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					Perspectives, Values
    and Issues

Across the Generations
    Implications for
     the Workplace
       Breda Bova, Ph.D.
    University of New Mexico
-----
 Work underlies the very concept of who
 we are—changes in society, technology
    and life expectancy have influenced
         how, where and why we work.
 The workplace is now our most diverse
                   national institution—
        and its diversity will only grow.


                 A Nation at Work, 2003
       Pigeonholing
      If this information is used to
            pigeonhole people,
  it will become a dangerous weapon.

    When we use it to ask ourselves,
   ―How can I be more effective?‖ or
―How can I better understand behavior?‖
       it can be a valuable tool.
      Key Demographics

In 1900 there were 13 million people in
      the U.S. over the age of 45.
  Today there are nearly 100 million.



                       Fastcompany, 2004
          Key Demographics

   Between 2010 and 2020, 70 million Americans
    will retire, while only 40 million will enter the
    workforce.
   By 2020 the key age group of employees (ages
    25 to 44) will shrink by 3%, while those aged
    55 to 64 will grow by 73%, those aged 65 and
    older will grow by 54%.
   The aging workforce is a global issue—by 2050,
    China will have more people over age 65 than
    the rest of the world combined.

                                      2010 Meltdown, 2005
          Key Demographics

   According to estimates released in February
    2005 by the United Nations, the fertility rate in
    the United States is projected to fall below
    ‗replacement‘ level by 2015 to 2020, declining
    to 1.91 children per woman (lower than the
    2.1 children per woman rate needed to replace
    the population).
          Key Demographics

   One in three American workers are chronically
    overworked, with job-related stress varying significantly
    by age, employment situation, and demands at home.
   70 percent of employees say that family is their most
    important priority. (Ranstad North America survey,
    2002). This compares to 54% in 2000.
   In 70 percent of American families, all parents are
    already working—the reverse of 1960 when 70 percent
    of all families had at least one parent at home full-time.
   More than 1/3 of employees (36%) do not plan to use
    their full vacations.



                    Source: Families and Work Institute, 2005
          Key Demographics

   More than 20% of households indicate
    they are responsible for some or all of
    the care of elderly relatives.
   The number of professional women
    working part time—by choice—has
    risen 17 percent from 1994, to 2.9
    million according to the U.S. Bureau of
    Labor Statistics.
                               Bailyn, 2001
CIVIC ENGAGEMENT TRENDS

   Turnout among 18-29 year old voters increased by
    more than 2 million in the 2006 elections compared
    to 2002.

   Volunteerism by college students increased by 20%
    from 2002 to 2005.

   There is a large and growing civic divide between
    those with a college education and those without
    one.

       National Conference on Citizenship, September 2006
               Educational Trends

   In the United States today, according to the U.S. Department of
    Education, we have over 90 million people whose literacy and
    numeracy skills are below the tenth-grade level.
   There is a tendency to equate convenience with quality in
    education.
   Recent research from the Center for Academic Integrity shows that
    70% of post-secondary students admit to cheating on tests, and
    84% admit to cheating on term papers.
   By 2016 women, are projected to earn 60% of bachelor‘s, 63% of
    master‘s and 54% of doctorate and professional degrees.
   Forty percent of students reported that the television was their
    primary source of obtaining news while 34 percent reported that
    websites were their primary source (newspapers were the primary
    source for 11 percent and radio for 8 percent).
   90% of the fastest growing jobs require post-secondary education.

                                Strategic Planning Trends, December 2003
              Educational Trends

   Half of what students learn in their freshman year about the
    cutting edge of science and technology is obsolete, revised or
    taken for granted by their senior year.
   All signs indicate that corporate involvement in public schools
    will continue to increase over the next decade.
   In 2003 there were more women enrolled in Higher Education
    than men.
   Today‘s college grads have spent less than 5,000 hours of
    their lives reading but over 10,000 hours playing video games
    and over 20,000 hours watching TV.
   Grade inflation.
   Expectations Gap.


                                   From The Futurist, 2003
A Generation Defined

―Generation‖ is defined as a group
   of people who share the same
   formative experiences. These
 experiences bind people that are
   born in continuous years into
 ―cohorts‖--a group of individuals
 that have a demographic statistic
            in common.
   Birth Year

      Most frequently,
demographers use birth year
 as that common statistic.
 Generations Are Shaped
  by Formative Events


To a great extent, the personality of a
generation is formed by the seminal
events that take place from the early to
middle years of its members.
     Generational Traits,
Characteristics and Values Are
   Not Universally Shared
Not every member of a particular
generation will share everything in
common with other members of
that generation.
 The Generation Gap

The Generation Gap is most
apparent in the workplace. Other
than the family, it is the place
where we interact with our
generations.
     The Challenge May Come
     from Interactions with

   Your supervisor
   Instructor of students
   An employee
   Co-worker
   Client or even a vendor
          As with other diversity issues such as
             age, gender, ethnicity and race,
     examining and understanding generations has
           become an increasingly important part
       of maximizing organizational effectiveness.
       A Few Specific Differences
     Between Generations Include:


   Communication styles and expectations
   Work styles
   Attitudes about work/life balance
   Comfort with technology
   Views regarding loyalty and authority
   Acceptance of change
      The Four Generations
    The Four Generations that remain in
         the workplace today are:
   The Silent Generation (1925-1942)
    Approximately 63 million
   The Boom Generation (1943-1961)
    Approximately 77 million
   Generation X (1962-1981) Approximately 44
    million
   Generation Y (1982-1998) Approximately 70
    million
   Generation Z (2001-Present)
                      Generations
             Silent      Baby Boomer    Gen X      Gen Y
Outlook      Practical    __________   ________    ______

Work Ethic   ________       Driven     ________    ______

View of       ________ __________      Unimpressed ______
Authority
Leadership    ________ Pay your dues   ________    ______
by
Relationships ________ __________      Reluctant to ______
                                         commit
Work/Life
Balance
                           Generations
                  Silent       Baby Boomer Gen X                 Gen Y

  Outlook         Practical        Optimistic      Skeptical         Cautious

  Work Ethic      Dedicated        Driven          Free Agent        ?

   View of
  Authority       Respectful       Pay your dues   Competence        ?

Communications Formal              In Person       E-Mail or         Text/
               Memo                                Voicemail         Skype/ IM
  Relationships                                    Reluctance to
                                 Personal
                                                   commit
                  Self-sacrifice gratification                       Inclusive
                                   Responsible                       Flexibility
Work/Life Balance
                                   balancing for   Want it now       and options
                  “Don’t get it”
                                   everyone else
Approach to Change
           Silents
 Ready-Ready-Ready-Aim-Fire!
           Boomers
       Ready-Aim-Fire!

             Xers
       Ready-Fire-Aim!
 (Learn – Experiment – Adapt)
              Ys
    Fire-Fire-Fire-Aim-Fire!
        Silent Generation
               aka

   Veteran Generation
   WWII Generation
   Seniors
   Geezers
   Radio Babies
         Seminal Events


   World War II
   The Great Depression
   The New Deal
   Korean War
   Rise of Labor Unions
    Characteristics of Silents

   Postpone Gratification
   Risk Aversive
   Loyal
       Family
       Country
       Job
   Respectful Communication
   Adherence to Rules
         Paying Your Dues

   They were prepared to endure
    situations or master a body of
    knowledge.
   They were willing to demonstrate
    respect for those who came before
    them.
   Age and experience counted.
    Baby Boomer Update
   30% of the Baby Boomer generation are
    grandparents.
   28% who are grandparents have divorced,
    remarried and have second or third sets of
    children. In some cases our children are
    playing with our grandchildren.
   Baby boomers are on the brink of retiring in
    droves leaving behind the largest labor
    shortage in history.
   80% indicate they plan to work past age 65.
   Will control the workplace until about 2015
              Baby Boomer
             Characteristics
   Largest Generation: 77 Million
   Optimistic
   Redefined Roles
   Management by Buzz Word
   Skewed Work/Life Balance
   Brought Up in a Competitive Environment
   Will Revolutionize Retirement
   ―Work Ethic‖ and ―Worth Ethic‖ Are
    Synonymous
       The Baby Boomers

Seminal Events
1954 McCarthy HCUAA hearings begin

1955 Salk Vaccine tested on the public and Rosa
     Parks refuses to move to the back of the
     bus in Montgomery, AL
1957 First nuclear Power Plant and Congress
     passes the Civil Rights Act
1958 National Defense Education Act

1960 Birth control pills introduced and John
     Kennedy elected
        The Baby Boomers

1961   Kennedy establishes Peace Corps
1962   Cuban Missile Crisis and John Glenn circles
       the earth
1963   Martin Luther King leads march on
       Washington, D.C. and President John
       Kennedy assassinated
1965   United States sends ground combat troops
       to Vietnam
1965   Higher Education Act
1965   National Organization for Women founded
       The Baby Boomers
         (continued):

1966 Cultural Revolution in China
1967 American Indian Movement founded

1968 Martin Luther King and Robert F.
     Kennedy Assassinated
1969 First Lunar landing and Woodstock

1970 Kent State University shootings
  What the Other Generations
    Think About the Baby
           Boomers

Silents say…
 “They talk about things they ought to

  keep private… like the intimate details
  of their personal lives.”
 “They are self-absorbed.”
     What the Other Generations
       Think About the Baby
              Boomers

Gen Xers say…
   “They’re clueless about the         “They do a great job of
    future.”                             talking the talk. But they
   “They’re workaholics.”               don’t walk the walk.”
   “They’re too political, always      “Lighten up; it’s only a job.”
    trying to figure out just what      “What’s the management fad
    to say…to whom…and                   this week?”
    when.”                              “Can’t make a decision
   “Get outta my face.”                 without forming a
                                         committee.”
    What the Other Generations
      Think About the Baby
             Boomers


Gen Y say…
   “They’re cool. They’re up to date on
    the music we like.”
   “They work too much.”
    Managing Baby Boomers

   Recognize their experience as a
    valuable asset
   Use them as mentors
   Recognize role overload and conflicting
    demands
   Assist with time demands
   Recognize Technology Challenges
 GENERATION X

   ―Twentysomethings‖
      ―Baby Busters‖
―The Thirteenth Generation‖
               Gen X Update
   Generation X is moving into its peak family
    raising years.
   Census data shows an increase in stay-at-
    home Gen X moms. The increase is most
    pronounced among college graduates. Many
    indicate they are looking for a less ―frazzled‖
    lifestyle.
   40% indicate they have too much debt to
    consider saving.
   Thirty percent have college degrees.
         Gen X Seminal Events

   1971 Intel‘s first chip developed
   1972 First e-mail management program
   1975 Personal computer introduced on the
    consumer market
   1981 Centers for Disease Control‘s first
    published report on AIDS
   1981 Reagan assassination attempt
   1984 Extensive corporate downsizing begins
   1986 Challenger explosion
      Generation X Characteristics

   Dedicated to people, projects, ideas and tasks, not
    to longevity and lifetime employment
   They are parallel thinkers
   They are independent and resourceful
   They are accepting of change
   They ―Want it now!‖
   They are comfortable with diversity
   They have expectations of balanced lifestyles
   They view mentoring as a right not a privilege
   They have a free agent approach to careers
    What Xers Want in the
         Workplace

   They want flexibility
   They want to be developed
   They want to be engaged
   They want affiliation
   They want us to ―lighten up‖
   They want to be appreciated
   They want balance
         Managing Gen Xers

   Frequent Feedback
   Limit the Bureaucracy
   Give them plenty of ―elbow room‖
   Understand your overall employee
    motivation package
   Give them work they can ―juggle‖
  GENERATION Y
      Also known as:
      ―Net Generation‖
       ―Echo Boomers‖
    ―Digital Generation‖
     ―Generation Next‖
     ―.com Generation‖
―Point and Click Generation‖
     Generation Stress‖
      ―Digital Natives‖
             Gen Y Update:

   72 million, second in size to the Baby Boom
    Generation.
   90% say they are close to their parents.
   Most ethnically diverse group in U.S. history.
   78% believe spirituality is important.
   Nature Deficit Disorder.
   More conservative than their parents.
   Kiddie Migraines.
   Many have been raised by ―Helicopter‖ parents.
   They‘ve been over parented, overindulged and
    overprotected.
                      U.S. News and World Report, November 2003
       GENERATION Y
    CORE VALUES INCLUDE:


   Optimism
   Volunteerism; i.e., 700 chapters of
    Habitat for Humanity in high
    schools
   Inclusiveness
   Collective Action
   Speed
    The oldest Millennials were
      born in 1980, the year:

John Lennon is assassinated by Mark David
Chapman.
The U.S. Supreme Court allows patents on living

organisms.
Mount Saint Helens erupts, killing 60 people.

CNN is launched as the first all news network.

Japan passes the U.S. as the largest automaker.

Bill Gates licenses MS-DOS to IBM, makes next to
nothing on the deal.
          Mindlist to assist managers in
          thinking about what their new
          employees have experienced and
          what they have never experienced:
   The Kennedy tragedy was a plane crash, not an assassination.
   A ―45‖ is a gun, not a record with a large hole in the center.
   They have no clue what the Beach Boys were talking about
    when they sang about a 409, and the Little Deuce Coupe.
   They have probably never lost anything in shag carpeting.
   M*A*S*H and The Muppet Show have always been in reruns.
   There have always been automated teller machines.
   Watergate is as relevant to their lives as the Teapot Dome
    scandal.
    Mindlist to assist managers in
    thinking about what their new
    employees have experienced and
    what they have never experienced
    (continued):
   There has always been a national holiday honoring Martin
    Luther King, Jr.
   Bear Bryant has never coached at Alabama.
   Elton John has only been heard on easy-listening stations.
   Most have never seen a black and white T.V.
   They have never used a bottle of White Out.
   ―Google‖ has always been a verb.
   They grew up in mini-vans and have no clue as to what a
    station wagon is.
    Generation Y Characteristics

   Using computers since Pre-Kindergarten
   E-Learners
   In a state of continuous partial attention
   Used to instant communication
   Accustom to giving feedback
   Many are into ―Extreme Sports‖
   Expect frequent and/or constant feedback
   Optimistic
   Speed is valued more than attention to nagging
    detail
   Oriented toward collective action
    Career Development Trends

   Young adults entering the workforce will
    change jobs approximately every 2-4
    years.
   More people will be free agents.
   A hop-scotch approach will replace linear
    career pathing.
   In the future, employees will look to work
    for 8-10 years, then take time off, like a
    sabbatical.
Career Development Trends

   Flexible Employment Will Gain
    Popularity
       As more people work flexible hours, work
        from home and use technology to work for
        employers in distant locations, the
        traditional workday and workweek will
        further erode.
       Part of this movement will be driven by
        parents who want to spend more time with
        their children.
Career Development Trends

  We see the apparent downtrend in
career ambition as the real revolution,
   where very sizeable numbers of
  women and men are working hard,
    but not wanting the trade-offs
      they would have to make
        by advancing into jobs
       with more responsibility.
        Building Bridges Across
              Generations

   Wishing people were more like you is
    not a strategy.
   Respect Work Life Balance
   Building communities
   Discuss definitions of ‗professionalism‘
   Leverage Connections in the workplace
   Professional development of managers
   Conduct a demographic audit of the
    workplace
QUESTIONS

				
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