is
   features a thermosiphon wall that            constructed using Modwood, which
   regulates the heat load inside the           is made from sawdust and recycled
   building by absorbing the sun’s heat         domestic plastics.                                 ‘In Ann St, the major energy
   on the wall, which causes hot air in the                                                 efficiency initiative we introduced
   vent behind the wall to rise and exit        Modular workstations can easily be               was a thermosiphon naturally
   from the top of the wall on hotter days.     refigured, and are made from E1               ventilated system into the atrium
                                                emission rated particleboard, recycled       of the building… other important
   The building’s atrium is naturally           plastic edge strip, and recycled
                                                                                            features included energy efficient
   ventilated through the use of                rubber/foam materials.
   thermostatic controlled vents.                                                             T5 lighting, carefully considered
                                                WASTE                                               zoning related to occupant
   Natural lighting has been maximised          A waste management system was                   layouts and maximum daylight
   through the use of skylights and             implemented by builder Multiplex,             usage. We established a system
   sunshade structures over the front           achieving the recycling of 80% of           where it is hard for people to turn
   patio area that restrict heat from           demolished materials.                        on excess lights… and… simple
   penetrating the building. Double-                                                         things like clear identification on
   glazed windows help restrict heat and        Ongoing waste management                                         the switches…’
   noise entering the building from Ann         strategies include organic waste
   Street.                                      recycling, which is fed to a
                                                vermiculture station (worm farm)
   A biofilter planter system in the foyer      adjacent to the staff cafeteria. The
   uses potted plants and charcoal to           resulting compost is used in the
   filter internal air and remove pollutants.   gardens. The building also has an
                                                extensive paper recycling scheme.
   Low VOC finishes and products were
   used throughout.                             EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
                                                PMM was conscious of site selection.
   MATERIALS                                    The building is located close to a
   One of the aims of the design was            train station and has bus access at its
   to reuse as much of the existing             door. Staff are actively encouraged to
   building materials as possible and           car pool and utilise public transport in   Energy efficiency initiatives
                                                                                           E       ffi i     i ii i
                                                travelling to work.                        743 Ann Street
                                                                                           Mark Thomson, Director, TVS Partnership

   044                                                                ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                       case studies

                                                                                      SES Headquarters
          BUILDING TYPE New
                 CLIMATE Temperate
                LOCATION Melbourne, Victoria
                  CLIENT Victorian State Emergency Services
           ARCHITECTS H2o Architects
            ENGINEERS AHW
                      SIZE 1700m2 net lettable area
                                                                                      Figure 50. SES Headquarters, H2o architects.

The new Victorian State Emergency           PROJECT BACKGROUND                        Artificial lighting is supplied by
Services headquarters is located in         The brief from the Department of          low-energy, high frequency T5 tubes.
the Melbourne CBD. The building has         Justice was to design and construct       These uplights focus the light towards
won several awards for its approach         a benchmark environmentally               the curved ceilings, which are painted
to sustainable design and architecture      responsive building as a model            white, to evenly distribute the light
and was a finalist in the ‘Leadership in    to the construction industry and          over the workspace. They are also
Sustainable Buildings’ category in the      other government departments.             dimmable and are programmed via
2004 Banksia Awards.                        This outcome was achieved by              a central system that measures the
                                            incorporating:                            amount of natural light present. A
BUILDING OUTPUTS                            • a design with a shape and               conscious effort made by the design
 Energy          510mWh per year (300           form responding to sustainable        team was to provide only 200 lux
                 kWh/m2)                        requirements                          to the working area when operating
 Water           Figure not yet available   • passive and active venting and          at 100%. This level is below the
 Greenhouse Figure not yet available            lighting solutions                    recommended 320 lux. This was to
 Gas                                        • sustainable material selection and      encourage the use of task lighting
 Emissions                                  • promotion of sustainable                when required. The task lights are also
                                                construction approaches.              wired so that they are turned off by the
 Capital cost    $3.5 million
                 construction costs, $6.5                                             central control system when out
                 million total end costs    ESD CONSIDERATIONS                        of hours.
 Savings         Figure not yet available   ENERGY
                                            Natural lighting is an important          Passive cooling/heating is provided
 Payback         Figure not yet available
                                            energy saving feature in the design       by a large concrete slab located
                                            of the building. The main façade          underneath the raised floor. Night
                                            is orientated towards a southerly         purging using outdoor air cools
                                            direction with minimal exposure to        the slab which stores coolth and
                                            the west and south. North facing          then releases it over a period,
• Maximising use of natural lighting
                                            clerestory windows provide most of        thereby reducing the instantaneous
  to reduce need for artificial lighting.
                                            the natural light needed for most of      cooling load and reducing energy
• Solar hot water panels provide
                                            the year. Internal light shelves direct   consumption.
  most water heating requirements.
                                            and diffuse the light into the office
• Central ducted vacuum system
                                            spaces through the clerestory louvre      WATER
  takes dust and other pollutants
                                            windows. External shading has been        Eight solar hot water panels
  outside into a collector located in
                                            designed so that it limits the amount     provide most of the water heating
  the car park, rather than allowing
                                            of sunlight and solar radiation in the    requirements. However, the water
  portions to escape into the air from
                                            summer, whilst allowing both to enter     supply is linked to a central gas
  conventional vacuums.
                                            in the winter period.                     service which boosts the supply

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                               045
case studies

   SES Headquarters
   on cloudy days and when demand              EVALUATION
   exceeds hot water supplied by the           Following occupation, the SES
   solar panels.                               management decided to operate
                                               on full air conditioning mode rather
   IEQ                                         than natural ventilation. The building
   The building uses a mixed mode              functioned well in natural ventilation
   ventilation system combining natural        mode; however they found that odours
   ventilation from louvres located on         arising from the building’s proximity
   the south side (sea breezes) with           to a highway tunnel were flowing
   an underfloor displacement air              towards the building during certain
   conditioning system. The intent of          climatic conditions. Investigations
   this design was to allow occupants          are underway to link the Building
   in each bay to choose the mode of           Automation System to Citylink’s (the
   ventilation desired. Floor vents are        tunnel’s authority) monitoring stations        ‘Developing a building profile ...
   also adjustable to suit individual users    to control the ventilation.                    has allowed us to heat and cool
   comfort levels.
                                                                                                naturally for part of the year, to
                                                                                              light the building naturally for as
   Air quality has been increased by           Articles
   the installation of a central vacuum        • Architect (Melbourne/Australia),          much of the year as possible and
   system which prevents the recycling of          October 2002, pages 20–21.                    ventilate the building naturally.
   dust from cleaning. The main storage        • Steel Profile (Melbourne/Australia),              We did this by establishing a
   unit and pump is located in the car             December 2002, cover and pages          long narrow floor plate, by having
   park area. Piping from the wall outlets                                                         openable vents in the south
                                               • The Architectural Review (London/
   to the main unit is located in the raised       United Kingdom), issue 1274, April       façade, extracting the air through
   floor plenum.                                   2003, pages 52–55.                           a series of louvres on the north
                                               • Indesign (Sydney/Australia), issue 13,         façade and minimising glazing
   Low VOC materials were used where               May 2003, pages 112-119                   from east to west. This set-up an
   possible, including paint selection,        • Herald Sun (Melbourne/Australia), 9
                                                                                               opportunity to minimise running
   plywood for flooring and low-allergenic         October 2003, page 38.
   polyester insulation.                                                                             costs by not having to use
                                                                                                               artificial systems.’
   Waste reduction methods were
   employed throughout construction. To
   reduce wastage, as much as possible
   of the ground-floor slab from the
   previous building was used as the car
   park base. Sorting for recycling was
   also employed

   Recycled materials were also chosen
   in preference to new. This included
   using recycled bricks and formwork
                                                                                          Natural ventilation and lighting
                                                                                          SES Headquarters
   Plantation harvested timbers were                                                      Tim Hurburgh, Director + Principal, H2o
   used in structural flooring.                                                           architects

   046                                                                ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                      case studies

                                                Waalitj Building: Murdoch University
         BUILDING TYPE New
                CLIMATE Hot dry, cold winter
               LOCATION Perth, Western Australia
                  CLIENT Murdoch University, Environmental Technology
          ARCHITECTS Earth House, Marco Vittino
           ENGINEERS Consortium Builders and Healey Engineering
                    SIZE 100m2 of office space plus lecture, gallery and
                         teaching areas
                                                                                    Figure 51. Waalitj building, Murdoch

The Waalitj Environmental Technology       ESD CONSIDERATIONS                       the hot water needs. During cloudy
Centre is a complex situated within        MANAGEMENT                               periods an electric booster is used to
the grounds of the Murdoch University      The site of the technology centre        meet the shortfall.
Campus in Perth. The site features an      was chosen due to the fact that the
office area, research laboratories and     land had been cleared some years         A roof plenum solar heating and
an exhibition space.                       previous and it minimised the need for   cooling system has been installed.
                                           roadwork.                                In winter, warm air from the office
BUILDING OUTPUTS                                                                    interior is drawn into the plenum where
Energy          Figure not yet available
                                           The Building Management System           it is warmed by heat generated from
                                           was built with an internet server        sunlight hitting the roof panels. The
Water           150 L/day                  to provide information about the         warmed air is then blown into the
Greenhouse Figure not yet available        performance of the building on simple    office space by fans. In summer,
Gas                                        internet pages.                          warm air from the office rises and is
                                                                                    expelled from the plenum by fan to the
Capital cost    $320 000                   ENERGY                                   outside. A ceiling dampener is closed
Savings         Figure not yet available   The south wall of the office             to prevent the roof’s warm air from
Payback         Figure not yet available   building provides most of the light      entering back into the office. At night,
                                           requirements. The designers wanted       cool air from outside is drawn into
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                   to use the diffuse uniform light         the room and the warm air is purged.
• Use of thermal mass walls made           provided from the south to prevent       The building management system
  of rammed earth and recycled             excess glare for those using computer    monitors the temperature within the
  materials to control heat.               monitors.                                plenum and the office area so that
• Solar heating and cooling system,                                                 during the winter, for example, it will
  and collection of solar energy.          The building has 30cm thick thermal      purge the warmer air from the plenum
• Sewage treated then used to              mass outer walls which helps keep the    into the office space.
  irrigate landscaping.                    air temperature inside the buildings
• High use of recycled materials in        cool in summer and warm in winter.       An in-slab floor heating system uses
  construction, preventing waste                                                    a phase change material (PCM)
  going to landfill.                       A photovoltaic system on the roof        embedded within the concrete to
                                           generates 13 682kWh and is used          control the amount of heat released,
PROJECT BACKGROUND                         to power lighting, fans and office       which is done slowly, gently warming
The clients desired a “functional          equipment. Excess energy is pumped       the air near the floor area.
sustainable building” that incorporated    into the main grid.
sustainability principles into the
building development process. Their        Solar hot water panels are mounted
target was a zero emission building.       on the roof and provide most of

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                             047
case studies

   Waalitj Building: Murdoch University
   WATER                                      Small north facing windows are used       The courtyard pavers are cement
   The Waalitj building utilises storm        to prevent excessive heat in summer       mixed with 10-15% coal fly ash. This
   water and black water to minimise          and prevent glare on computer             reduced the embodied energy and
   use of potable water. There are two        equipment. The architects decided         cost of the pavers.
   3000 L interconnected steel rainwater      on large south facing windows to
   tanks that preferentially provide the      naturally light the space.                The operable walls form part of the
   building’s water supply and only                                                     wall along the western edge of the
   use scheme water if rainwater tank         Evaporative cooling ponds were            courtyard. These are made from
   levels are insufficient. Rain water        designed into the office space. These     recycled plastic panels.
   from the roof of the building is used      ponds cool the hot easterly breeze
   to water the native garden and the         that enters the building in the summer.   EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
   remainder flows into an ephemeral,         The pond sources its water from the       The site is located within the Murdoch
   infiltration basin next to the car park,   excess rainwater from the roof.           University Campus, approximately 15
   encouraging biodiversity through                                                     minutes walk from the main areas off
   wetland biomimicry. The waste water        Many of the walls are left untreated,     the campus. The centre has provided
   from the kitchen and toilets is treated    however, where plasterboard is used,      approximately 100 bikes for free
   by an aerobic treatment unit (ATU)         it is painted with organic finishes.      use as a means of commuting from
   before irrigating the courtyard lawn                                                 the main campus to the technology
   and gardens through drip irrigation.       Planting has been used extensively        centre.
   This provides a pleasant outdoor area      around buildings to provide shade
   for staff and visitors.                    for the buildings and for landscaping     There are also public transport
                                              around the complex. A mixture of          facilities approximately 150m from the
   A south facing cooling pond,               low-water use plants, fruit trees and     site. The university also encourages
   landscaped and fed by storm water          herbal gardens have been used.            car pooling amongst staff.
   (topped up by bore water) in front of
   a low gable window takes advantage         MATERIALS                                 REFERENCES
   of prevailing summer winds to deliver      A great amount of thought and effort      Murdoch University Environmental
                                                                                        Technology Centre
   cool air to the building for summer        went into the choice of materials.
   heat relief.                               Where possible, materials that were       wpages/backg.htm
                                              recycled, or which incorporated
   Elsewhere on site there are rainwater      waste products, or had low embodied
   tanks, waterless toilets, greywater        energy were used. The industrial
   diverters, a reverse osmosis               by-products used were sourced
   desalination unit, a flow form, drip       locally.
   irrigation and several ponds serving
   various purposes.                          Concrete for the floor slab is made of
                                              crushed concrete waste,
   The average water use from the two         window-glass waste and coal fly
   toilets and kitchen is 150 L/day.          ash. This reduces the cost of cement
                                              as well as reduces the amount of
   IEQ                                        raw materials used. It also diverts
   Operable walls form part of the            materials from going to landfill.
   wall along the western edge of the
   courtyard. These walls reflect and         The thermal mass walls are made of
   channel winds into areas to aid cross      10% cement with stabilised building
   ventilation of the buildings. In the       rubble composed mostly of recycled
   winter, the walls are kept closed to       red brick. They are also are made of
   protect the buildings from cold wind.      stabilised, rammed recycled earth.

   048                                                             ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                        case studies

                                                              National Museum of Australia
             BUILDING TYPE New Museum
                    CLIMATE Temperate
                   LOCATION Canberra, ACT
                      CLIENT Commonwealth and ACT Governments
                ARCHITECTS An association of Ashton Raggatt McDougall
                           and Robert Peck von Hartel Trethowan
 SERVICES CONTRACTORS Tyco International and Honeywell
        EXHIBITION DESIGN Anway and Company Inc, Boston USA
                         SIZE 6600m2 of exhibition space
                                                                                      Figure 52. National Museum of Australia,
                                                                                      George Serras.

Australia’s new National Museum           ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING                   the change has reduced condensed
was opened in 2001. It is a stunning      The lighting control system installed       heat off the lamps and extended lamp
building and architecturally bold. It     by the National Museum of                   life.
is very much a modern building with       Australia is a Dynalite Direct Digital
obvious post modern influences.           Lighting System. It controls all            In addition to the re-lamping of the
                                          lighting throughout the gallery and         exhibition cases the National Museum
As with any museum, there are certain     administration areas.                       has undertaken to retrofit the single
limitations inherent in protecting and                                                channel systems to multi-channel
displaying archival material. In terms    Over the past three years the National      dimming controllers. This gives the
of the elements of environmentally        Museum has worked with its specialist       capacity to programme individual
preferable building construction          lighting contractors, Sound Advice, to      lights or sets of lights to specific lux
and maintenance, there are always         systematically reduce the lux levels in     levels or set lights to highlight objects
actions and choices that can be           exhibition cases to the levels required     or signage more clearly. A further
made. Within these constraints, the       by conservation standards. This had         benefit is more flexibility with design
National Museum is continuing to find     to be balanced with ensuring that           options within the exhibition cases
ways of improving its environmental       signage is legible and object details       when not constrained to having one
performance.                              are still captured for the public to see.   lighting level.

ESD CONSIDERATIONS                        Also in the past three years the            In open exhibition and public areas
NATURAL LIGHT                             National Museum has been                    where 500 W lamps were utilised, the
The National Museum uses filtered         progressively changing                      museum re-lamped with 300 W lamps,
natural lighting in the exhibition        the lamping configurations of the           gaining a reduction in energy usage
galleries in order to meet specific lux   exhibition spaces. To date, the             while maintaining lighting levels in the
and UV levels set by conservation         National Museum has replaced                concourse areas.
standards. Generally lighting in          around 95% of the 50 W, 10 degree
exhibition cases is limited to 50 lux     angle dichroic lamps with 35 W              The Dynalite system allows the
and around 200 lux for walkways and       24-38-60 degree lamps. This                 museum to utilise ‘soft starting’
external case lighting.                   has dropped the light levels to an          procedures and specific dimming
                                          average of 50 lux but has increased         settings of lights for cleaning, security
In other public areas, particularly the   the readability of exhibition text and      patrols and general operations and
spectacular main hall, large feature      signage within the gallery spaces.          exhibition timeframes. This has
windows and skylights maximise the        Aside from the immediate 15 W               prolonged lamp life significantly and
use of natural light.                     reduction in energy usage per lamp          reduced maintenance requirements

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                   049
case studies

   National Museum of Australia
   to the areas. The newly constructed         MATERIALS
   extension to the annexe includes            The architects have used modern
   occupancy sensors to active lighting        materials to meet the modern layout
   only in areas that are occupied.            and aesthetics required for the design.         ‘The National Museum has an
                                                                                             ongoing responsibility to protect
   THERMAL MASS AND PASSIVE                    The structure is a combination of             culturally significant sites on the
   DESIGN                                      poured concrete, steel frame or                 Acton Peninsula on which the
   The actual National Museum building         prestressed prefabricated concrete             National Museum buildings are
   has a modern design encompassing            panels. Anodised feature aluminium                                      located.’
   the whole site so it has a large            panels are a predominate aspect
   building ‘footprint.’ The building’s        of the external building structure.
   thermal shell or envelope consists          Some areas have poured concrete
   of an anodised aluminium aesthetic          panelling in some areas (fast erection
   covering, with an external rain shield      times, with reasonably good thermal         cooperatively in an integrated team to
   of galvanised iron sheeting. There          efficiency). The internal fixings are       achieve agreed cost, time and quality
   are R4 rated insulation batts and           mainly of plasterboard or similar           targets. The agreement provided
   also concrete panels which increase         materials.                                  financial incentives to encourage and
   the thermal mass in one gallery area                                                    reward outstanding performance, as
   and associated ‘back of house’ work         WATER EFFICIENCY                            well as financial penalties if cost, time
   areas.                                      The National Museum uses dual flush         or quality targets were not achieved.
                                               toilets and auto flush urinal systems to    The Alliance agreement promoted
   There have been some issues in              reduce water consumption.                   a ‘no dispute’ culture, prohibited
   maintaining positive air pressure                                                       litigation except for wilful default, and
   within the gallery spaces particularly in   SAVINGS                                     avoided the adversarial approach
   scenarios with a failed air-conditioning    The National Museum has added               associated with many traditional
   plant.                                      power factor correction to better           contracts The result was the project
                                               manage load sharing across                  came in on budget and on time and
   Even with the use of double glazed          major plant. The museum has                 with the private sector partners’ profits
   windows, the high and wide expanse          been supplemented by an energy              intact.
   of the glazed areas requires                monitoring system in the last six
   significant energy usage to maintain        months. It is envisaged that energy         PEOPLE
   environmental conditions. The               saving trends will begin to emerge          Both responsibility and opportunities
   majority of the National Museum plant       as a full annual operating cycle is         rest in the fact that these are
   operates 24 hours a day, 365 days per       completed.                                  public buildings. The responsibility
   year.                                                                                   is to involve key stakeholders
                                               PROJECT MANAGEMENT                          like Indigenous landholders and
   Within the design of the heating            A special project management style          the community in the process of
   and ventilation and air conditioning        was developed for the design and            creating the building. There are great
   (HVAC) system, use of enthalpy or           construction of the museum. In a            opportunities to educate the public
   heat recovery wheels provides some          world first for a major public building     about art, history and the environment
   pre-heating or pre-cooling of the air       construction project of this size, it       as well as sustainable design.
   brought into the building. This helps       was decided to join members of the
   to maintain environmental conditions,       design and construction team in an          For the National Museum of Australia,
   fresh air requirements and to maintain      innovative ‘Project Alliance’ which         the traditional owners of the Acton
   pressurisation within zoned areas.          would deliver the new facilities. The       Peninsula were consulted about
   Additionally the HVAC system utilises       Alliance partners agreed at the             the development of the site. Before
   carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors to allow       commencement of the project to be           building began a smoking ceremony
   for greater fresh air flow when CO2         jointly responsible for the total project   was performed by the Ngunnawal
   levels increase within specific zones.      results, pledging themselves to work        people to purify the site.

   050                                                                ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                case studies

                                                                         National Museum of Australia

The National Museum has an                        REFERENCES
ongoing responsibility to protect                 National Museum of Australia,
culturally significant sites on the Acton
Peninsula on which its buildings are
located.                                          National Museum of Australia, 2004,
                                                  National Museum of Australia Annual
During the development of the design              Report 2003-2004, National Museum
and building, collaboration and                   of Australia Press, Canberra.
cooperation was encouraged through
membership on committees and                      National Museum of Australia, 2003,
memoranda of understanding with                   Land Nation People: The Annual
neighbours, such as the Australian                Report of National Museum of Australia
Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait         2002-2003, National Museum of
Islander Studies and the Australian               Australia Press, Canberra.
National University.
                                                  Weber, Therese (ed) 2003, Land
The museum also integrates                        Nation People: Stories from the
environmentally sustainable                       National Museum of Australia, National
development information into                      Museum of Australia Press, Canberra.
exhibitions when appropriate, such as
in the Tangled Destinies gallery.

Figure 53. National Museum of Australia, Interior of Main Hall, John Gollings.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                      051
case studies

   60L: 60 Leicester Street
             BUILDING TYPE Part new and part existing – Refurbished
                    CLIMATE Temperate
                   LOCATION Carlton, Victoria
                      CLIENT The Green Building Partnership
               ARCHITECTS Spowers
                ENGINEERS AEC, John Mullen and Partners. Lincolne Scott
                         SIZE 3375m² lettable floor space
                                                                                         Figure 54. 60 Leicester Street, Carlton.

   60 Leicester Street is located in             to reduce energy consumption to         The lease and EMP provide advice
   Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne.        1/3 of a standard building of similar   in sourcing office equipment and
   Built in the late 1800s the former            size.                                   materials for fit out; practices for
   factory building has had a new              • Solar panels used to supplement         tenancy operation, tenancy fit out
   third floor built and has been fully          mains energy supply. Green power        and the relocation of the tenant. The
   refurbished. The old section has              is sourced as mains supply.             building manager provides additional
   been integrated with a new building.        • Three-step water recycling system       information and advice to tenants on
   Currently the building has 15 tenants         supplies potable and non-potable        sourcing the most environmentally
   including the Australian Conservation         water to tenants.                       appropriate materials and advises
   Foundation.                                                                           on issues such as office waste
                                               PROJECT BACKGROUND                        management.
   BUILDING OUTPUTS                            60L was designed to be a model of
    Energy           71 kWh/m2 (3 year         superior environmental performance        ENERGY
                     average data up to        that demonstrated the Green Building      By optimising natural ventilation and
                     June 2006)                Partnership and ACF’s commitment to       natural lighting in the design of the
    Water            15.7l/p/day for           ecologically sustainable development.     building, 60L is able to use only about
                     assumed occupancy of      They wanted to create a building          one-third of the energy of a similar
                     200 people, 250 days/     that was commercially viable and          sized conventional office building. This
                     year (2 year average      incorporated, as far as was practical     equates to approximately 238 mWh
                     data up to June 2006)
                                               in the commercial context, sustainable    per year. The building has achieved
    Greenhouse       Zero - purchases 100%     design principles into every facet of     an 80% reduction in energy used for
    Gas              new green power and
    Emissions        is therefore considered
                                               the building.                             lighting a typical commercial building
                     ‘greenhouse neutral’                                                of similar size.
                                               ESD CONSIDERATIONS
    Capital cost     $8 million
                                               MANAGEMENT                                A large central atrium and six light
    Savings          Figure not available      Green Leasing - the performance of        wells allow daylight to penetrate the
    Payback          Figure not available      the building as a ‘green building’ is     building with natural light. These
                                               dependent on the behaviour and the        features have been placed so they
                                               participation of the tenants. Tenants     perform dual lighting and ventilation
   KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                    are required to sign a ‘green lease’      roles. The light wells allow air to flow
   • Green Leasing ensures tenants             which informs tenants of green            across all the tenancies and into the
     are supplied with information             building principles and rules, includes   central atrium which vents the air
     and guidance on the building’s            an Environmental Management               using four thermal chimneys. Tenants
     operations, helping maximise the          Plan (EMP) and places additional          can also adjust the windows and
     building’s sustainability.                obligations on tenants over and above     some of the louvres in their spaces
   • Natural ventilation and lighting help     normal commercial requirements.           to control the flow of air, and have

   052                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                      case studies

                                                                          60L: 60 Leicester Street
access to domestic reverse cycle         WATER
air conditioners should the natural      The water use at 60L is dealt with in
conditions be outside comfort levels.    three ways as follows:

The open plan design and the use of      Water efficient fixtures such as low-
light shelves help the light penetrate   flow shower heads which discharge
further into the office spaces. Light    5L per minute and dual flush toilet
coloured paint on ceilings help          systems that can cope with grey
maximise the reflection of light.        water systems are installed as well
                                         as waterless urinals which contain an
High efficiency light fixtures were      oil seal that prevents odours. These
designed to reduce the installed         fixtures reduce water usage by half
lighting load to 7W/m² compared to       compared with conventional items.
20W/m² for office buildings. The light
fittings used are 36W single tube with   Rainwater is the principal source of
(in most tenancies) non-dimmable         water for use throughout the building.
electronic ballast on nominal 2.4m       This is collected from the roof and
spacing. The tubes are triphosphor,      stored in two 10 000 litre storage
low mercury type in fixtures with        tanks on the ground floor. The water is
semi-specular reflectors and 10 cell     filtered and then sterilised to provide
low glare, louvres.                      a potable water supply for use by
                                         tenants in taps, showers and for
                                                                                     Figure 55. Low VOC materials selection.
The common area lighting control         drinking.
system is AUTO ‘OFF’ and MANUAL
‘ON’. Building occupants turn the        The wastewater generated (greywater)
lights on when required. The system      and sewage is treated in the building’s
incorporates a timer so that common      own sewage treatment system. This
area lights are turned off after 10      purifies the water using biological
minutes.                                 treatment that is free from chemicals.

The building also uses solar             The treated water is designed to
panels located on the roof to help       be used for the reclaimed water
supplement the power required for        treatment plant which further purifies
operation of building systems. Green     the water for use in flushing toilet pans
power, energy which is derived from      and for irrigation of the landscape
non-fossil fuel and renewable sources    features such as the rooftop garden.
is purchased as the building’s main      Surplus reclaimed water from this
energy supply.                           stage is designed to flow out through
                                         a water feature in the atrium. This
Energy efficient appliances are used     features a succession of cascading
in the public area of the building       tanks containing aquatic plants
and tenants are also encouraged          and organisms feeding on residual
to purchase energy efficient office      nutrients in the treated water.
equipment. Building management can
advise in the selection of equipment,
particularly in the fit-out stage of

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                 053
case studies

   60L: 60 Leicester Street
                                         IEQ                                        Recycled materials were used in other
                                         The indoor environment quality in          fixtures and structural components
                                         60L is focussed on the individual          whenever possible. Recycled
                                         comfort levels of the tenants rather       hardwood timber was used for the
                                         than the building as a whole. Tenants      ground floor, and all window and door
                                         are able to adjust (within limits) the     frames. The carpet contained approx.
                                         levels of light and air flow to meet       30% recycled content. Purchased
                                         their individual needs by opening          recycled products such as bricks,
                                         a window or adjusting louvres. The         timber steel and copper were given
                                         building operates within a 19-26ºC         preference over virgin materials.
                                         comfort band in passive mode. When
                                         the external ambient temperature is        The use of PVC products was
                                         outside this range, tenants are able to    eliminated from all water and
                                         use the reverse cycle air conditioners     wastewater pipes as well as electrical
                                         available in their space.                  conduits and most light fittings.

                                         Low-emissive products were chosen          EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
                                         where possible for paint and carpets,      Parking facilities are not available on
                                         and to minimise the use of glues,          site. Tenants are encouraged to utilise
                                         sealants, adhesives and paints             public transport services, which are
                                         with high VOC (volatile organic            conveniently located to the building,
   Figure 56.                            compounds) levels. Smoking is not          or ride a bike. Facilities such as a
   Source: Thermal chimneys, 60L Green   allowed in any area of the building.       secure bike parking and showers are
   Building Partnership.
                                                                                    available on site.
                                         The original building was partially        REFERENCES
                                         dismantled and existing materials          60L Green Building Website,
                                         re-used whenever practical including       The Green Building Partnership
                                         timber floor joists and planking, bricks
                                         and glazed partitions.
                                                                                    Hes, D. Greening the Building Life
                                         New concrete used in construction          Cycle: Life Cycle Assessment Tools
                                         contained, on average, 60% recycled        in Building and Construction 60L
                                         content, including crushed concrete        Green Building, Environment Australia
                                         reclaimed from other buildings, and fly
                                         ash extenders. All bricks used were
                                         either reused from the old building or     60 Leicester Street Carlton: Australia’s
                                         recycled bricks from dismantling of        Leading Example of Commercial
                                         other buildings. All reinforcing steel     Building for a Sustainable Future,
                                         was made from recycled steel.              The Green Building Partnership

   054                                                         ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                              case studies

                                                                                                     40 Albert Road
          BUILDING TYPE Retrofit of existing office block
                     CLIMATE Temperate
                    LOCATION South Melbourne, Victoria
                       CLIENT Szencorp
             ARCHITECTS SJB Architects
               ENGINEERS Connell Wagner, Energy Conservation Systems
                          SIZE 1215m² net lettable area

During 2004 and 2005, Szencorp                      occupancy lighting, HVAC and
transformed an average 20-year-old                  security control.
office block in South Melbourne into            •   The first building in Australia to      Figure 57. The Szencorp Building at 40 Albert
an environmentally cutting- edge                    produce zero net emissions.             Road, Szencorp.
space that sets a new benchmark                 •   Australian first use of ceramic fuel
                                                                                            on the eastern and western façades to
for sustainable buildings in Australia.             cells to reduce electricity used from
                                                                                            provide views, fresh air and abundant
This 1 215m2 office building is the                 the grid.
                                                                                            natural light. From street level, the
new headquarters of the Szencorp                •   Australian first use of the DryKor
                                                                                            building presents a visually stunning
group of companies, which provides                  dry conditioning unit, which
                                                                                            mix of full length glass, stone,
expertise in sustainable business.                  dries and cools the office space
                                                                                            polished metal pillars and full height
The vision for 40 Albert Road was                   simultaneously, using a desiccant
                                                                                            ultra-modern metal net screens.
one of ‘walking the walk’, with several             to absorb the water vapour from
cutting edge sustainable technologies               the air.
                                                                                            ESD CONSIDERATIONS
and ‘firsts’ incorporated into the              •   Australian first commercial use of
refurbishment.                                      natural gas engine air conditioning
                                                                                            In order to maintain its 5 star ABGR
                                                                                            rating, auditing and building tuning will
                                                                                            be performed over 10 years. Extensive
 Energy (Gas          214 MWh per year          PROJECT BACKGROUND
                                                                                            commissioning of the building has
 and electricity)     (176kWh/m2 electricity)   The initial approach to the
                                                                                            been undertaken, with a range of
 Water                121 kL per year           refurbishment project was driven
                                                                                            alterations and adjustments made to
                                                by Peter Szental, who owns the
 Greenhouse           183 tonnes CO2 per                                                    the building management system after
 Gas                  year
                                                Szencorp group of companies. The
                                                                                            opening to fine-tune performance and
 Emissions                                      design combines original building
                                                                                            improve operating characteristics.
                                                features and fabric with an innovative
 Capital cost         No applicable business
                      decision                  programme of alterations and
                                                                                            The Building Management System
                                                additions to improve environmental
 Savings              No applicable business                                                provides a single interface for the
                      decision                  performance and occupant amenity.
                                                                                            passive and active thermal control
 Payback              No applicable business                                                system, lighting control system,
                                                The original building had a long
                      decision                                                              security and other automated
                                                concrete tube with a stairwell at the
                                                                                            systems. Via a high level interface the
                                                front, which restricted natural light
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                                                                    BMS also integrates the information
                                                and ventilation. To address this, a
• First occupied Australian building                                                        from a weather station to ensure
                                                new glazed stairwell was created in
  and retrofit to have a 6 Star Green                                                       passive opportunities are utilised to
                                                the centre of the building with a glass
  Star - Office Design certified rating.                                                    the maximum, and prevent cross
                                                atrium to provide a natural light core.
• Thought to have a world                                                                   winds from unbalancing internal
                                                40 Albert Road has new floor-to-
  first integrated sensor and                                                               air flows (drawing internal air to the
                                                ceiling windows with opening sections
  management system for                                                                     outside, wasting energy).

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                      055
case studies

   40 Albert Road
                                               daylight, lighting levels, air quality          ‘The aim of 40 Albert Rd is to
                                               and occupancy are monitored. The                 demonstrate how to recycle
                                               Managed Lighting System (MLS)                      a typical existing suburban
                                               control system is a network of motion            office building into a leading
                                               sensors that control lighting in offices
                                                                                                 edge building offering best
                                               in response to occupancy and dims
                                               lighting to compensate for natural
                                                                                            practice performance in energy,
                                               lighting levels or lamp degradation.          greenhouse and sustainability.’
                                               This sensor system is also linked to
   Figure 58. 40 Albert Road, temperature      the air-conditioning. Energy efficiency    • The building’s ceramic fuel cell is
   distribution by Connell Wagner, Szencorp.                                                the first in commercial operation in
                                               is achieved by maintaining services
                                               only in zones that are occupied.             Australia. Fuel cells use chemical
   A Building Users’ Guide will provide        Services will switch on automatically        reactions rather than combustion
   tenants with all necessary instructions     upon entering a zone and switch              reactions to provide electrical
   on how to properly use the building’s       off when the zone is vacated after a         power, while the waste heat
   facilities. Monitoring, verification and    delay. This functionality is designed        generated is used to provide the
   public reporting is a strong emphasis       to be adjustable to support flexibility;     building with hot water. However,
   with 40 Albert Road having one of           similarly, the zoning can be adjusted        as a result of timing changes in
   the most advanced and transparent           to suit the office environment.              the commissioning of the ceramic
   building performance monitoring                                                          fuel cell, which did not produce
   systems in Australia, which is              The building consumed 214MWh of              electricity in the first twelve months
   publicly available at www.ourgreenoffice.   energy in its first year, made up of 92      against a predicted 9 MWh.
   com and enables any interested              MWh of electric energy and 122MWh
   party to monitor real-time building         gas. These results, especially for         • A 1 MWh per annum amorphous
   performance. Performance over               gas usage, are expected to improve           PV array plus a 4.8 MWh per
   its first year of operation has been        significantly with further fine-tuning       annum crystalline Origin PV array,
   compiled into a comprehensive report        and adjustments to building systems.         both grid connected, supply
   also available to the public.                                                            additional electricity for the
                                               • Electricity use is lower than              building. Allowing for seasonal
   The innovations at 40 Albert                  predicted at 91.7 MWh compared             factors, generation from these
   Road are being demonstrated                   to predictions of 95 MWh. A large          arrays is in line with expectations.
   to the building development and               portion of this extra energy saving
   management community, and the                 is due to the lower than designed        • The roof-mounted gas engine
   wider public. Controlled free access          occupancy. This is a 61% reduction         driven air conditioning units are
   to the building and its systems               on the 238 MWh previously used in          a first for an Australian office
   are provided for educational and              the building, on a per square metre        building. Using internal combustion
   commercial purposes. As well,                 basis, from 196 kWh/m2/annum to            engine technology, rather than
   there is a comprehensive weather              76 kWh/m2/annum.                           electric motor conditioning units,
   station and 59 individual meters                                                         avoids grid electricity use, thereby
   monitoring the various building             • There has been unexpected                  avoiding peak demand, emissions
   systems. energy Conservation                  consumption, particularly in the           and network infrastructure
   Systems have provided many of the             form of electricity consumption of         upgrades. These units account
   energy conservation measures under            the fuel cell and the heat pump            for 83% of total gas use, so gas
   an energy performance contract which          controls for the gas air-conditioning      consumption varies considerably
   guarantees outcomes and eliminates            units. Both of these technologies          with weather conditions and is
   technical and financial risks.                were the first installations of their      dependent on the performance of
                                                 type in Australia and were forecast        other systems within the building
   ENERGY                                        to consume little electricity, but         such as natural ventilation and
   Each floor is split into several zones,       together accounted for 12.1 MWh            Building Management Systems
   where temperature, humidity,                  or 13% of total consumption.               controls. Overall gas consumption

   056                                                               ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                   case studies

                                                                                            40 Albert Road
   of 440GJ is higher than initially       level of 1210 litres/m2/annum). Total      ‘The project will achieve leading
   expected at 245GJ. Further sub          normalised water use over its first                sustainable performance
   metering of gas-consuming               year was 121 000 litres or 116 litres/            without compromising any
   components during the different         m2/annum, which is 90% below the                conventional features - from
   seasons is required in order to         industry average.
                                                                                            the users perspective it will
   fully determine individual system
   performances.                           IEQ
                                                                                      provide standard high end office
                                           Thermal comfort is achieved by                             accommodation.’
WATER                                      combining natural ventilation with
The building features a                    mechanical cooling and heating.
comprehensive water management             Mechanically operated opening            Natural light is maximised by floor-
system designed and built by the           windows and dampers allow fresh          to-ceiling high-performance double-
water conservation group from within       air in and expel used air. Natural       glazing and is supplemented by
Energy Conservation Systems. Water         ventilation is automated and is          the atrium and glass in the central
consumption is minimised at each           optimised according to inside and        stairwell and skylights above the
end use point by using the latest in       outside environmental conditions.        boardroom. Daylight modelling shows
controlled flow showerheads and taps,      Mechanical cooling or heating is         that there will be significant natural
some of them sensor activated only.        supplied by ceiling-mounted fan coil     light at desk level across one third of
Toilets are an award winning dual          units.                                   the office space. This will also reduce
flush design using only 4.5/3 litres per                                            energy use on artificial lighting, since
flush. Urinals are waterless.              The DryKor dry conditioning unit         the automated lighting system will dim
                                           dries and cools the office space         whenever and wherever daylight levels
Lightly polluted water gathered from       simultaneously, using a process of       permit, to optimise overall light levels.
hand basins and showers (greywater)        natural desiccant absorption of water
is collected, treated and reused for       vapour from the air. This technology     A central vacuum cleaning system
toilet flushing. This is complemented      is non-toxic and non-hazardous, and      is less noisy and more effective in
with a rainwater harvesting system         the humidity is ducted outdoors,         reducing allergenic mould, dust and
providing 4400 litres of rainwater         eliminating the need for condensate      moisture problems than portable
storage, estimated to be enough for        pumps, pipes and drainage system.        vacuums. These reductions increase
3 weeks of normal flushing.                This aims to address ‘Sick Building      occupant health and wellbeing, and
                                           Syndrome’ problems associated with       prolong the life of carpets.
The Szencorp Building was designed         poor indoor air quality as the process
to achieve an 82% reduction in             removes up to 94% of                     All new materials introduced into the
water use over the industry average        micro-organisms, as well 77% of          building have been chosen with office
(measured as a 2.5-star NABERS             particles greater than 5 microns.        air quality in mind.

Figure 59. 40 Albert Road, interior,       Figure 60. Szencorp offices, Szencorp.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                           057
case studies

   40 Albert Road
   Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)                waste used in the construction of the          ‘40 Albert Rd will demonstrate
   emission levels are minimised in the             building is collected and sorted for                innovative strategies and
   carpets, adhesives and sealants used,            recycling.                                             outcomes for the built
   and 95% of painted surfaces use low                                                          environment that are anticipated
   VOC paints. All composite wood used              During operation, onsite recycling
                                                                                                    to become standard practice
   in the furniture is low in formaldehyde          facilities are provided to recycle
   emissions, and a dedicated exhaust               paper, co-mingled plastic and glass.
                                                                                               over the next decade. It has been
   riser is provided to remove emissions            According to waste audits undertaken            designed as a live case study
   from printers and photocopiers.                  at the Szencorp Building by Great          with ongoing real time monitoring
                                                    Forest Australia Pty Ltd, a daily total     and verification and an ongoing
   Air handling systems in the building             of 7.9 kg of waste (114 litres) is being      test bed for new products and
   have reduced air pollutants and dust             produced, comprising:                                               services.’
   by over 90% compared to the outside              • 5.3 kg (93 litres) collected for
   air. Independent studies performed                   recycling (82% by volume of all        standard recognised greenhouse
   by the Mobile Architecture Built                     waste)                                 calculation and offset products
   Environment Laboratory (MABEL)                   • 2.6 kg (21 litres) sent to landfill      currently available.
   showed no detectable formaldehyde                    (18% by volume of all waste)
   levels and very low VOCs, concluding                                                        Car parking is provided at ground
   that air quality within the Szencorp             Research carried out by Resource           and basement levels. Analysis of
   Building is equivalent to rural air              NSW (2002) found that the average          projected building user numbers
   quality despite its inner city location.         office worker generates 173 kg of          allowed the overall number of car
                                                    waste and recycling per year. The          parking spaces to be reduced, and
   MATERIALS                                        Szencorp Building is generating 94         small spaces to be introduced into
   Most of the reinforced concrete                  kg of waste and recycling per staff        the mix. Bicycle storage, lockers
   structure and 88% of the original                member each year, placing it 54%           and shower facilities are provided to
   façade was retained. The additional              below the established benchmark.           enable tenants and visitors to cycle
   concrete required uses recycled                                                             to the building with convenience and
   aggregate as well as incorporating               EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT                        security. However, the majority of
   industrial waste. The material                   The Drykor and air conditioning units      occupants still use private vehicles,
   specification for the refurbishment              use no ozone depleting refrigerants,       an example of where building design
   timber (using the good wood guide)               and the building, ductwork and             cannot guarantee behaviour changes
   and structural concrete incorporates             pipe work insulation is similarly free     and environmental outcomes sought
   strict sustainability criteria.                  of all ozone depleting substances.         by developers.
                                                    Verified greenhouse credits have
   WASTE                                            been purchased to offset the residual      REFERENCES
   An environmental mangagement                     impact the building and its occupants      The Greening of 40 Albert Road
   plan ensured that at least 80% of the            have on climate change using     

   Figure 61. 40 Albert Road, interior, Szencorp.                                              Figure 62. 40 Albert Road, interior, Szencorp.

   058                                                                    ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                               case studies

                                                      Galleries, Museums and Libraries

  Galleries, libraries and museums         and requires greater innovation to
  are special spaces with particular       incorporate sustainable measures.
  requirements, such as high levels of     This case study looks at both the
  lighting and strict temperature and      simple and innovative measures
  humidity control. This constrains        that venues around Australia and
  the possibilities for use of some        overseas have taken to be more
  sustainable building practices           ecologically sustainable.

                                                                                     Figure 63. National Gallery of Victoria, John

ESD CONSIDERATIONS                         conditions were found to be               international awards for its design.
NATURAL LIGHT                              unpredictable, so a study of the light    In the refurbishment, two towers
The use of natural light or daylighting    in the space was commissioned.            were added to the gallery’s basic
can have an aesthetic benefit as well      The aim was to make best use of the       rectangular structure and three square
as achieve energy use reductions.          spaces without compromising the           courtyards.
The changes in natural light               material.
conditions and intensity can create                                                  At the top of the courtyard, glass
a less clinical ambience but it also       Two of the four levels were converted     panels arch to the skylights and
creates challenges for conservators.       to exhibition spaces. There are eight     bring light into the bottom of the
For conservators the ideal situation       sides to these galleries in the round,    courtyards. There are also skylights in
involves no ultra violet light.            four of which have arches which allow     the upper level galleries and glazing
                                           daylight into the whole area and the      on the high side of the skylights.
As the main purpose of galleries,          other four sides are sealed with no       The skylights all have UV diffusers.
museums and libraries is the               arches. Conservators and exhibition       This lighting condition in the upper
protection and public access to            curators arrange material so that only    galleries creates a difficult situation for
documents, the conservation                graphic reproductions are displayed       conservators and required a change in
department needs to be consulted           in the areas with daylight and the        exhibition strategy. The modern pieces
from the earliest stages of                other areas display the material that     tend to be displayed on these floors51.
development or refurbishment               needs fully controlled lighting. In       Often the skylights are closed off for
planning. Consideration of                 order to meet the lux level standards     an exhibition, so the predominant area
international standards for the            for different material (i.e. max 50 lux   of daylighting impact is in the lighting
protection of archive material has to      for natural fibres and max 200 lux        of the courtyards.
be incorporated.                           for paintings), the lighting strategy
                                           has not changed but the exhibition        Peckham Library (UK)
State Library of Victoria                  strategy is designed around the           The architects used daylight analysis
Glass panels were reinstated in the        limitations of the space.                 to design the building in such a way
dome over the La Trobe Reading                                                       as to operate the building without use
Room. They had previously been             Future developments of the site will      of artificial lighting for large amounts
covered in 1959 to prevent water           include the creation of courtyards that   of the year. This saves energy and
seeping in. The glass panelling            view the dome and which will have         provides visual comfort for users.
reduces the need for artificial lighting   glazed coverings.                         Bright glass on the north side of the
and includes UV filters. The natural                                                 building lets in a large amount of
light reaches to the areas for the         National Gallery of Victoria              daylight.
public to read from the library’s works.   International
                                           The National Gallery of Victoria          51 Paul Walker, 2004, ‘New Interiors by Mario Bellini
The reading room is 35m high               (International) was refurbished in           and Metier 3’, Architecture Australia, March/April
and circled by four levels. Daylight       2004. It has since won national and

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                        059
case studies

   Galleries, Museums and Libraries
   Frederick R Weisman Art Museum,           as artificial light levels being regulated   massive core to deliver the level of
   University of Minnesota                   by sensor readings.                          thermal stability required to ensure
   Designed by Frank Gehry, the                                                           international gallery conditions are
   Weisman Art Museum is a teaching          The National Museum of Australia             met. Polished concrete slabs also
   museum for the University of              Various actions were taken on the site       contribute to the thermal stability of
   Minnesota and the community. Large        to reduce energy use. Some of these          the space.
   picture windows at the front of the       included:
   building enable views from the outside                                                 Peckham Library (Battle McCarthy
                                                                                          architects, UK)
   of the Museum’s lobby and the             • changing the wattage of lighting
                                                                                          Passive design elements used in the
   galleries beyond. The main daylighting      in the Hall from 500 W to 300 W
                                                                                          Peckham Library in London include
   feature is the group of four sculptural     – this policy will be extended into all
                                                                                          natural ventilation using openings
   skylights which light the east, west,       galleries and operational areas
                                                                                          high in the roof and natural cross
   north and south walls.                    • exhibition lighting from 50 W to
                                                                                          ventilation. The building is cooled at
                                               35 W dichroic lighting to create
                                                                                          night. The windows are double glazed
   John Allen, the Director of Visitor         a higher light output but reduced
                                                                                          and lots of thermal insulation has
   Services explains the current and           colour fade53 and
                                                                                          reduced the need for heating in winter.
   future policy about the skylights:        • installing an energy monitoring
                                                                                          The building itself is built in a concrete
                                               system which will track usage and
                                                                                          L-shaped frame with a façade shaded
     ‘It also creates some challenges          effects of any policy changes
                                                                                          by a cantilevered overhang. No air
     with regard to protecting the
                                                                                          conditioning has been installed.
     artwork - especially photographs,       Mark Twain House Museum (USA)
     prints, and other works on paper        The overall energy efficiency of the         East Melbourne Library
     - from damage caused by light.          HVAC system is nearly 30% greater            East Melbourne Library is being
     We try to design our exhibitions        than a system designed to building           demolished and will be replaced with
     with daylight in mind and, with         code. This is mainly from the use of         a library that will incorporate passive
     the assistance of Frank O. Gehry        geothermal wells which will meet the         heating and cooling mechanisms
     Architects, we are exploring            predominant heating and cooling              using natural ventilation and thermal
     methods to diffuse the natural          needs of the building. The building          mass.
     light from the skylights through        is underground, which contributes
     the use of scrim, UV filters, and       to significant reductions in the heat        Art Gallery of South Australia
     other materials.                        gain and heat loss from the building         Humidity control is a critical factor
                                             envelope. The monumental stair case          while designing the HVAC system
     ‘Regardless of the level of             between the first to second floors           of any museum. In the Art Gallery
     daylight in the galleries, most         allows the elimination of a passenger        of South Australia an innovative
     of the art on display is lit with       elevator. The building is designed to        displacement ventilation air
     artificial light sources so the         allow future additions such as               conditioning system was installed
     savings on lighting costs there is      photo–voltaic solar panels on the            for the new extension. The Shaw
     negligible. There is likely some        south wall and, potentially, fuel cells.     method of air conditioning (SMAC)
     savings on the lighting costs                                                        improved the internal conditions for
     in the administrative offices,          THERMAL MASS AND PASSIVE                     temperature as well humidity. The
     meeting spaces, museum store            DESIGN                                       SMAC employs twin coil technology
     and other non-gallery areas due         Queensland Gallery of Modern Art             where dehumidification of the outside
     to the presence of natural light        The key passive design elements of           air occurs in one coil while the
     from windows and skylights.’52          the Queensland Gallery of Modern             dry bulb temperature is controlled
                                             Art include the incorporation of an
   ENERGY EFFICIENCY                         extensive overhanging roof, as well          52 Allen, J., [Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum]
                                                                                             2005, pers.comm., 23 March.
   East Melbourne Library                    as other fixed shading elements to all       53 National Museum of Australia, 2003, Land Nation
   Energy will be saved through the use      elevations. The building has adopted            People: The Annual Report of National Museum of
                                                                                             Australia 2002-2003, National Museum of Australia
   of passive heating and cooling as well    a lightweight shell with a thermally            Press, Canberra.

   060                                                              ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                               case studies

                                                        Galleries, Museums and Libraries
by the other coil. As a result the           certification. Some examples of the
dehumidified outdoor air is only a           principles used to select materials
small component of the total air and         for the new Museum at Mark Twain
when it is mixed with the returned air,      House are:
this means that the need to reheat           • Local materials were sourced from
air is diminished substantially. The             within a 500–mile radius.
result of this is a significant reduction    • Recycled material content
in both electrical and gas energy                exceeds 25 % throughout the
consumption. Comparing current and               project. Building materials have
past consumption showed savings of               been selected to minimise,
up to 47%.                                       if not eliminate, the negative
                                                 consequences of VOCs.                  Figure 64. Reading room, use of natural light,
                                                                                        State Library of Victoria.
Further features of the project are that     • Wood products used in this project
they employ the nearby Brisbane River            were from Forest Stewardship
to reject heat from the air conditioning         Council (FSC) certified sources        • Cleaning materials used should
system rather than into the                      that confirm renewable and               meet AS/NZ ISO 14001:1996
atmosphere. This system eliminates               responsible forestry practices.          ‘Environmental Management
cooling towers from the design and                                                        Systems – specifications with
provides a significant reduction in          Conservation                                 guidance for use’ and AS/NZ
water demands.                               Issues for storage of material includes      14004:1996 ‘Environmental
                                             sealing of spaces to stop vermin             Management Systems - general
Lastly optimum levels of natural day         and infestation, air conditioning that       guidelines of principles, systems
lighting are introduced to the interiors     can deal with extreme temperatures           and supporting techniques.’54
to reduce lighting requirements and          as needed and maintain a stable              These systems specify good
energy demands. Energy efficient             environment for fragile artefacts,           practice processes and systems
T5 lighting, electronic dimming and          access to objects for monitoring             rather than specific product
automatic switch-off further reduce          and maintenance, appropriate                 selection.
demands                                      environmental controls and
                                             monitoring.                                WATER EFFICIENCY
For more information see the case                                                       East Melbourne Library
study at:                                    Some useful ideas include:                 The East Melbourne Library will collect      • Cabinets made from wood with             rainwater from the roof and recycle it
and AIRAH (2006) ‘BMS shows flexibility in     formaldehyde content cannot be           for use in the facility and in the garden
Adelaide’. EcoLibrium v5 no 11, p. 16-18.      used. The formaldehyde can affect        will also use recycled water.
                                               paintings and objects stored in
MATERIALS                                      them. Formaldehyde can also be           Mark Twain House (USA)
There are two ways in which materials          an irritant to employees so it is best   A closed-loop system eliminates water
are important considerations in                specify low or ‘zero’ formaldehyde       lost to evaporation through the cooling
designing and running a library,               content board or use a wood which        tower in a conventional system.
museum or gallery. One is the                  has not been glued.                      Parking has been minimised, thereby
selection of materials to reduce the                                                    reducing storm water runoff and
environmental impact of the building         • Minimise dust by having shelving         pollution impact. Native vegetation
generally and the other is the way             going to the ceiling rather than         has been selected to eliminate the
in which materials can impact the              having surfaces that collect dust.       need for an irrigation system and
conservation of archived objects.                                                       increased water use.
                                             • Good use of thermal mass can
Mark Twain House (USA)                         assist in maintaining a stable
This was the first American museum             environment and reduce the need          54 National Museum of Australia, 2004, National
to receive LEED (Leadership in Energy          for air conditioning.
                                                                                           Museum of Australia Annual Report 2003-2004,
                                                                                           National Museum of Australia Press, Canberra.
and Environmental Design)

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                        061
case studies

   Galleries, Museums and Libraries
   PEOPLE                                      was a first for a building development          East Melbourne Library
   There is both responsibility and            in Australia. There was one overall             For information see the City of Melbourne’s
   opportunities in the fact that these are    contract and the result was that the            web site:
   public buildings. The responsibility        project came in on budget and on                cfm?top=146andpg=1139
   is to involve key stakeholders              time.
   like indigenous landholders and                                                             Peckham Library
   the community in the process of             REFERENCES                                      Architects
   creating the building. There are great      Battle McCarthy, 1999, Cultural: Project:
   opportunities to educate the public         Peckham Library, London, Battle McCarthy
                                                                                               Consulting Engineers
   about art, history and the environment      Consulting Engineers and Landscape
   as well as sustainable design.              Architects,
                                               peckham.html                                    Mark Twain House Museum
   National Museum of Australia                                                      
   The Traditional Owners of the Acton                                                         shtml
                                               Energy Research Group, 1994, Daylighting
   Peninsula were consulted about              in Buildings, School of Architecture,
                                                                                               Frederick R Weisman Art Museum,
   the development of the site. Before         University College Dublin for the European
                                                                                               University of Minnesota
   building began a smoking ceremony           Commission Directorate-General for
                                                                                               For information on the architecture of the
   was performed by the Ngunnawal              Energy, Dublin.
                                                                                               building see:
   people to purify the site.                                                        
                                               National Museum of Australia, 2003,
                                               Land Nation People: The Annual Report of
   The museum has an ongoing                   National Museum of Australia 2002-2003,         LEED (Leadership in Energy and
   responsibility to protect culturally        National Museum of Australia Press,             Environmental Design – programme and
   significant sites on the Acton              Canberra.                                       rating system administered by the US
   Peninsula on which the museum                                                               Green Building Council)
   buildings are located.                      National Museum of Australia, 2004,   
                                               National Museum of Australia Annual
   During the development of the design        Report 2003-2004, National Museum of
   and building, collaboration and             Australia Press, Canberra.
   cooperation was emphasised through
   membership on committees and                Paul Walker, 2004, New Interiors by Mario
                                               Bellini and Metier 3, Architecture Australia,
   memoranda of understanding with
                                               March/April 2004.
   neighbours, such as the Australian
   Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait   Therese Weber (ed), 2004, Land Nation
   Islander Studies and the Australian         People: Stories from the National Museum
   National University.                        of Australia, National Museum of Australia
                                               Press, Canberra.
   The museum also integrates
   ecologically sustainable development        The National Museum of Australia
   information into exhibitions if   
   appropriate, such as in the Tangled
   Destinies gallery.                          National Gallery of Victoria, International

   PROJECT MANAGEMENT                          State Library of Victoria
   National Museum of Australia      
   A special project management style          For information on the redevelopment
   was developed for this building. It         see Department of Infrastructure, Major
   became known as the Alliance Project,       Projects section,
   in which all parties shared the profits     majorproj.nsf
                                                                                               Figure 65. National Gallery of Victoria, John
   and the risks of construction. This                                                         Gollings.

   062                                                                     ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                       case studies

                                                                                            RAAF Richmond
         BUILDING TYPE New
                  CLIMATE Temperate
                 LOCATION Richmond, New South Wales
                    CLIENT Department of Defence
           ARCHITECTS Bligh Voller Nield
                ENGINEERS Rudds Consulting Engineers (Electrical and
                          Mechanical); Hughes Trueman (Hydraulic); Arup
                          (Environmentally Sustainable Design)
                      SIZE 2582m² net lettable area

Richmond 36 and 37 Squadron                 PROJECT BACKGROUND
Headquarters, a part of the RAAF            The new RAAF headquarters building
Richmond Reinvestment Project, is the       was designed to accommodate
first project to achieve the Green Star     Australian Defence Force personnel.
- Office Design (September 2005),           The challenge was to ensure that the
                                                                                      Figure 66. RAAF Richmond.
Green Star - Office as Built (November      operating costs, energy and water
2005) and Green Star - Office                consumption, and ongoing support
Interiors (June 2006) Certified ratings.    costs were kept low.                      the use of solar water heating
It is the first Green Star development                                                systems.
by the Department of Defence and            ESD CONSIDERATIONS
will inform Defence’s approach to           MANAGEMENT                                WATER
Environmentally Sustainable Design          The concept of ‘hot desking’ was          Fixtures and AAAA fittings used
(ESD) on new and refurbishment              introduced in the design of this          throughout the RAAF building were as
projects.                                   building. This means that the desks for   efficient as practicable. For example,
                                            people like pilots, who were not in the   waterless urinals were used and rain
DESIGN BUILDING                             office for long periods of time, could    water collected in a 52 000 litre
PERFORMANCE                                 be occupied by others. Additional         storage tank and used for toilet
 Energy            20% better than 5 star   storage space was provided, so that       flushing. The landscaping has
 (Gas and          ABGR benchmark           people ‘hot desking’ have dedicated       also been designed to be drought
 electricity)      (base building)          storage space for their work. To          resistant.
                   1.5 ML per annum         facilitate this change from normal
 Water             lower than a standard    Defence practice, a change manager        All sewage is treated by the RAAF
                   building                 was engaged.                              Richmond’s wastewater treatment
 Greenhouse                                                                           plant and then reused for irrigation on
 Gas               Figure not available     ENERGY                                    the RAAF Base.
 Emissions                                  Energy used for the heating,
                                            ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)   IEQ
 Capital cost      $14 million
                                            system has dropped significantly,         The design team provided innovative
 Savings           Figure not available     through the integration of a mixed        solutions to increase the quality of the
                                            mode (both natural and mechanical         indoor environment with high levels
 Payback           Figure not available     ventilation) function.                    of fresh air and natural light. Some
                                                                                      74% of the net lettable area (NLA) has
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT                    Lighting energy reduction strategies      been designed as mixed mode space,
Under both the Office Design and            included the use of highly efficient      able to be naturally or mechanically
Office as Built Green Star tools, a         T5 lighting, occupant sensors and         ventilated. The remaining 26% is
100% score was achieved for both the        dedicated switches. Further energy        mechanically ventilated for operational
management and water categories.            savings have been achieved through        purposes.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                             063
case studies

   RAAF Richmond
   External air is provided at a rate          Of the refrigerants used, all had          REFERENCES
   150% above the Australian Standard          zero ozone depletion potential, with       BCI Australia (2006) Green Building Market
   requirement and is 100% outside air         refrigerant leak detection and recovery    Report 2006.p. 82-83.
   economy cycle with no recirculation.        systems integrated to ensure minimal
   Furthermore, natural ventilation is         impact on ozone depletion and              Randall K. (2006) Defence Goes Green,
   improved by under slab natural              climate change. Finally, as mentioned      editions/20051101/groups/csig.htm
   ventilation culverts, hollow core slabs     above, to minimise emissions from          accessed 15/12/2006.
   and automated louvres allowing the          fitout, low VOC emission materials
   effective use of thermal mass and           were used, (specifically minimising        GBCAus (2006) Case Study: RAAF
   passive cooling.                            formaldehyde).                             Richmond Squadron 36 and 37 HQ
                                                                                          Building available at:
   Indoor air quality has been improved        WASTE                            
   through the use of low off-gassing          Extensive waste storage areas
   paint, carpet and composite wood            have been provided in the building
   products. External views and natural        to facilitate waste separation and
   light are provided for a significant        recycling of office waste. In excess
   proportion of work areas. Electric          of 80% of construction waste diverted
   lighting levels at 320 lux and high         from landfill.
   frequency ballasts further improve
   occupant’s comfort by minimising the        EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
   chances of flickering.                      Extensive facilities such as showers,
                                               lockers and changing areas have
   External views and natural light are        been provided for cyclists including 20
   provided for a significant proportion of    secure bike spaces. In addition, visitor
   work areas. Average lighting intensity      bike spaces have also been provided.
   for the NLA is approximately 2.44           In accordance to the Green Star
   W/m² per 100 lux. High frequency            requirements, 25% of parking spaces
   ballasts further improve occupant’s         were designed for small cars, in order
   comfort by minimising the chances of        to encourage the use of more efficient
   flickering. Lighting was controlled by      smaller cars.
   combinations of daylight sensors and
   occupant sensors.                           The aforementioned innovative
                                               solutions and processes developed
   MATERIALS                                   for the project will inform Defence’s
   Materials were selected to                  green building procedures for future
   decrease any adverse impact on              projects.
   the environment, for example the
   structural concrete was specified to
   incorporate a minimum of 30% fly-ash.
   More than 65% of timber used was
   sourced from recycled stock including
   timber used for external cladding and
   internal flooring. Of the remaining
   timber all but 5% of the total timber
   used had certification for sustainable
   timber, ensuring third party impartial
   verification of the sustainability of the
   timber source.
                                               Figure 67. RAAF Richmond.

   064                                                               ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

A                                              B                                               • emissions reduction units are
ABGR                                           Base Building Brief                                generated via joint implementation
ABGR the Australian Building Greenhouse        Working document which specifies at                under Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol,
Rating Scheme is the universally               any point in time the relevant needs and        • certified emission reduction units are
accepted benchmarking tool for energy          aims, resources of the client and user, the        generated and certified under the
consumption of commercial buildings in         context of the project and any appropriate         provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto
Australia. It has been incorporated in other   design requirements within which all               Protocol, the Clean Development
rating systems to ensure a consistent          subsequent briefing (when needed) and              Mechanism, and
approach from industry to this important       designing can take place. (Adapted from         • verified emission reductions are
issue. (DEUS, 2005).                           definition of brief in ISO 9699).                  verified reductions in greenhouse gas
                                                                                                  emissions below a pre-determined
Adaptive comfort                               BDP                                                baseline.
Adds human behaviour to the comfort            Australian Council of Building Design           (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
analysis. It assumes that, if changes          Professionals – BPD has published               Development Guide, 2001).
occur in the thermal environment to            a multi-volume Environment Design
produce discomfort, then people will           Guide containing literature on how to           Carbon dioxide equivalent gases
generally change their behaviour and act       reduce environmental impact of the built        Greenhouse gases that contribute to
in a way that will restore their comfort.      environment. (Melbourne Docklands ESD           the greenhouse effect are referred to as
Such actions could include taking off          Guide, Oct 2002).                               carbon dioxide equivalent gases since this
clothing, reducing activity levels or even                                                     is the most abundant greenhouse gas.
opening a window. The main effect of           BCA                                             (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
such models is to increase the range of        Building Code of Australia.                     Development Guide, 2001).
conditions that designers can consider
as comfortable, especially in naturally        Biodegradable                                   Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
ventilated buildings where the occupants       A material capable of being decomposed          Synthetic products which do not occur
have a greater degree of control over          by bacteria or other living organisms as        naturally and contain chlorine and fluorine;
their thermal environment. (Andrew Marsh       a result of the action of micro-organisms.      commonly used in various industrial
Square one -             (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable     processes and as refrigerants and, prior
                                               Development Guide, 2001).                       to 1990, as a propellant gas for sprays.
Adhesives                                                                                      CFCs are a powerful greenhouse gas.
A substance capable of holding materials       Biodiversity                                    (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
together by surface attachment.                The variety of all life forms; the different    Development Guide, 2001).
Adhesives are one source of off-gassing in     plants, animals and micro-organisms, the
indoor environments. (Property Council of      genes they contain and the ecosystems           CFCs are used as a refrigerant. They are
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,      they form. (Property Council of Australia,      the worst ozone depleting product and
2001).                                         Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).           the most significant cause of ozone layer
                                                                                               depletion. CFCs are being phased out as
AGO                                                                                            part of the Montreal Protocol. (Melbourne
                                               Brownfield Site                                 Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
Australian Greenhouse Office, now part of      Land within an urban area on which
the Australian Government’s Department         development has previously taken place.
of the Environment and Water Resources.        (Corus Construction Centre glossary,            Client brief
                                               A project vision statement and sustainable
Air quality                                    9041.htm).                                      development criteria provided to the
To do with the level of particulate, gases,                                                    design team. (Property Council of
vapours, pollens and micro-organisms                                                           Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
                                               Building monitoring systems or                  2001).
in the air. (Property Council of Australia,    Building Management System (BMS)
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).          A Building Management System includes           Climate Change Levy
                                               more of the systems and plans for review        A tax on corporate energy use introduced
Alliance partnerships                          and improvement while the building
A long-term commercial partnering                                                              by the government in 1999 aimed at
                                               monitoring system is a computerised             reducing energy consumption. (Corus
arrangement that enhances project              system that monitors the engineering
team innovation and avoids the cost of                                                         Construction Centre glossary, http://www.
                                               services, security and other building 
tendering for team formation on every          systems for the purpose of recording,
new project. This can assist integrated        reporting and operational control of the
delivery of sustainable design objectives.     systems to maximise safety, security,           Cogeneration
(Property Council of Australia, Sustainable    operational performance and for overall         Generation of electricity combined with
Development Guide, 2001).                      cost minimisation and efficiency.               the production of heat for commercial or
                                               (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable     industrial use. Excess electricity produced
Aquifer                                        Development Guide, 2001).                       can be fed back into the power grid.
A geological formation that will yield water                                                   Cogeneration is an energy efficient way of
to a well in sufficient quantities to make                                                     using fossil fuels. (National Greenhouse
the production of water from this formation
                                               C                                               Strategy
feasible for beneficial use; permeable         Carbon credit                                   au/glossary/).
layers of underground rock or sand that        A term that refers to three types of units of
hold or transmit groundwater below the         greenhouse gas reductions defined under
water table. (Property Council of Australia,   the Kyoto Protocol:
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                         065

   Commercial buildings                          Demountable
   Typically refers to any non-residential       Components or whole buildings which can        Environmentally preferable products/
   building such as a shopping centre,           be dismantled and re-erected elsewhere.        materials
   office tower, business park, industrial       (Corus Construction Centre glossary,           Products that embody one or several
   property or tourism and leisure asset.         positive environmental attributes as
   (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable   9041.htm).                                     a result of deliberately eliminating or
   Development Guide, 2001).                                                                    reducing potential environmental impacts
                                                                                                across its life cycle. These products
   Commingles                                    Downcycling                                    don’t have negative impacts on human
   Materials all mixed together, such as         The mechanical recycling of end-of-life        health and the environment when
   plastic bottles with glass and metal          products which produces materials of           compared with competing products. This
   containers. Commingled recyclable             inferior quality. The secondary material       comparison may consider raw materials
   materials require sorting after collection    cannot substitute the virgin state, an         acquisition, production, manufacturing,
   before they can be recycled. Current          example being crushed concrete used as         packaging, distribution, reuse, operation,
   collections in the CBD are usually plastics   fill. (Corus Construction Centre glossary,     maintenance, or disposal of the product.
   marked 1, 2 and 3; glass beverage            (EcoRecycle, 2003).
   containers and aluminium and steel            9041.htm).
   cans. Fully commingled collections also                                                      EPBC Act
   include paper. (Department of Treasury                                                       Environment Protection and Biodiversity
   and Finance, Reporting of Office-Based        Dual pipe system                               Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is the
   Environmental Impacts by Government           A system where one pipe feeds potable          Australian Government’s major piece
   Departments: Guidance to Financial            or drinking water, the second feeds            of environmental legislation. It protects
   Reporting Direction FRD24, July 2003).        treated water, typically for toilet flushing   the environment, particularly matters of
                                                 or irrigation – also called the purple or      National Environmental Significance.
   Commissioning                                 lilac pipe. (Property Council of Australia,
   The start-up phase of a new or renovated      Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).          ESD
   building which includes testing and fine-                                                    Ecologically Sustainable Development
   tuning of the HVAC, electrical, plumbing      E                                              – development that does not compromise
   and other systems to assure proper            Embodied energy                                the ability of future generations to enjoy
   functioning and adherence to design           The non-renewable energy consumed              similar levels of development. This is done
   criteria. Commissioning also includes         in the acquisition of raw materials, their     by minimising the effect of development
   preparation of the systems operations         processing, manufacture, transportation        on the environment. (Melbourne
   manual and instruction of the building        to site and the construction process. Also     Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002) Also
   maintenance personnel. (Property Council      the non-renewable energy consumed              defined by the Australian Government
   of Australia, Sustainable Development         to maintain, repair, restore, refurbish or     as ‘using, conserving and enhancing the
   Guide, 2001).                                 replace materials, components or systems       community’s resources so that ecological
                                                 during the lifetime of a building. (Corus      processes, on which life depends, are
   Copper chrome arsenate (CCA)                  Construction Centre glossary, http://www.      maintained, and the total quality of life,
   A powerful preservative most commonly          now and in the future, can be increased’.
   used to treat softwoods for external use to                                                  (NSESD, DEH 1992).
   provide protection against fungi, termites    EMP
   and wood boring insects. Spills of CCA        Environmental Management Plan – this           F
   can leave short-term residues of arsenic      document outlines the environmental
   and long-term residues of chromium                                                           Formaldehydes
                                                 requirements and responsibilities for          A resin used as an adhesive, surface
   in affected soils, which have serious         an individual development as per the
   health and environmental implications.                                                       coating, foam or in the manufacture
                                                 Docklands Authority requirements for the       of laminates and sandwich panels.
   (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable   development of Melbourne Docklands).
   Development Guide, 2001).                                                                    Formaldehyde adhesives can present
                                                 (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct            a health hazard due to their off-gassing
                                                 2002).                                         tendencies. (Property Council of Australia,
   Cost benefit analysis                                                                        Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
   A method of evaluating projects or            EMS
   investments by comparing the present          Environmental Management System
   value or annual value of expected benefits                                                   Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
                                                 – this document outlines specific              An international organisation promoting
   to costs. (Property Council of Australia,     requirements for planning implementation,
   Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).                                                        responsible forest management. FSC
                                                 operation, checking and correct actions        has developed principles for forest
                                                 regarding environmental issues.                management which may be used for
   D                                                                                            verifying the management of forest
   Deconstruction                                Environmental Management System                holdings and a system of tracing, verifying
   A technique which is based on the             A management system to identify, manage        and labelling timber and wood products
   old practice of dismantling buildings         and reduce an organisation’s impact on         that originate from FSC certified forests.
   to enable redundant materials to be           the environment. (Department of Treasury       (Australian Paper www.australianpaper.
   salvaged for reuse and recycling. (Corus      and Finance, Reporting of Office-Based
   Construction Centre glossary, http://www.     Environmental Impacts by Government         Departments: Guidance to Financial
                                                 Reporting Direction FRD24, July 2003).

   066                                                                    ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

Fuel Cell                                        by energy suppliers on behalf of their           Its reports are widely cited and have been
Used to convert chemicals into electrical        customers. (Property Council of Australia,       highly influential in forming national and
energy. This is an apparatus used for            Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).            international responses to climate change.
combining fuel and oxides to generate
electricity. (Energy Australia       Green Star                                       Indoor air quality (IAQ)                                         Green Star was developed and funded              Includes the introduction and distribution
                                                 by industry and government. Green                of adequate ventilation air, control of
G                                                Star’s framework brings existing tools           airborne contaminants and maintenance
Global warming potential (GWP)                   and standards together under one                 of acceptable temperature and relative
GWP is a measure of how much a given             unified system. Green Star rating tools          humidity. (Property Council of Australia,
mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to           are relevant to building type, phase of          Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
contribute to global warming. It is a relative   development cycle and geographical
scale which compares the gas in question         location. Green Star awards points for           Indoor environment quality (IEQ)
to that of the same mass of carbon dioxide       best practice initiatives and, as such,          This factor describes the cumulative
whose GWP is one. An exact definition            projects that receive a Green Star Certified     effects of indoor air quality, lighting
can be found at the IPCC web site.               Rating have demonstrated leadership and          and thermal conditions. Poor IEQ is
Examples of the GWP of gases are as              are considered to be in the top quartile of      responsible for health problems in the
follows:                                         the market. Green Star rating tools are          work place. (Melbourne Docklands ESD
• carbon dioxide has a GWP of exactly            being released for all building types (office,   Guide, Oct 2002).
     1 (since it is the baseline unit to         retail, education, health, residential etc.).
     which all other greenhouse gases are                                                         Integrated design
     compared.)                                  Groundwater                                      A design process that mobilises
• methane has a GWP of 21                        Water within the earth that supplies             multidisciplinary design input and
• nitrogen dioxide has a GWP of 310              wells and springs; water in the zone of          cooperation, ideally to maximise and
• some hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)                   saturation where all openings in rocks and       integrate environmental and economic
     compounds have GWPs of several              soil are filled, the upper surface of which      life cycle benefits. (Property Council of
     thousands (HFC-23 is 11,700).               forms the water table. (Property Council of      Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
                                                 Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,        2001).
Greenfield site                                  2001).
Land on which no development has                                                                  ISO 14000
previously taken place. Usually on the           H                                                International standards for EMS’ -
periphery of an existing built-up area.          Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)                 ISO14001 and ISO14004 are international
(Corus Construction Centre glossary,             HCFCs were used as the original                  standards concerning Environmental           replacement for CFCs and are still               Management Systems, and include
9041.htm).                                       commonly used. HCFCs, like CFCs,                 specifications and guidelines. (Melbourne
                                                 cause ozone depletion, but to a lesser           Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
Greenhouse gases                                 extent. HCFCs are being phased out
Gases which contribute to global warming         under the Montreal Protocol. (Melbourne          ISO 7730
by preventing the outward radiation of           Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).                  International standard for thermal
heat from the Earth which increases the                                                           comfort – this standard is based on a
atmosphere’s absorption of sunlight              Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)                        determination of the PMV (Predicted Mean
(the greenhouse effect). Greenhouse              Transitional replacements for CFCs, they         Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage
gases are measured in carbon dioxide             are also greenhouse gases. (Property             Dissatisfied) indices, and specification
equivalent units. Some greenhouse                Council of Australia, Sustainable                of the conditions for thermal comfort.
gases are naturally occurring (water             Development Guide, 2001).                        (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct
vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous                                                          2002).
oxide and ozone). Others result from             HVAC systems
human activities, the most powerful              The equipment, distribution network and          J
of which are: chloroflurocarbons                 terminals that provide either collectively
(CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),               or individually the processes of heating,
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur                                                               K
                                                 ventilation or air-conditioning to a building.   Kyoto Protocol
hexafluoride (SF6). (Property Council of         (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,                                                         An international agreement reached in
                                                 Development Guide, 2001).                        1997 in Kyoto, Japan, which extends
                                                                                                  the commitment of the United Nations
Green lease schedule                             I                                                Framework Convention on Climate
A lease schedule that sets out the mutual        Intergovernmental Panel on Climate               Change. In particular, it sets targets for
obligation for building owners, managers         Change (IPCC)                                    future emissions by each developed
and tenants regarding environmental              The IPCC was established in 1988 by two          country over the first commitment period
performance.                                     United Nations organisations, the World          and foreshadows further action over future
                                                 Meteorological Organisation (WMO)                commitment periods. (Property Council of
                                                 and the United Nations Environment               Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
Green power                                                                                       2001).
Electricity generated from clean renewable       Programme (UNEP) to assess the ‘risk
sources, such as the sun, wind, water and        of human-induced climate change’. The
                                                 panel is open to all members of the WMO          An international agreement to limit
organic matter. The electricity is bought                                                         greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol
                                                 and UNEP.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                           067

   was adopted in 1997 and has been ratified       NatHERS                                         Phase Change Materials (PCM)
   by 54 countries, including most developed       National House Energy Rating Scheme             These are materials which turn from one
   countries. (Melbourne Docklands ESD             – this is a national scheme used to rate        phase to another (for example liquid
   Guide, Oct 2002).                               the energy consumption of residential           to gas, or solid to liquid) at a certain
                                                   buildings. (Melbourne Docklands ESD             temperature – such as water at zero
   L                                               Guide, Oct 2002).                               degrees Celsius.
   This scale measures the average energy of       NSESD                                           Photovoltaic
   the noise level. It is the equivalent steady    The National Strategy for Ecologically          Generating electricity from the energy
   state level of a fluctuating noise level.       Sustainable Development sets out the            of sunlight using photocells. (Property
   When considered over a period of time T,        broad strategic and policy framework            Council of Australia, Sustainable
   this is represented by the scale dB LAeqT.      under which governments will                    Development Guide, 2001).
   ASINZS 1269.1:1998 sets out the method          cooperatively make decisions and take
   for calculating this level. (Green Star-        actions to pursue ESD in Australia. It will     PMV
   Office Design v2).                              be used by governments to guide policy          Predicted Mean Vote is an international
                                                   and decision making, particularly in those      measure, used for determining thermal
                                                   key industry sectors which rely on the          comfort. It is based on surveys of the most
   Life cycle assessment (LCA)                     utilisation of natural resources.
   A technique for assessing the                                                                   acceptable levels of indoor temperature,
   environmental aspects and potential                                                             humidity and radiant heat for different
   impacts associated with a product or            O                                               clothing and activity levels. (Melbourne
   process, by compiling an inventory of           Off-gassing                                     Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
   relevant inputs and outputs, evaluating         The release of gases or vapours from solid
   the potential environmental impacts             materials in a form of evaporation of a slow    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
   associated with those inputs and outputs,       chemical change which produces indoor           A group of synthetic chlorinated organic
   and interpreting the results of the inventory   air pollution for prolonged periods after       compounds, toxic to humans and
   analysis and impact assessment phases           installation of a material. (Property Council   identified as carcinogenic. They were
   in relation to the objectives. (Property        of Australia, Sustainable Development           used mainly in older electrical capacitors
   Council of Australia, Sustainable               Guide, 2001).                                   or transformers. (Property Council of
   Development Guide, 2001).                                                                       Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
                                                   Operational energy                              2001).
   Life cycle costing (LCC)                        The energy consumed in heating,
   A technique that enables a comparative          cooling, lighting and powering equipment        Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
   cost assessment to be made for various          and appliances in buildings. (Corus             This common building material is
   investment alternatives, over a specified       Construction Centre glossary, http://www.       mostly used for pipes and electrical
   period of time, taking into account all           cables. Production of PVC requires toxic
   relevant factors, both in terms of initial                                                      chemicals and heavy metals. These
   capital costs and future estimated cost.        Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)                 additives risk polluting soil and waterways
   The objective is to identify the most           A number that refers to the amount of           during PVC disposal. (Melbourne
   economic overall choice. (Property              ozone depletion caused by a substance.          Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
   Council of Australia, Sustainable               The ODP is the ratio of the impact on
   Development Guide, 2001).                       ozone of a chemical compared to the             Potable water
                                                   impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus,       Water that is fit for human consumption.
   Lux                                             the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0.         (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
   Measure of the amount of light at a certain     Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs                  Development Guide, 2001).
   point.                                          that range from 0.01 to 1.0. The halons
                                                   have ODPs ranging up to 10. Carbon              PPD
                                                   tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2, and            Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied. This
   M                                               methyl chloroform’s ODP is 0.11. HFCs           measure is linked with PMV. A PMV of 0
   Montreal Protocol                               have zero ODP because they do not               indicates a PPD of 5% and a PMV of +/-1
   This international treaty was first signed      contain chlorine. (US EPA web site www.         indicates a PPD of 25%. This means that
   in 1987 (now signed by 181 countries). It ).                     25% of occupants perceive the space
   sets a time schedule for the reduction and                                                      to be either warm or cool. (Melbourne
   eventual elimination of ozone depleting         Ozone layer depletion                           Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
   substances. (Melbourne Docklands ESD            The ozone layer protects earth from ultra
   Guide, Oct 2002).                               violet rays, which are known to cause           Project brief
                                                   cancer. Refrigerants such as CFCs and           Typically a response to a client brief and is
   N                                               HCFCs contribute greatly to ozone layer         prepared by the integrated design team.
   NABERS                                          depletion. (Melbourne Docklands ESD             (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
   National Australian Built Environment           Guide, Oct 2002).                               Development Guide, 2001).
   Rating System – an environmental rating
   tool for non-residential buildings that is      P                                               Q
   now being developed by the Australian           Photoelectric cell (PEcell)
   Government. (Property Council of                These are used to monitor the amount of
   Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,       light in a room.

   068                                                                     ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

R                                             S                                              Impacts by Government Departments:
Recycled material                             SEMP                                           Guidance to Financial Reporting Direction
Material that would otherwise be destined     Site Environmental Management Plan –           FRD24, July 2003).
for disposal but is diverted or separated     this document guides and sets standards
from the waste stream, reintroduced as        for construction and operation of new          WMP
material feedstock and processed into         developments. It includes strategies           A waste management plan sets out the
marketed end products. (Property Council      and processes to manage and minimise           waste requirements and responsibilities of
of Australia, Sustainable Development         environmental impacts. (Melbourne              project. It is usually site specific and looks
Guide, 2001).                                 Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002)                 at the minimisation, recycling and reuse
                                                                                             of waste through all onsite processes. It
Materials that have been reprocessed          Sustainable development                        usually forms part of an EMP.
from recovered material by means of a         Development that meets the needs of the
manufacturing process and made into           present without compromising the ability       X
a final product or into a component for       of future generations to meet their own        Xeriscape
incorporation into a product. (EcoRecycle,    needs. (Property Council of Australia,         Xeriscaping is derived from the Greek
2003).                                        Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).          word ‘xeros’, meaning ‘dry’ and
                                                                                             combined with ‘landscape’, xeriscape
Recycled products                             T                                              means gardening with less than average
Materials that have been recovered,           Toxic                                          water. A trademarked term referring
processed and used as a raw material          Any substance which causes harm to             to water-efficient choices in planting
for the manufacture of a useful new           living organisms, from very low to extreme     and irrigation design. It refers to seven
product through a commercial process.         toxicity. (Property Council of Australia,      basic principles for conserving water
These products will contain a specified       Sustainable Development Guide, 2001)           and protecting the environment. These
percentage of material that would             Toxic substances are identified in the         include: (1) planning and design (2) use
otherwise have been disposed of as            Australian National Pollutant Inventory.       of well-adapted plants (3) soil analysis (4)
wastes. (EcoRecycle, 2003).                                                                  practical turf areas (5) use of mulches (6)
                                              Triple Bottom Line                             appropriate maintenance and (7) efficient
Recycling                                     Measures the economic, social and              irrigation. (Ecolodgical http://ecolodgical.
Includes paper, commingles and                environmental sustainability of a project. A
compostables accepted and recycled            sustainable development aims for synergy
by contractors or internally (i.e. through    rather than compromise between these           Y
on-site worm farms). These figures can        factors.
be extrapolated from waste assessments.
(Department of Treasury and Finance,                                                         Z
Reporting of Office-Based Environmental       U
Impacts by Government Departments:
Guidance to Financial Reporting Direction     V
FRD24, July 2003).                            VDU
                                              Visual Display Units – computer monitors
Re-manufactured                               and other office equipment which include
Means to renew or restore a used product      artificially illuminated surfaces.
into its original form or into a useful new
product through a commercial process.         Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
(EcoRecycle, 2003).                           Chemical compounds based on carbon
                                              and hydrogen structure that are vaporised
Renewable                                     at room temperatures. VOCs are one
A renewable product can be grown or           type of indoor air contaminant. Although
naturally replenished or cleansed at a        thousands have been identified in indoor
rate that exceeds human depletion of the      air, only a few are well understood and
resource. (Property Council of Australia,     regulated. (Property Council of Australia,
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).         Sustainable Development Guide, 2001)
                                              These chemicals are found in paints and
Renewable Energy                              other building products. They are known
Renewable energy is obtained from             to cause health problems, including
sources that can be sustained indefinitely.   asthma and other respiratory ailments.
Examples of renewable energy systems          (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct
include photovoltaic solar collection,        2002).
solar thermal turbine generation and wind
power. (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide,        W
Oct 2002).                                    Waste
                                              All waste placed in landfill waste and
Reuse                                         recycling streams (paper, green waste,
The recovery of a material to be used         composts, commingles), including ‘one
again for a similar application without       off’ clean outs, office relocations etc.
reprocessing. (Property Council of            (Department of Treasury and Finance,
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,     Reporting of Office-Based Environmental

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                         069
appendix one


   PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKING                  be obtained to confirm that the
   Incorporating sustainability in a         design intent was met. Over time
   building is no easy task. It takes        this feedback loop will improve the
   dedication and coordination               standard of building design and
   throughout the design, construction,      encourage innovative solutions for
   commissioning, operation and              high efficiency buildings.
   maintenance of the building to achieve
   sustainable goals.                        ABGR is the universally accepted
                                             benchmarking tool for energy
   Throughout this process it is important   consumption of commercial
   to keep the end goal in mind.             buildings in Australia, and it has been
   Performance benchmarks provide a          incorporated in other rating systems      (DEW) in consultation with industry
   measurement of this end goal. They        to ensure a consistent approach from      and stakeholders. It is a national
   transform the technical measurement       industry to this important issue.         initiative managed by the NSW
   of a sustainability impact into an                                                  Government Department of Energy,
   intuitive and easily understood metric    National Australian Built Environment     Utilities and Sustainability (DEUS).
   that shows the performance of the         Rating System (NABERS)                    NABERS is able to provide ratings for
   building on this issue relative to the    All buildings have an impact on the       office buildings, office tenancies and
   rest of the market.                       environment. Energy is used to            homes.
                                             provide light, heating, cooling and       NABERS OFFICE is a performance
   The NSW Department of Energy,             ventilation. Water is used for washing,   based tool to assess the measured
   Utilities and Sustainability manages      drinking and air conditioning. Water      operational impacts of existing
   the two key performance benchmarks        from storms needs to be managed.          buildings. Environmental performance
   for commercial property:                  Waste is generated. Occupants are         is assessed against a comprehensive
                                             affected by the quality of the air in     set of key impact categories. ABGR
   Australian Building Greenhouse Rating
   scheme (ABGR)                             the building. Local biodiversity is       is used to assess energy efficiency                           affected. Toxic materials are present.    while a new tool to assess water use
   Greenhouse gas emissions from                                                       efficiency, NABERS OFFICE WATER,
   Australia’s commercial building sector    NABERS is a performance-based             was released in June 2006. This tool
   are growing by 3 to 4% each year.         sustainability rating system for          measures water consumption on a
   Commercial buildings produce 8.8%         existing buildings, based upon the        scale of 1 to 5 stars, reflecting the
   of the national greenhouse emissions.     ABGR methodology. NABERS will             performance of the building relative
                                             rate a residential or commercial          to the market, from least efficient (one
   The ABGR scheme is a ‘world first         office building on the basis of its       star) to best practice (five stars). The
   initiative’ to help building owners       measured operational impacts on the       current market average is two and a
   and tenants across Australia rate         environment.                              half stars.
   their greenhouse performance.
   ABGR benchmarks a building’s              As householders, building owners,         Further tools are being developed
   greenhouse impact on a scale of one       managers or occupants we can              to measure comprehensively the
   to five, representing the building’s      reduce these impacts. NABERS is           full range of environmental impacts
   performance relative to the market.       designed to help you by giving a          including: refrigerants (greenhouse
                                             simple indication of how well you         and ozone depletion potential),
   ABGR can also be used to improve          are managing these environmental          stormwater runoff and pollution,
   the greenhouse efficiency of buildings    impacts compared with your peers in       sewage, landscape diversity,
   from the outset. New buildings can        other homes or office buildings.          transport, indoor environment,
   target a high star rating, and bear                                                 occupant satisfaction, waste and
   that target in mind while designing       NABERS was developed by the               presence of toxic materials.
   the building. Once the building           Australian Government Department of
                                                                                       55 Text for this page supplied by the Department of
   is operational an ABGR rating will        the Environment and Water Resources          Energy, Utilities and Sustainability (DEUS).

   070                                                             ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
                                                                                                                           appendix two

                                GBCA and Green Star accredited buildings

The Green Building Council of              industry-owned, national, voluntary      GREEN STAR CERTIFICATION
Australia is a national, not-for-profit    environmental rating system for          All Green Star rating tools recognise
organisation that is supported by both     buildings.                               and reward initiatives that reduce the
industry and governments across                                                     environmental impact of development.
the country. Launched in 2002, the         Green Star is the only rating system     Points are awarded under eight
Green Building Council’s mission is to     in Australia that evaluates the          environmental categories where a
promote sustainable development and        environmental impact of Australian       project demonstrates that initiatives
drive the adoption of green building       buildings at all phases of development   have been met. A total score for each
practices through market-based             and across all environmental             environmental category is calculated
solutions.                                 categories, including:                   and a weighting is applied to this
                                           • management                             score that reflects the geographical
The council aims to drive the transition   • indoor environmental quality           location of the project and the
of the Australian property industry        • energy                                 environmental impact.
towards sustainability by promoting        • transport
green building programmes,                 • water                                  Green Star rating tools use stars to
technologies, design practices and         • materials                              measure performance:
operations. Central to achieving these     • land use and ecology                   • 4 Star Green Star Certified Rating
aims the council launched the Green        • emissions.                                recognises and rewards ‘best
Star environmental rating system for                                                   practice’
buildings in 2003.                         INTERACTION WITH OTHER                   • 5 Star Green Star Certified Rating
                                           TOOLS                                       recongises and rewards ‘Australian
GREEN STAR                                 Green Star was developed and                excellence’ and
The Green Star environmental rating        funded by industry and government.       • 6 Star Green Star Certified Rating
system recognises and rewards              Green Star’s framework brings               recognises and rewards ‘world
environmental leadership in the            existing tools and standards together       leadership’.
building industry. Green Star rating       under one unified system. Green Star
tools are being released for different     rating tools are relevant to building    GREEN STAR CERTIFIED
phases of development (i.e. design,        type, phase of development cycle         BUILDINGS
construction, procurement and              and geographical location. Green         5 Star Green Star - Office As Built v1:
operation) and various building types      Star awards points for best practice     • 30 The Bond in Sydney NSW
(office, retail, education, health,        initiatives and, as such, projects       • RAAF Richmond Squadron 36
residential etc.). Green Star builds       that receive a Green Star Certified        and 37 Headquarters in Richmond,
on exisitng environmental rating           Rating have demonstrated leadership        NSW.
systems for buildings, including the       and are considered to be in the top
UK’s ‘BREAAM’ (Building Research           quartile of the market.                  4 Star Green Star – Office As Built v1
Establishment Environmental                                                         • The Advertiser, Adelaide.
Assessment Methodology) and North          Recognising the existence of other
America’s ‘LEED’(Leadership in             regulatory tools and to ensure           6 Star Green Star - Office Design v1
Energy and Environmental Design) by        project teams are not doubling up on     • CH2, Melbourne, Victoria
establishing individual environmental      their efforts, Green Star rating tools   • 40 Albert Road, Melbourne,
measurement criteria relevant to the       incorporate the Australian Building        Victoria.
Australian marketplace and unique          Greenhouse Rating (ABGR) scheme
environmental context.                     under the energy category. Green
                                           Star also addresses other energy
Green Star rating tools use stars to       efficiency initiatives such as
measure performance. Green Star            on-site demand management, energy
is Australia’s only comprehensive,         metering for base building and
                                           tenancies and more.
                                                                                    56 Text for these pages supplied by the Green
                                                                                       Building Council.

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                      071
appendix two

   GBCA and Green Star accredited buildings
   5 Star Green Star - Office Design v1      4 Star Green – Office Interiors v1
   • 8 Brindabella Circuit, Canberra,        • Australian Research Council
     ACT                                       tenancy at 8 Brindabella Park,
   • RAAF Richmond Squadron 36 and             Canberra
     37 Headquarters in Richmond,            • International Airport, Canberra,
     NSW                                       ACT.
   • Flinders LinkStage 5 Office
     Development, Adelaide, SA               100 other projects are registered
   • Bendigo Bank Headquarters,              • 48 applying for Green Star - Office
     Bendigo VIC                               Design ratings
   • 500 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC.      • 18 applying for Green Star
                                               - Office As Built ratings (some
   5 Star Green Star - Office Design v1        also targeting Green Star - Office
   COBEII                                      Design)
   • Bordo International Pty Ltd             • 33 applying for Green Star - Office
     Headquarters in Scoresby, VIC             Interiors ratings
   • Kangan Batman TAFE Automotive           • 1 for Green Star - Office Existing
     Centre of Excellence in VIC.              Building rating.

                                             For updated information see:
   4 Star Green Star – Office Design v1
   • 151 Pirie, Adelaide, SA
   • 60 Light Square in Adelaide, SA.

   5 Star Green Star – Office Design v2
   • City Central Tower 1, Adelaide, SA
   • Hume City Council Office Building
     in Broadmeadows, VIC
   • Green Square South Tower,
     Brisbane QLD
   • Metropolitan Fire Brigade, 450
     Burnley, VIC
   • Bendigo Bank Headquarters,
     Bendigo VIC
   • Digital Harbour - Port 1010,
     Docklands VIC
   • Forestry SA, Mount Gambier, SA
   • Quad 4, Sydney Olympic Park,

   5 Star Green Star - Office Interiors v1
   • Morgan Stanley Tenancy at 30 The
     Bond, Sydney, NSW
   • RAAF Richmond Squadron 36 and
     37 Headquarters in Richmond,
   • Investa Office, Lv 6 and 7/126
     Phillip St, Sydney NSW.

   072                                                             ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

                                                                                        page                                                             page
                                40 Albert Road ..................... 55, 56, 57, 58                Materials ............................................27, 28
                                30 the Bond ....................................... 39, 40         Mechanical plant .....................................21
                                8 Brindabella Circuit ................... 36, 37, 38               Mixed mode ventilation ...........................21
                                60L: 60 Leicester Street ............. 52, 53, 54                  Museums...............................59, 60, 61, 62
                                Ann Street ......................................... 43, 44
                                ABGR...................................................... 70      NABERS ......................................6, 8, 9, 70
                                Appropriate sizing of lighting, heating and                        National Museum of Australia .....49, 50, 51
                                cooling systems ..................................... 21           Natural light .............................................19
                                Aquifer Storage ...................................... 34          Natural ventilation..............................19, 21
                                Australian government water use........... 31
                                                                                                   Occupant satisfaction .......................15, 38
                                BCA .......................................................... 4   Orientation ...............................................19
                                Biodiversity ............................................. 35      Ozone depletion ................................26, 38
                                Building management systems (BMS) .. 23
                                                                                                   Passive design ..................................19, 20
                                Case studies ..................................... 36-64           Photovoltaic systems ..............................24
                                Climatic design....................................... 20          Potable water reduction ..........................32
                                Cooling towers ....................................... 33
                                Council House 2 ............................... 41, 42             RAAF Richmond ................................63, 64
                                                                                                   Radiant cooling .......................................21
                                Design ............................ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14             Rating tools .......................................7, 8, 9
                                                                                                   Renewable energy ..................................24
                                Ecologically Sustainable Development
                                (ESD) ........................................................ 4   Sensors ...................................................22
                                Ecology .................................................. 35      SES headquarters .............................45, 46
                                Embodied energy............................. 24, 27                Shading ...................................................19
                                Embodied water ..................................... 28            Social sustainability ...........................12, 15
                                Energy ............... 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,                 Solar electricity ........................................24
                                Environmental Management System                                    Solar hot water ........................................24
                                (EMS)...................................................... 14     Stormwater ..............................................34
                                Environmentally sustainable building
                                design............................................... 11, 12       Thermal cooling.......................................19
                                Equipment purchasing ........................... 23                Thermal heating ......................................19
                                                                                                   Thermal mass..........................................19
                                Floor plate design .................................. 20           Thermal stack ..........................................20
                                                                                                   Toxicity...............................................27, 28
                                Galleries ............................... 59, 60, 61, 62           Toxicity in manufacture and use .............27
                                Government ESD commitments .......... 5, 6                         Transport .................................................25
                                Green building tools ..................... 6, 7, 8, 9
                                Green power........................................... 24          Waalitj building: Murdoch University .47, 48
                                Green Star....................................................     Waste ................................................29, 30
                                4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 17, 26, 28, 35, 36, 41, 71, 72                     Waste management plan ..................13, 29
                                Greenhouse effect.................................. 18             Water .....................................31, 32, 33, 34
                                                                                                   Water conservation ...............31, 32, 33, 34
                                Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) .......................... 16             Water reuse .............................................33
                                Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) .... 16, 17                       Water use reduction ..........................32, 33
                                Integrated design ....................... 12, 13, 14
                                                                                                   Xeriscape (water sensitive landscaping) 33
                                Land use ................................................ 35
                                Leaks (infiltration) ................................... 19        Zoning .....................................................22
                                Leaks (refrigerant) .................................. 26
                                Libraries ................................ 59, 60, 61, 62
                                Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)................. 11
                                Light............................................ 17, 19, 21

ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                                                                                             073


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