Managers Meeting December

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Managers Meeting December Powered By Docstoc
					Minimum Energy Performance
  Standards and Mandatory
 Efficiency Requirements for
        Electric Motors.
                           Frank Cerra
    Australian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association
                  Chair of – Rotating Machines Forum
           Engineering Manager, SEW-Eurodrive, Australia




 SIRF – Electrical Maintenance & Safety National Forum
                    September 2007
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Australia actively regulates energy efficiency
► Adopts world’s best practice in efficiency
  standards and regulation
► Is committed to the reduction in emissions of
  greenhouse gasses
► Is committed to improving the energy
  efficiency of electrical equipment
  ►   through Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) programs
  ►   minimum energy efficiency levels of domestic and industrial products
      are regulated

► Has mandatory Minimum Energy Performance
  Standards for three phase electric motors
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Why Motors ?
►Easy to identify and regulate for efficiency
►2-5% improvement potential per motor
►Small % increment, but many motors
►Motor driven applications comprise 48% of total
 industrial energy use & 25% of total commercial
 energy use*
        ►*Regulatory Impact Statement for Minimum Energy Performance
         Standards for Electric Motors. Prepared by Syneca Consulting.
         Published December 2003.
         http://www.energyrating.gov.au/library/pubs/200311-rismotors.pdf




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MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards)
 ►Is regulated through State Government laws
  and regulations
 ►Motors that fall below efficiency levels
  documented in the Australian Standard
  AS1359.5 are excluded from the market
 ►Is mandatory for suppliers
 ►Motors must be registered
     www.energyrating.gov.au
 ►Compliance by regulators and Australian
  Greenhouse Office with random check testing of
  motors at NATA accredited labs


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MEPS1
►Came into effect October 2001
►MEPS1 minimum levels match European EFF2
 efficiency levels for 2 and 4 pole motors
►High Efficiency levels match European EFF1 for 2
 and 4 pole motors
►But MEPS1 extended further to also cover 6 and 8
 pole motors
►Covered the power range 0.73 up to 185kW


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The effect of MEPS1 on motor industry and motor usage

►MEPS 1 was a successful and straight forward
 program for industry
►Motors were already available that met the
 minimum (EFF2) levels
   ► Australia is a net importer of motors
   ► As a result of Eurpoean CEMEP & US EPACT – suppliers already
     had motor designs available to the market
►Benchmarking shows the success of the program
   ► a study of motor efficiency levels in 5 Asian economies in 2005
     *Peter du Pont, Jesper Vauvert, Benchmarking of Electric Motor Efficiency Levels in Five Asian Economies.
     Conference Proceedings EEMODS 2005

   ► this study concluded Australia had the highest average motor
     efficiency of the 5 economies

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MEPS1  MEPS2
►Success of MEPS1 drove a rapid move to MEPS2
►Regulatory Impact Statement commissioned in
 2003 to identify the next MEPS stage
►AS1359.5 was updated in 2004
►MEPS2 came into effect in April 2006
►MEPS2 was again based on world best practice+
►The ambitious targets of MEPS2 required more
 involvement of motor manufacturers for the
 success of the program

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MEPS2 - Risk Impact Statement 2003 identified

►Motors account for 48.75% of industrial energy
 use & 25% commercial energy use
►Greenhouse emissions attributable to energy
 used by electric motors – 9.4% to 14%
►MEPS2 would reduce greenhouse emissions by
 8900 GWH and 7.7MTon CO2
►Motor losses would need to be reduced 10% to
 20% to achieve the above
►70% of motors on the market at that time would
 not meet the proposed MEPS2 levels and would
 be excluded from the market
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The changes introduced by MEPS2 into AS1359.5:2004



                                       ► EFF2 dropped
                                         from April 2006


                                       ► EFF1 became
                                         MEPS from April
                                         2006


                                       ► A new High
                                         Efficiency level
                                         was defined
                                         based on 15%
                                         additional
                                         reduction of
                                         losses.




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MEPS 2 – What does it mean ?
►Motors imported into Australia
  ►after 1 April 2006
  ►must meet new Minimum Energy Performance
   Standards
  ►to the levels set out in Australian Standard
   AS1359.5:2004
     ►Tables A2 & B2, A3 & B3


►This affects
  ►2, 4, 6 and 8 pole motors
  ►in the power range 0.75 to 185kW
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Standards and legislative requirements




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Standards and legislative requirements




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Australian Standard AS/NZS1359.5:2004
► Applies to three phase
  cage induction motors in
  2, 4, 6 and 8 pole design
► In the power range 0.75
  up to 185kW
► Stipulates minimum motor
  efficiency levels to two
  internationally recognized
  test methods
► Identifies changeover
  dates
► Current MEPS
  = Tables A2 or B2
► “Premium/High” Efficiency
  = Tables A3 or B3
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Why Two Efficiency Test Methods ?
►Both internationally recognised and used
►Test Method A (AS1359.102.3)
   ►involves direct measurement of stray load losses
      ►Based on IEEE112B & IEC61972 – “US method”
      ►is equivalent to the “new” IEC60034-2-1
      ►is more accurate and is expected to be adopted as preferred
       method in future


► Test Method B (AS1359.102.1)

   ►assumes a fixed 0.5% for stray load losses
      ►Based on the old IEC34-2 – “Old European method”


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Two Test Methods
►Efficiency % in the test methods are different!

  ►The test methods treat stray load losses differently.
  ►eg. 4kW, same motor tested under different methods:
     ►Method A MEPS2006 = 87.0%
     ►Method B MEPS2006 = 88.3%


►At the next revision of the AS1359.5 standard it is
 likely that Method A, which is technically
 equivalent to IEC60034-2-1, will be the preferred
 test method


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Effect of Efficiency Improvement on Motor
           Design and Selection




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What makes up efficiency losses?

                             Bearings
  Friction losses            Fan

                             Pulsation losses in teeth and yoke
  Additional losses          Surface losses in stator an rotor
                             Losses due to transverse currents between rotor-bars
                             Losses in stator winding due to currents of non line frequency
                             Losses in stator winding due to eddy currents
                             Losses in end areas of winding
                             ...

                             Alternating magnetization of core sheets
  Iron losses                Eddy current losses

  I²R losses in rotor-cage


  I²R losses in stator winding



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Efficiency improvement by Motor loss reduction
Stator slot                           Increase in active
design, more                          material, slot design
copper in stator                      optimization,
slots and                             improved quality of
winding                               lamination steels
geometry                              and thinner
changes to                            laminations to
reduce stator                         reduce iron losses
resistance
losses




Increase in size of
conductor bars,
slot design and                           Improved fan
end rings,                                design, sealing
possible use of                           and low friction
copper instead of                         bearings to
aluminium to                              reduce friction
reduce rotor                              losses
resistance losses
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Losses in induction motors




         Relative Distribution of Losses in Asynchronous Motors

 Note: small motors have higher I2R stator losses
          loss reduction means more slot area  larger motors
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What happens to the motor ?
►Efficiency 
►Increase in active material = size increase
   1.5 kW                     1.5 kW                1.5 kW
    DRS           +η          DRE
                                           +η       DRP


►Torque/speed characteristic curves become flatter
 and flatter from standard to premium, with less
 pronounced pull-up and pull-out torques.
    M                     M                   M


                   • MN
            DRS                DRE     • MN       DRP
                                                        • MN
                   n                   n                 n
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What happens to the motor ?
►Starting to Nominal Current ratio 
►Starting torque 
►Slip at rated power , Rated Speed 
►Power factor 
►Thermal utilization 
►Rotor Inertia 
►Weight 
►Price 
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High and Premium Efficiency Motors
          Frame                   Rotor
            Size       Model    Material    DRE           DRP
                                           50 Hz         50 Hz
                                              eff1   Aus-Prem.
                                            [kW]          [kW]
              71      DR.71S4       Alu      0.37
                      DR.71M4       Alu      0.55
              80      DR.80S4       Alu
                      DR.80M4       Alu      0.75
              90      DR.90M4       Alu       1.1         0.75
                      DR.90L4       Alu       1.5          1.1
             100     DR.100M4       Alu       2.2          1.5
                     DR.100L4       Alu                    2.2
                    DR.100LC4    Copper         3
          112/132    DR.112M4       Alu         3
                     DR.132S4       Alu         4            3
                     DR.132M4       Alu       5.5            4
                    DR.132MC4    Copper       7.5          5.5
             160     DR.160S4       Alu       7.5          5.5
                     DR.160M4       Alu       9.2
                    DR.160MC4    Copper        11           7.5
             180     DR.180S4       Alu        11           7.5
                     DR.180M4       Alu        15            11
                     DR.180L4       Alu      18.5            15
                    DR.180LC4    Copper        22     18.5 / 22
          200/225    DR.200L4       Alu        22     18.5 / 22
                     DR.225S4       Alu        30            30
                     DR.225M4       Alu        37            37

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Application Considerations
           and
    Total Drive System
        Efficiency



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Lifecycle cost of motor
► Over a motor lifecycle the                                       100%




                                                                                   %
                                                                                 96
  costs of running the motor                                        90%
  can far exceed the initial                                        80%
  purchase costs especially in                                      70%
  applications where the motor                                      60%
  is running continuously                                           50%

► When buying a motor                                               40%

  consider                                                          30%

                                                                    20%
   ► Application                                  10%




                                                                                                %
   ► Operating time and duty cycle




                                                                                              %
                                                                                             50
                                                                                         50
                                                                                           2.
                                                   0%




                                                                                       1.
   ► Efficiency                                           Typical motor
   ► Motor size                                               life cycle
   ► Transmission losses                                          costs
   ► Rewind/Repair                      Energy       Maintenance Purchase Cost
   ► Variable speed Operation Source: EUP Lot 11 Motors, Report No. 3, Analysis of existing technical and market
                                                 information, ISR- University of Coimbra, Aníbal T. de Almeida et al, April 2007
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Average Induction Motor Life (including repairs)


                                              Average life –
                    Power range
                                                 years

                     1.0 – 7.5 kW                      12

                     7.5 – 75 kW                       15

                     75 – 250 kW                       20

Source: EUP Lot 11 Motors, Report No. 3, Analysis of existing technical and market
information, ISR- University of Coimbra, Aníbal T. de Almeida et al, April 2007


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Motor Application
► “Highest” efficiency motors are “most” suited
  where
   ►Many hours of operation daily
   ►Majority of operation at high load (75% +)
   ►Few start/stop and braking operations
   ►Combination with transmission elements that also have
    a high degree of efficiency
►Applications where “Highest” efficiency motors are
 “less” suited due to their higher cost, rotor inertia,
 weight,…
   ►Low utilization applications
   ►Start - stop (S3 duty) applications
   ►Applications with weight and/or space restrictions
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The drive train – effect on system efficiency




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Look at the whole drive train !!!
      Worm Gear unit (75%)

                             Overall drive efficiency = 60.8%
                             Power delivered to conveyor headdrum = 9.1kW
                             Power drawn from mains at motor rated load = 16.5kW
                             Energy used based on 16h/day, 250days/yr = 66000kWh
                             Cost of energy based on $0.10/kwh = $ 6600 per year




                             Overall drive efficiency = 88%
                             Power delivered to conveyor headdrum = 9.1kW
                             Power drawn from mains = 10.3kW
                             Energy used based on 16h/day, 250days/yr = 41200kWh
                             Cost of energy based on $0.10/kwh = $ 4120 per year




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Look at the “system”




Source: Motor Challenge - Energy Efficient Motor Driven Systems, European Copper Institute, April 2004
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Efficiency Gains / Energy Cost Reduction-
►Take the whole system approach.


   It can result in
     much higher
      efficiency gains
        and
          cost savings




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Future Directions in Motor Efficiency




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Future Directions – International Standards
►IEC 60034-2-1 Ed.1: Rotating electrical machines
 - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining
 losses and efficiency from tests (excluding
 machines for traction vehicles)
   ►Voted on and final draft was accepted July 2007
   ►Harmonizes the motor efficiency test methods to one
    set of methods globally that deliver low uncertainty in
    measurement




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IEC60034-2-1




Low uncertainty
   by direct
 measurement
   of losses




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IEC60034-30 (draft !)
►IEC 60034-30 Ed.1: Rotating electrical machines -
 Part 30: Efficiency classes of single-speed three-
 phase cage induction motors
►Intended to harmonize motor efficiency levels
 globally




►Efficiencies will be based on test methods of
 IEC60034-2-1

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Future Efficiency Classes
IEC60034-30           Europe (50Hz)                US (60Hz)           AU - AS1359.5

                      Comparable to                Comparable with     Comparable with
IE1                   EFF2                         South American      table B1 – MEPS1
                                                   Standards           levels - No longer
Standard Efficiency                                                    allowed
                      Comparable to                Identical to NEMA MEPS2 level
IE2                   EFF1                         Energy Efficiency /
                                                                       Comparable with
                                                   EPACT
                                                                       table A2
High Efficiency
                                                   Identical to NEMA   Comparable with
IE3                                                Premium             table A3
                      Extrapolated from IE2 with   Efficiency
                      10 to 15% lower losses
Premium Efficiency


IE4                   Extrapolated from IE3 with
                      10% lower losses
Super Premium Eff

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IEC60034-30 proposed efficiency classes

                      0.75kW to 370kW




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The Global Move to Higher Efficiency Motors
                                    Efficiency        Testing        Performance
        Efficiency Levels            Classes         Standard         Standard
                                   IEC 60034-30    IEC 60034-2-1      Mandatory
                                                  incl. stray load
                                   Global 2008      losses 2008      Policy goal

        Super Premium efficiency       IE4

        Premium efficiency             IE3                            USA 2011
        High efficiency                IE2                               USA
                                                                       Canada
                                                                        Mexico
                                                                       Australia
                                                                     New Zealand
                                                                      Korea 2008
                                                                      Brazil 2009
                                                                      China 2010
                                                                     Europe 2011?



        Standard                       IE1                              China
                                                                        Brazil
                                                                      Costa Rica
                                                                        Israel
                                                                       Taiwan



                                                                                 Source: seeem.org
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         AEEMA
Rotating Machines Forum




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AEEMA Rotating Machines Forum

► Motor and drives suppliers formed a “representative
  committee” to highlight the “real world” impact of MEPS
► The intention of the forum is to be involved to ensure
  MEPS2 is successful and have a good working
  relationship with the AGO, but also to address issues that
  motor and drive manufacturers, suppliers and users face
► Manufacturers and Suppliers are the principal
  stakeholders that face the motor end users and OEMs
  directly
   ►are best placed to inform motor users, and also provide
    constructive feedback and criticism to the AGO and
    regulators.



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AEEMA RMF & E3 Education Campaign




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Frequently asked questions




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     Thank you

    Further information
 AEEMA - Rotating Machines Forum
      www.aeema.asn.au

       Energy rating website
www.energyrating.gov.au/emmenu.html




 frank.cerra@sew-eurodrive.com.au

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