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Presented by:
Soundarya Chada
Zubin Jivani
Rajitha Edara
Quick Introduction to Flu
• Influenza is commonly referred
  to as Flu.
• Infectious disease caused by
  RNA viruses.
• Symptoms are fever ,chills ,sore
  throat ,muscle pains ,severe
  heads ache ,coughing ,
  weakness and general
• Mainly Transmitted through air.
• Deactivated by sunlight ,
  disinfectants and detergents.
Types of Viruses
Influenza A:

•   Affects wild aquatic birds.
•   These are negative sense , stranded segmented RNA
•   Subtypes of Type A: H number (for the type of
    haemagluttinin ) and N number(for the type of
•   There are 16 different H antigens(H1 to H16).
•   Nine different N antigens (N1 to N9).
Types of Viruses
Influenza B:
•   Affects humans and animals like seal and ferret.
•   Slower than Type A.

Influenza C:
•   Affects humans ,dogs ,pigs
•   Less common than other types.
Structure of Influenza Virus

•   Influenza A,B and C are similar
    in structure.
•   The virus particle is roughly
    spherical and is 80-120
    nanometers in diameter.

•Flu Viruses bind through
Hemaglutinin onto the surface of the cell
• The Viral RNA ( vRNA) molecules, core
proteins and RNA dependent. RNA polymerase
are released into cytoplasm.
•Core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is
transported into the cell nucleus, where RNA-
dependent RNA polymerase begins transcribing
complementary positive sense vRNA.

• vRNA is either exported/translated
or remains in the nucleus
•Newly synthesize viral proteins are
secreted through Golgi Apparatus
onto cell surface or transported back
into the nucleus
•Some vRNA and core proteins leave
the nucleus
•And it finally buds off from the cell.
Types of flu
   Seasonal Flu: Flu outbreaks that occur yearly.

   Pandemic Flu: Particular virulent strains of flu
    that spread rapidly from person to person.

   Avian(Bird) Flu : Occurs also in wild aquatic
Flu Pandemics
• Occurs when a new influenza A virus is emerged.
• Little or no previous immunity.
• Symptoms more severe.
• Rapid World wide spread.
• Medical Supplies are inadequate.
• Economic and social disruption.
•   Vaccination is the best protection against contracting
    the flu.
•   Some of the vaccines for flu are
•    Seasonal flu vaccines-It is of types : Injection (killed
    virus) and nasal spray vaccines(live but weakened
•   Fluzone high-dose seasonal flu vaccine
•   Pneumococcal vaccination.
Necessity to update Influenza
•   Human influenza is a complex pathogen.
•   There are two major patterns of change in the flu
   Antigenic Shift: Result of new influenza A subtype
    entering the human population from birds.
   Antigenic Drift: Result of changes in existing human
    influenza viruses.
Blasting flu viruses
•   Blast(Basic Local alignment Search tool)is a powerful
    web-based tool for sequence alignment.
•   It compares DNA sequences that encode viral surface
    proteins in fragments of DNA of the viral strains.
•   Strong match between DNA sequences encoding the
    surface antigens in the vaccine virus and the
    corresponding ones in the wild virus results in good
    protection against that virus.
Bioinformatics Research
•   Reverse Genetics: It
    allows scientists to
    manipulate genomes of
    influenza viruses and to
    transfer genes between
    viral strains.
•   Cell Culture : It is a
    process by which cells
    are grown under
    controlled conditions.
Prediction of Flu outbreak
   Phylogenetic tools are used for performing
    multiple sequence alignments of amino acid
    sequences .
   We analyze the current, real-time influenza
    sequence data to both phylogenetic and
    epidemiological data realistically assess the
    current and future threat of an influenza
    pandemic in humans.
   If needed, you many specify what additional data
    you need to predict when and where bird flu
    might enter the human population, and how best
    to contain a possible pandemic.
Prevention & Treatment
  Get Vaccinated.
Vaccination is the best protection against contracting the flu.
Everyone 6 months of age and older should get vaccinated
against the flu as soon as the 2010-2011 season vaccine is
available in your area.
 If you do contract the flu, talk to your doctor about
Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an
inhaler) that can be used for prevention or treatment of flu
viruses. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness
milder and make you feel better faster
When is the right time to get a flu
   When you see the vaccine in your community, when it becomes
    available to you, that is when you should get your flu shot!
    Ideally vaccination occurs before the flu begins to circulate.

Influenza Genome Project
Research Goals
   The project is making all sequence data publicly available
    through GenBank, an international, NIH-funded,
    searchable online database. This research model is
    hoped to provide international researchers with the
    information needed to develop new vaccines, therapies
    and diagnostics, as well as improve understanding of the
    overall molecular evolution of Influenza and other genetic
    factors that determine their virulence. Such knowledge
    could not only help mitigate the impact of annual influenza
    epidemics, but could also improve scientific knowledge of
    the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses.
   The project began prospective studies of the 2007
    influenza season with collaborators Florence Bourgeois
    and Kenneth Mandl of Children's Hospital Boston and the
    Harvard School of Public Health and Laurel Edelman of
    Surveillance Data Inc
   NIAID conducts and supports a wide-range of
    ongoing influenza research to find better ways to
    prevent, diagnose, and treat seasonal and
    pandemic influenza, including H1N1 flu
   In addition, scientists in NIAID laboratories and
    NIAID-funded researchers worldwide are working
    intensely on other new research to prepare for
    seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks.
    Recent scientific findings from this research include:
    Study Yields Hybrid Flu Strains That Cause Severe
   Combination Drugs a Potential Treatment for
   Researchers Find Immune System of Healthy Adults
    May Be Better Prepared Than Expected to Fight
    2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus
   Researchers Find 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus
    Spreads Rapidly But Generally Causes Mild Illness
    in Ferrets
   Researchers Examine 2009 H1N1 Influenza
    Protection, Severity and Treatment
   NIAID Funded Researchers Find H1N1 Influenza
    Was Transmitted to Humans Several Months Before
    Recognition of the Outbreak
   TipDCs—The Necessary Evil of Lethal Influenza
    Virus Infection
   Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a
    cause of death in pandemic influenza: Implications
    for pandemic influenza preparedness
Influenza treatment
 Treatments for influenza include a range of medications
  and therapies that are used in response to disease
  influenza. Treatments may either directly target the
  influenza virus itself; or instead they may just offer relief to
  symptoms of the disease, while the body's own immune
  system works to recover from infection.
 The two main classes of antiviral drugs used against
  influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors, such as zanamivir
  and oseltamivir, or inhibitors of the viral M2 protein, such as
  amantadine and rimantadine. These drugs can reduce the
  severity of symptoms if taken soon after infection and can
  also be taken to decrease the risk of infection. However,
  viral stains have emerged that show drug resistance to both
  classes of drug.
   Wikipedia
   Applications of bioinformatics and computational
    biology to influenza surveillance and vaccine strain
    By: Derek J. Smith

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