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APA Style th edition

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APA Style th edition Powered By Docstoc
					APA Style   (6th   edition)

     Dr. David Burkholder
        March 3rd 2010
       Purpose of this Presentation
• The new manual is close to 250 pages in
  length, so tonight is a condensed review of
  important information for students
               Follow Along
• At times during the presentation I will be
  addressing points that are shown on the
  sample paper.
            Generalities
• Typed, double spaced; do not use extra
  spaces between paragraphs; 8.5 X 11 paper
• 1” margins all around
• Times New Roman 12 point font
• Left justified
• Three sections of paper—title page, body,
  references (generally no abstract unless
  otherwise specified by your professor)
• Two spaces after a period at the end of a
  sentence is recommended for ease of reading
  comprehension (p. 88 in manual and APA
  website)
• Use of headings
                    Generalities
• Beginning of each paragraph indented 5 characters (1/2
  inch)
• “Running head” designation in the upper left hand
  corner on title page followed by colon, followed by an
  abbreviated version of your title in ALL CAPS (this is the
  actual running head)
• The running head is to be no more than 50 characters
• On subsequent pages, only the running head in all caps
  appears in the upper left corner, flush left (remove
  “Running head” and colon)
• Numbering—pages are numbered consecutively
  throughout your paper starting with 1 on the title page;
  numbers are in the upper right corner, flush right
• On first page after title page, restate the full title,
  centered, uppercase and lowercase, double spaced
  (NOT bold), at the top of the page
                          Title Page
1. Title: A concise statement of the main topic of your paper
   identifying the variables or theoretical issues under investigation
   (no more than 12 words); centered, uppercase and lowercase
   letters, positioned in the upper half of the page
2. Author’s name: The preferred form is first name, middle
   initial(s), and last name; centered, double-spaced below title
3. Institutional affiliation: Identifies the location where the author
   or authors were when the research was conducted; centered,
   double-spaced below author’s name
4. Running head designation and running head: The running head
   designation is simply “Running head:”; the running head is an
   abbreviated version of your title, no more than 50 characters, in
   all capital letters. Upper left-hand corner of title page, flush left
5. Page Number: Page numbering begins with 1 on the title page;
   upper right hand corner, flush right
               Contents (The Body)
• Aim for smooth, clear and logical communication (having
  someone else read it, putting your manuscript down and
  returning to it later, and reading it aloud can help). Use
  transitional language within and between paragraphs, and
  use verb tense consistently. Past tense for literature review,
  present tense for discussing implications.
• Economy of expression—say only what needs to be said
• It is generally useful to organize your manuscript with
  headings…headings also help to track the development of
  your paper. APA uses five levels of headings.
• Paraphrasing is more desirable than direct quotations
            Contents (The Body)
• Quotations must include reference AND page
  number(s) (from the original source)
• Quotations shorter than 40 words are in text, in
  double quotation marks
• Quotations 40 words or more require a block
  quotation, indented 5 characters from the left margin
• Periods and commas are placed inside quotation
  marks
• Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above. Use
  words to express numerals below 10 and when
  beginning a sentence:
  Forty students improved, three did not improve, and
  25 remained unchanged.
                         In Text Citations
• Do not use footnotes or endnotes
• Follow the author-date method of in-text citation: The author’s last
  name and year of publication should appear in text, and a complete
  reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper
• Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names
• If referring to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words
  that are four letters or longer
• After a colon or dash in the title, capitalize the first word
• Use italics for the titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows,
  and microfilms publications (within text). In general, use italics
  infrequently
• In cases of multiple authors, join the authors’ names with the word
  “and” if you are referring to them in the text; join the authors’ names
  with an ampersand (&) if you are referring to them in a parenthetical
  citation
• Within a paragraph, when the name of the author/authors is part of the
  narrative, the year is not needed if it has already been referenced.
  However, parenthetical references need to include the year.
                          In Text Citations
• One work, one author:
Johnson (2010) found that locus of control…
Student retention at doctoral level institutions (Jones, 2008)…

• One work by two authors: Cite both names every time the reference occurs in
   the text:
Smith and Jones (2008) reported that…
Epidemiological samples were found to be consistent (Packer & Rupert, 2004).

• When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the
   reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first
   author followed by et al. and the year:
Hall, Parker, and Paul (2010) found that…
Hall et al. (2010) found that…

• When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author
  followed by et al. and the year. In the reference list, include all authors.

• Final note: Table 6.1 on page 177 gives many basic citation styles
              In Text Citations
• Two or more works with the same parentheses:
  Order the citations alphabetically in the same
  order they appear in the reference list, separated
  by a semicolon:
Several studies (Smith & Reed, 2003; Walter, 2004)
  showed that…
• Secondary sources: Use secondary sources
  sparingly (e.g. when the original work is out of
  print or not available in English). Give the
  secondary source in the reference list. In text,
  name the original work and give a citation for the
  secondary source:
Murphy’s diary (as cited in Forman, 2002),
  revealed…
               Reference List
• In the back of the paper, on a separate page
  titled References (NOT Works Cited,
  Bibliography), list all the sources cited and
  quoted in the paper
• Make sure you list ALL your sources referred
  to in the body of the paper
• All references listed alphabetically, by first
  author
• Only author’s last name and initials are
  provided (invert all authors’ names)
               Reference List
• The title of a journal article is not capitalized
  (except the first word and any word after a colon)
  or italicized; the full name of the journal IS
  italicized and uppercase/lowercase
• The volume number IS italicized
• The name of a book is italicized and not
  capitalized (except the first word and any word
  after a colon)
• One author entries by the same author are
  arranged by year of publication, earliest first:
Jones, C. (2002).
Jones, C. (2008).
             Reference List—DOI
• Digital object identifiers
• Developed by a group of international publishers
• Provides a means of persistent identification for
  managing information on digital networks (see
  http://www.doi.org/).
• The DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to
  identify content and provide a persistent link to it’s
  location on the Internet
• All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix
  and a suffix separated by a slash
• The APA manual recommends that when DOI
  numbers are available, use them in the reference list.
               EXAMPLES (there are 77 in the manual)
  *These examples correspond with the references in the sample paper

1. Journal article with DOI
2. Journal article
3. Magazine article
4. Newspaper article
5. Entire book, print version
6. Book chapter
7. Paper presentation or poster session
8. Dissertation or thesis, unpublished
9. Review of a book
10.Online journal article (no DOI)
             EXAMPLES cont.
11. Video
12. Podcast
13. Music recording
14. Blog post
15. Video blog post
        Reducing Bias in Writing
• Issues such as gender, sexual orientation,
  racial and ethnic identity, disabilities, and age
  are found on pp. 71-77. Please examine.
                Resources
• 1. The manual itself (available for purchase
  and available at the library)
• 2. www.apastyle.org: This website has many
  resources including sample papers and
  tutorials
• 3. The Owl at Purdue:
  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/
  560/01/

				
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