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					Chapter 13

1.  Muscles may shorten or lengthen in the absence of a contraction through passive movement caused by other
    contracting muscles.
Ans:    True

2. Concentric muscle actions are the shortening contraction of muscles against gravity or a resistance.
Ans:  True

3.  Eccentric actions occur when muscles lengthen under tension to control the joints moving with gravity or a
    resistance.
Ans:     True

4.  The quadriceps muscle group functions as a decelerator to knee joint flexion in weight-bearing movements by
    contracting concentrically to prevent too rapid of a downward movement.
Ans:    False

5.  Compared to an untrained person, a well-trained person will see relatively minor improvements in the amount
    of weight that can be lifted over the same period of time.
Ans:    True

6. The “SAID Principle” is applicable in every form of muscle training as well as to the systems of body.
Ans:   True

7.  The “SAID Principle” indicates that strength gains beyond the range of motion utilized in the training are
    usually minimal.
Ans:    True

8.  Muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility are general body characteristics that are not specific to
    each body area and muscle group.
Ans:    False

9. The specific needs of each individual must be specifically addressed when designing an exercise program.
Ans:   True

10. It is not necessary to analyze each individual's exercise and skill technique in order to specifically design an
    exercise program to meet his/her needs.
Ans:      False

11. An individual will develop adequate muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility through participation in sport
    activities.
Ans:     False

12. Many types of back pain and other physical ailments can be avoided through proper maintenance of the
    musculoskeletal system.
Ans:   True

13. When using free weights for strength training it is important to ensure that one group of muscles is not
    overdeveloped and another is underdeveloped.
Ans:    True

14. The “alternating prone extension” exercise can be broken down to two separate phases.
Ans:    True

15. When performing a “squat” exercise the hip is extended during the lowering phase.
Ans:   False
16. A “dead lift” exercise is divided into two phases.
Ans:    True

17. The rowing exercise is a closed kinetic chain exercise.
Ans:    True

18. During the arm pull/leg push phase of rowing exercise the knee joint performs flexion.
Ans:    False

19. During the arm pull/leg push phase of rowing exercise the shoulder joint performs extension.
Ans:    True

20. During the return phase of rowing exercise the hip joint performs flexion.
Ans:    True

21. During the return phase of rowing exercise the wrist and hand joints perform extension.
Ans:    False

22. The dead lift is a closed kinetic chain exercise.
Ans:    False

23. The abdominal curl-up does not strengthen the internal and external oblique abdominals unless trunk rotation is
    included.
Ans:     False

24. The gastrocnemius and soleus are strengthened in the lowering phase of the squat due to their eccentric
    contractions.
Ans:    True

25. The abdominal curl-up strengthens the hip flexors.
Ans:    True

26. Which of the following is not considered very important in skillful performance of physical activity and body
    maintenance from a kinesiological perspective?
a. strength
b. endurance
c. flexibility
d. power
Ans:    d

27. Which of the following statements is true regarding the action of the quadriceps muscle group during squatting?
a. when the descent is at the same speed as gravity no muscular control is exerted
b. when the descent is at the same speed as gravity the muscle lengthening is eccentric
c. both of the above choices are correct
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans:   a

28. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the “bent knee sit-up” exercise?
a. the participant lies on back with forearms crossed and lying across chest
b. the strength of the erector spinae muscles are benefited significantly through this exercise
c. hips and knees are flexed in this manner to reduce hip flexor length
d. participant curls up to a sitting position, rotates trunk to right, touches left elbow to right knee
Ans:    b

29. Which of the following is not a phase of “sit-up” exercise?
a. starting phase
b. curling phase
c. rotating phase
d. return phase
Ans:    a

30. Which of the following is not an agonist muscle of shoulder flexion when performing “alternating prone
    extension” exercise?
a. deltoid
b. triceps brachii
c. coracobrachialis
d. biceps brachii
Ans:    b

31. Which of the following is not an agonist muscle of hip extension when performing “alternating prone
    extension” exercise?
a. gluteus maximus
b. semitendinosus
c. biceps femoris
d. vastus medialis
Ans:    d

32. Which of the following is not an agonist muscle of trunk extension when performing “alternating prone
    extension” exercise?
a. gluteus maximus
b. erector spinae
c. splenius
d. quadratus lumborum
Ans:    a

33. Which of the following muscles does not perform hip extension during the lifting phase of a “squat” exercise?
a. gluteus maximus
b. semimembranosus
c. rectus femoris
d. biceps femoris
Ans:    c

34. During the lifting phase of a “dead lift” exercise the agonist muscles of the wrist and hand include all of the
    following except?
a. flexor carpi radialis
b. palmaris longus
c. flexor digitorum profundus
d. quadratus lumborum
Ans:     d

35. During the lifting phase of a “dead lift” exercise the agonist muscles of the hip include all of the following
    except?
a. vastus medialis
b. gluteus maximus
c. semimembranosus
d. biceps femoris
Ans:    a

36. During the lowering phase of a “dead lift” exercise the agonist muscles of the knee include all of the following
    except?
a. rectus femoris
b. vastus medialis
c. semimembranosus
d. vastus intermedius
Ans:   c

37. Which of the following muscles is not activated during an isometric abdominal exercise?
a. serratus anterior
b. rectus abdominis
c. external oblique
d. transverse abdominis
Ans:    a

38. Which of the following muscles is not activated during the hip flexion portion of an isometric “leg lifter”
    exercise?
a. iliopsoas
b. rectus femoris
c. pectineus
d. gluteus maximus
Ans:    d

39. Which of the following muscles actions is performed during the lowering phase of “hip sled” exercise?
a. plantar flexion
b. dorisflexion
c. extension
d. abduction
Ans:   b

40. Which of the following muscles actions is performed during the pushing phase of “hip sled” exercise?
a. extension
b. dorisflexion
c. rotation
d. abduction
Ans:    a

41. Which of the following actions is performed during the arm pull/leg push phase of rowing exercise?
a. dorsiflexion
b. abduction
c. extension
d. upward rotation
Ans:   c

42. Which of the following actions is performed during the return phase of rowing exercise?
a. flexion
b. adduction
c. depression
d. downward rotation
Ans:    a

43. All of the following are open chain exercises except for _____.
a. abdominal curl-up.
b. alternating prone extension
c. sit-up
d. squat
Ans:     d

44. The alternating prone extension strengthens the trunk extensors through ____.
a. concentric contractions during the lifting phase
b. concentric contractions during the lowering phase
c. eccentric contractions during the lifting phase
d. isometric contractions during the lifting phase
Ans:   a

45. The squat and dead lift are similar in that they both strengthen the ____.
a. knee flexors
b. hip extensors
c. hip flexors
d. trunk extensors
Ans:    b

46. The dead lift strengthens the knee extensors through ____.
a. concentric contractions during the lowering phase
b. eccentric contractions during the lifting phase
c. eccentric contractions during the lowering phase
d. isometric contractions during the lifting phase
Ans:    c

47. The abdominal curl-up strengthens the abdominal muscles through ____.
a. concentric contractions during the return to starting phase
b. eccentric contractions during the curl-up phase
c. eccentric contractions during the return to starting phase
d. isometric contractions during the curl-up phase
Ans:    c

48. In the alternating prone extension exercise the hip extensors contract ________.
a. concentrically during the lifting phase
b. concentrically during the lowering phase
c. eccentrically during the lifting phase
d. isometrically during the lifting phase
Ans:     a

49. During the squat the hip flexors are strengthened by ______.
a. concentric contractions during the lowering phase
b. eccentric contractions during the lifting phase
c. eccentric contractions during the lowering phase
d. none of the above
Ans:    d

50. Which of the following muscles is not strengthened to any substantial degree by abdominal curl-ups without
    rotation to the right and left?
a. erector spinae
b. internal and external abdominal obliques
c. rectus abdominis
d. sternocleidomastoids
Ans:     a

				
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Description: Body stand up straight, feet shoulder width apart, hands each holding a water bottle filled with water, hanging on the side of the trunk. Lift the arm to the front, until the big arm and upper body into a 45 � angle until palm relative. Slowly lower the body center of gravity, legs bent, until the kettle is located below the knee, while the upper body straight, do not bow to the forehead, knees, toes in a straight line.